Erectile haemodynamic status after radical prostatectomy correlates with erectile functional outcome
OBJECTIVE:To define haemodynamic changes after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RP) and the predictive value of these for the outcome of erectile function (EF), as although there are predictors of the recovery of EF, penile vascular changes might also affect the recovery of EF. PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:Prospective data were analysed from men who had RP followed by duplex penile Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) within 6 months of RP. All men had functional erections before RP, based on self-report and partner corroboration, and all completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire serially after RP. The EF, based on IIEF scores, was then correlated with the penile DUS results. RESULTS:In all, the study included 111 patients; 32 (29%) had normal erectile haemodynamics after RP, while 79 (71%) had abnormal haemodynamics. Twelve patients (11%) had a venous leak. There were no differences in mean patient age or comorbidity profile between those with and without haemodynamic changes. Comparing those with normal and abnormal haemodynamics, the mean IIEF EF domain scores were 25 and 17 (P = 0.025), the percentages of erectile rigidity at 18 months was 66% vs 35% (P = 0.013), the percentage of patients with normal EF domain scores was 28% vs 6% (P < 0.01), the percentage of patients with functional erections permitting sexual intercourse unassisted by pharmacological agents was 47% vs 22% (P = 0.018), and the percentage of patients responding to sildenafil citrate, as defined by vaginal penetration, was 72% vs 43% (P = 0.03), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this prospective study indicate that a patient's penile vascular status is correlated with their EF after RP.
Prevalence and predictors of sexual problems, relationship stress, and depression in female partners of infertile couples
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Infertility has been associated with anxiety, stress, and sexual problems in both men and women. AIM/OBJECTIVE:To assess quality of life, sexual health, and depression in the female partner of infertile couples. METHODS:Couples presenting for the evaluation of infertility at two tertiary care medical centers were invited to participate in a survey study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Female partners completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and a modified Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR) Questionnaire. Male partners completed the SEAR and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Both partners completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for depression and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) for general quality of life. Demographic, fertility, and comorbidity information was recorded. RESULTS:One hundred and twenty-one couples constitute the study population. Mean female and male age was 32 +/- 5 and 35 +/- 7 years, respectively. Most (92%) couples were married. Mean duration of relationship and marriage were 6.4 +/- 3.9 and 3.8 +/- 3.2 years, respectively. Mean duration of attempted conception was 24 +/- 24 months. On CES-D, 19% of women had moderate and 13% had severe depression. Women reported significantly worse SF-36 Mental Health subscale scores (mean = 47.8, P < 0.05) compared with normative values. The mean total FSFI score was 28 +/- 7 (maximum score of 36), with 26% of the women scoring below 26.55, an established cut-off for high risk of female sexual dysfunction. FSFI scores had a modest positive correlation with male IIEF scores (r = 0.37, P < 0.01), and there was a trend toward a negative correlation with female CES-D scores (r = -0.16, P < 0.06). These relationships were maintained on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS:Depression and sexual dysfunction are prevalent in female partners of infertile couples. Female sexual function is positively correlated with male partner sexual function in this population.
Sexual function and quality of life in the male partner of infertile couples: prevalence and correlates of dysfunction
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:We prospectively collected data on mental and physical health related quality of life as well as sexual and relationship function in couples presenting for the treatment of infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Infertile couples were invited to complete a demographic survey, the Short Form 36 and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Inventory. Male partners completed the International Index of Erectile Function and the Self-Esteem and Relationship Quality scale. Female partners completed the Female Sexual Function Index and a version of the Self-Esteem and Relationship Quality Scale modified for women. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to assess for associations between partner responses. RESULTS:A total of 121 couples were enrolled at 2 sites. Male partners reported significantly lower standardized scores on the Mental Health subscale of the Short Form 36 (mean 47.6, p <0.05) compared to normative values. Of the men surveyed 11% and 12% reported moderate or severe depression, respectively. There were 18% who had mild erectile dysfunction and 4% had moderate erectile dysfunction. The mean transformed score for the Self-Esteem and Relationship Quality Scale in our subjects was 29.44 (range 0 to 100). In multivariate analysis white race and partner Female Sexual Function Index score were significant predictors of International Index of Erectile Function Erectile Function Domain scores (p <0.01). Relationship duration and partner Self-Esteem and Relationship Quality Scale scores were significantly associated with male Self-Esteem and Relationship Quality Scale score on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS:Depression, erectile dysfunction and sexual relationship problems are prevalent among male partners of infertile couples. Partner sexual function is a significant predictor of male partner sexual function. Relationship duration and female partner assessment of relationship health are predictive of men's assessment of their relationship status.
Analysis of the impact of androgen deprivation therapy on sildenafil citrate response following radiation therapy for prostate cancer
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Radiation therapy is a widely accepted strategy for prostate cancer. Erectile dysfunction is a common complication of radiation therapy. Adjuvant androgen deprivation was shown to prolong survival in select patients. There is controversy regarding the impact of androgen deprivation on erectile function. We defined the impact of androgen deprivation on the sildenafil response in patients with erectile dysfunction following radiation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Patients were enrolled prospectively if they underwent radiation therapy in the form of 3-dimensional conformal external beam or brachytherapy with or without androgen deprivation, reported functional erections before radiation therapy, experienced the onset of erectile dysfunction following the completion of radiation therapy, had comprehensive erectile dysfunction evaluation, including a thorough history and physical examination, attempted sildenafil periodically and completed the International Index of Erectile Function on at least 2 occasions throughout the first 3 years following the completion of radiation therapy. RESULTS:A total of 152 patients were enrolled. Mean age +/- SD was 62 +/- 14 years. No significant difference existed in age or radiation dose between patients with and without androgen deprivation exposure. Mean androgen deprivation duration was 3.8 +/- 1.8 months. For patients with conformal external beam and brachytherapy the sildenafil response, mean erectile function domain score and percent who experienced erectile function domain normalization at each time point were lower in those with vs without androgen deprivation. CONCLUSIONS:Androgen deprivation seems to exert a deleterious effect on erectile function in men undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer. This was observed in men treated with conformal external beam and brachytherapy at short-term, medium term and long-term followup.
Measurement of penile curvature in Peyronie's disease patients: comparison of three methods
AIM/OBJECTIVE:Peyronie's disease (PD) may be treated in a medical or surgical fashion. Factors involved in the decision of which treatment to choose include duration of disease and magnitude of penile deformity. Curvature can be measured using at-home photography (AHP), vacuum erection device (VED), or intracavernosal injection (ICI). This study was undertaken to determine the concordance between the three methods of deformity assessment. Patients were also questioned regarding the presence of erectile dysfunction (ED) based on self-report and the International Index of Erectile Function. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A total of 68 men presented to their urologist after taking penile photographs from three angles during maximal erectile rigidity. In the office, a VED was used to induce erection, and a goniometer was utilized to measure degree of curvature. ICI with trimix was then used to induce artificial erection, which was measured with a goniometer as well. RESULTS:There was a statistically significant difference in self-report curvature magnitude compared with measured ICI-assisted curvature. Curvature profiles included dorsal plaques in 50 patients (73.5%), ventral plaques in 10 (15%), and lateral in eight (11%). Using ICI, the mean curvature measured was 42 degrees. Mean degree of curvature using VED was 33 degrees, while that of photography was 34 degrees. Photographic measurements differed most from ICI in men with concurrent ED (P < 0.01), while vacuum device measurements were most inaccurate in men with curvatures of >60 degrees. CONCLUSIONS:Our results show that the degree of curvature measured using vacuum-assisted device and AHP is underestimated as compared with the gold standard ICI. We therefore recommend that ICI be used to most accurately determine degree of deformity. If ICI is not available, it is imperative that the same manner of measurement be used between all patients in a study group, as well as during serial evaluation in a trial.
The efficacy of sildenafil citrate following radiation therapy for prostate cancer: temporal considerations
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Erectile dysfunction is a recognized complication of radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Sildenafil citrate is a well-known management strategy for erectile dysfunction that has been found to be efficacious across a wide spectrum of comorbidities, including post-radiation erectile dysfunction. We defined the efficacy of sildenafil citrate in patients with erectile dysfunction following radiation therapy for prostate cancer and assessed the impact of the interval after radiation on the success of this therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Baseline and followup data on 110 patients presenting with erectile dysfunction secondary to radiation for prostate cancer was obtained. A total of 68 patients underwent 3-dimensional conformal external beam irradiation (CRT), while 42 underwent brachytherapy (BT) without androgen deprivation. All patients were considered to have erectile dysfunction after radiotherapy, as assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), and they were prescribed sildenafil citrate. Mean time +/- SD between the completion of radiation therapy and the initiation of sildenafil was 8 +/- 4 months. The response to sildenafil was assessed using the IIEF questionnaire. Within and between group comparisons were done for 3 time points, that is less than 12, 13 to 24 and 25 to 36 months following the completion of radiation therapy. RESULTS:The respective response rates in men who underwent BT/CRT at the 3 time points of less than 12, 13 to 24 and 25 to 36 months was 76%/68%, 54%/46% and 44%/38%, respectively. Mean IIEF erectile function domain scores for these 3 time points after BT/CRT was 26/23, 22/19 and 17/15, respectively. The percent of patients who achieved normalization of the IIEF erectile function domain at the 3 time points in the BT/CRT groups was 60%/50%, 48%/42% and 26%/19%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Sildenafil citrate improves erectile function in men in whom erectile dysfunction develops following radiation therapy for prostate cancer. There is a clear time dependence for the response to this therapy with a stepwise decrease in all end points examined serially in a 3-year period.
Transdermal and topical pharmacotherapy for male sexual dysfunction
Transdermal and topical pharmacotherapies have been used for the treatment of male sexual dysfunctions for some time and are well-accepted treatment modalities for these conditions. A Medline search was conducted for transdermal and topical medications, examining published literature over the past two decades. From this search a comprehensive review has been compiled of the available transdermal and topical treatment options for the treatment of male sexual dysfunctions, particularly erectile dysfunction, Peyronie's disease and hypogonadism. It is likely that the transdermal and topical drug armamentarium for sexual dysfunction, male and female, will grow over the next decade.