Cholangiopathy After Severe COVID-19: Clinical Features and Prognostic Implications
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus, is a predominantly respiratory tract infection with the capacity to affect multiple organ systems. Abnormal liver tests, mainly transaminase elevations, have been reported in hospitalized patients. We describe a syndrome of cholangiopathy in patients recovering from severe COVID-19 characterized by marked elevation in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) accompanied by evidence of bile duct injury on imaging. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective study of COVID-19 patients admitted to our institution from March 1, 2020, to August 15, 2020, on whom the hepatology service was consulted for abnormal liver tests. Bile duct injury was identified by abnormal liver tests with serum ALP > 3x upper limit of normal and abnormal findings on magnetic resonance cholangiopacreatography. Clinical, laboratory, radiological, and histological findings were recorded in a Research Electronic Data Capture database. RESULTS:Twelve patients were identified, 11 men and 1 woman, with a mean age of 58 years. Mean time from COVID-19 diagnosis to diagnosis of cholangiopathy was 118 days. Peak median serum alanine aminotransferase was 661 U/L and peak median serum ALP was 1855 U/L. Marked elevations of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and D-dimers were common. Magnetic resonance cholangiopacreatography findings included beading of intrahepatic ducts (11/12, 92%), bile duct wall thickening with enhancement (7/12, 58%), and peribiliary diffusion high signal (10/12, 83%). Liver biopsy in 4 patients showed acute and/or chronic large duct obstruction without clear bile duct loss. Progressive biliary tract damage has been demonstrated radiographically. Five patients were referred for consideration of liver transplantation after experiencing persistent jaundice, hepatic insufficiency, and/or recurrent bacterial cholangitis. One patient underwent successful living donor liver transplantation. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Cholangiopathy is a late complication of severe COVID-19 with the potential for progressive biliary injury and liver failure. Further studies are required to understand pathogenesis, natural history, and therapeutic interventions.
Comparison of Non-Tumoral Portal Vein Thrombosis Management in Cirrhotic Patients: TIPS Versus Anticoagulation Versus No Treatment
BACKGROUND:There is a lack of consensus in optimal management of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients with cirrhosis. The purpose of this study is to compare the safety and thrombosis burden change for cirrhotic patients with non-tumoral PVT managed by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) only, anticoagulation only, or no treatment. METHODS:This single-center retrospective study evaluated 52 patients with cirrhosis and non-tumoral PVT managed by TIPS only (14), anticoagulation only (11), or no treatment (27). The demographic, clinical, and imaging data for patients were collected. The portomesenteric thrombosis burden and liver function tests at early follow-up (6-9 months) and late follow-up (9-16 months) were compared to the baseline. Adverse events including bleeding and encephalopathy were recorded. RESULTS:= 0.007). No bleeding complications attributable to anticoagulation were observed. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:TIPS decreased portomesenteric thrombus burden compared to anticoagulation or no treatment for cirrhotic patients with PVT. Both TIPS and anticoagulation were safe therapies.
Cyanoacrylate embolization following egd resulting in fulminant hepatic failure in a patient with cirrhosis [Meeting Abstract]
INTRODUCTION: Esophagogastric varices are a common complication of portal hypertension and can present with life-threatening bleeding. Definitive endoscopic therapy is via band ligation or sclerotherapy. The former is preferred for esophageal varices, but efficacy is lower in gastric varices (GV). Sclerotherapy with cyanoacrylate (CA) has shown better efficacy and is now recommended as first line therapy for bleeding GV. Studies on long-term efficacy and complications remain limited. CASE DESCRIPTION/METHODS: A 62-year-old woman with NASH cirrhosis (MELD 11) presented with hematemesis. She denied any history of SBP, varices, or encephalopathy. She endorsed a previous history of COVID-19 and had reactive IgG but PCR probe for SARS-CoV-2 was negative. She underwent EGD and was found to have oozing GV along the lesser curvature, which were treated with 4cc of CA achieving hemostasis. The following night she had altered mentation and the blood lactate was increased to 7.2 mmol/L. AST and ALT were also increased. She received broad spectrum antibiotics, and a CT angiogram showed evidence of embolization of CA into the left lobe of the liver. On day 3 her level of consciousness declined and she was intubated for airway compromise. An MRCP confirmed the presence of CA within the left hepatic lobe with associated ischemia. The lactate increased to 20 mmol/L and the blood ammonia level to 700 mcg/dL, with MELD 45. Continuous hemodialysis was started for anuric renal failure. She underwent evaluation for liver transplantation, but cerebral edema and multiorgan failure with refractory acidosis occurred and she died on day 7. DISCUSSION: We present a case of GV treated with CA and the subsequent embolization of CA into the left lobe of the liver. This precipitated acute on chronic liver failure with features of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) complicated by severe hyperammonemia, cerebral edema, multiorgan failure, and death. Although she had a recent diagnosis of COVID-19, the time course, relatively normal initial inflammatory markers, and imaging suggest that CA embolization was likely the injury that led to fulminant hepatic failure. Given the lack of case reports of CA embolization to the liver causing infarction and few cases to the brain or distant vessels, further research on its long-term safety is warranted. Another novel aspect to this case is the development of FHF in a patient with known cirrhosis
Volumetric multicomponent T1Ï relaxation mapping of the human liver under free breathing at 3T
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:-RAVE) and to evaluate the multi relaxation components in the liver of healthy controls and chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. METHODS:components among patients (n = 3) and a control group (n = 10). RESULTS:relaxation time measurement relative to the reference on 2 different scanners. The coefficient of variation for test-retest scans performed on the same scanner was 5.7% and 2.4% for scans performed on 2 scanners. The comparison between healthy controls and CLD patients showed a significant difference (P < .05) in mono relaxation time (P = .002), stretched-exponential relaxation parameter (P = .04). The Akaike information criteria C criterion showed 2.53 Â± 0.9% (2.3 Â± 0.3% for CLD) of the voxels are bi-exponential while in 65.3 Â± 5.8% (81.2 Â± 0.06% for CLD) of the liver voxels, the stretched-exponential model was preferred. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:assessment of the liver during free breathing and can distinguish between healthy volunteers and CLD patients.
Undifferentiated Embryonal Sarcoma of the Liver: a Great Masquerader
Detection of hepatic steatosis and iron content at 3 Tesla: comparison of two-point Dixon, quantitative multi-echo Dixon, and MR spectroscopy
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To compare qualitative results obtained from computer-aided dual-ratio analysis on T1-weighted two-point Dixon, with T2*-corrected multi-echo Dixon and T2-corrected multi-echo single-voxel MR spectroscopy sequence (MRS) for evaluation of liver fat and iron at 3T. METHODS AND MATERIALS/METHODS:This retrospective, HIPAA-compliant, IRB-approved study included 479 patients with known or suspected liver disease. Two-point Dixon, multi-echo Dixon, and MR spectroscopy sequences were performed for each patient at 3T. A receiver-operating characteristic analysis was performed to compare the diagnostic performance in 80 patients using biopsy as the standard. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of qualitative two-point Dixon results, multi-echo Dixon (PDFF and R2*), and MRS (fat fraction and R2 water) for detection of hepatic steatosis and siderosis were assessed. RESULTS:, respectively. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The computer-aided dual-ratio discrimination with two-point Dixon is a useful qualitative screening tool with high negative predictive value for hepatic steatosis and iron overload. Multi-echo Dixon and MRS have similar accuracy for detection of hepatic steatosis and iron overload at 3 Tesla.
Preparing trainees for telemedicine: a virtual OSCE pilot
HIGHER CAP SCORES PREDICT DISCORDANCE BETWEEN FIBROSIS SCORES AS PREDICTED BY TE AND MRE [Meeting Abstract]
Volumetric multicomponent T-1 rho relaxation mapping of the human liver under free breathing at 3T
Hepatic Hydrothorax Complicated by Spontaneous Bacterial Empyema: An Under-Recognized Clinical Entity [Meeting Abstract]