Pulled-in-two syndrome in a patient with heavy eye syndrome [Case Report]
We report the case of a 73-year-old woman diagnosed with heavy eye syndrome who underwent loop myopexy of the superior rectus and lateral rectus muscles after suffering pulled-in-two syndrome caused by exploration of the medial rectus muscle, which could not be recovered. Given that intraoperative forced ductions remained positive after loss of the muscle, a loop myopexy of the superior rectus muscle and lateral rectus muscles was performed. Postoperatively the patient regained full adduction, and her esotropia improved notably.
Early Diagnosis and Management of Aggressive Posterior Vitreoretinopathy Presenting in Premature Neonates
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE/OBJECTIVE:Aggressive posterior vitreoretinopathy (APVR) manifests with a broad area of retinal avascularity, progressive neovascularization, and/or tractional retinal detachment during the neonatal period. PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:A multicenter, retrospective, observational, consecutive case series study was performed to evaluate the retinal findings and structural retinal outcomes in patients treated for APVR within the first 3 months of life. RESULTS:Three premature neonates with a non-retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) APVR identified during routine ROP screening exams exhibited relatively severe, rapidly progressive retinal vascular abnormalities. Immediate laser photocoagulation of the avascular retina and vitrectomy for traction retinal detachment within several days to weeks improved or stabilized the retinal anatomy in all cases. CONCLUSIONS:This series describes clinical features in APVR in premature infants and suggests that early diagnosis and intervention may mitigate the typical aggressive course and poor prognosis of this condition. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2019;50:201-207.].
Early Diagnosis and Management of Aggressive Posterior Neonatal Vitreoretinopathy Presenting in Premature Neonates [Meeting Abstract]
Anterior segment ischemia: etiology, assessment, and management
Anterior segment ischemia (ASI) is a potentially serious but rare complication of strabismus surgery. Among several risk factors, ASI occurs after strabismus surgery because of the nature of the anterior segment circulation. Disinsertion of rectus muscles leads to a decrease in the blood supply to the various anterior segment structures. We report a series of retrospective and prospective studies performed by our group focused on determining the risk of anterior segment ischemia following strabismus surgery, diagnosis, and modifications to surgical techniques to minimize the impact on anterior segment circulation. We found a significant decrease in postoperative anterior segment blood flow when operating vertical rectus muscles. Plication procedures preserve anterior segment circulation, and modifications to the technique allow the performance of adjustable sutures. Small adjustable selective procedures that spare the ciliary vessels have been demonstrated to be effective in patients with vertical and torsional diplopia. Ciliary sparing augmented adjustable transposition surgery decreases the risk of anterior segment ischemia while allowing management of potential post-operative alignment complications. Finally, ocular coherence tomography angiography is a valuable quantitative and qualitative technique to evaluate anterior segment ischemia. Strabismus surgeons should be aware of the risks of anterior segment ischemia when operating vertical rectus muscles. Modifications to standard surgical techniques allow surgeons to perform complex strabismus surgery in patients at risk for anterior segment ischemia.
Retinal Avascularity and Neovascularization Associated With LAMA1 (laminin1) Mutation in Poretti-Boltshauser Syndrome
Retinal vascular nonperfusion in siblings with Dandy-Walker variant [Case Report]
We report the case of a 2-month-old girl with Dandy-Walker variant who presented with strabismus, pathologic myopia measuring -16.00 D in each eye, diffuse chorioretinal atrophy and pigment mottling in the macula of both eyes, and areas of retinal capillary nonperfusion in both eyes. The patient's brother also has Dandy-Walker variant and was found to have bilateral severe myopia, myopic fundi, tilted optic disks with peripapillary atrophy, extensive areas of white without pressure, areas of lattice degeneration, and several chronic-appearing atrophic retinal holes surrounded by pigmentation. We hypothesize that children with Dandy-Walker variant may present with refractive errors such as pathologic myopia and with diverse retinal findings, including retinal ischemia. A lower threshold for ophthalmologic examination may be considered in this population.
Cross-Sectional Analysis of Neurocognitive Function, Retinopathy, and Retinal Thinning by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Sickle Cell Patients
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose was to examine the relationship between neurocognitive function and two distinct forms of retinopathy in sickle cell disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Patients with sickle cell disease (n = 44, age range: 19-56 years, 70% female) were prospectively recruited for this cross-sectional study. Retinopathy was characterized by: (1) Presence of focal retinal thinning on spectral domain optical coherence tomography and (2) determination of the sickle retinopathy stage on funduscopic exam based on Goldberg classification. Neurocognitive function was assessed using the Philadelphia Brief Assessment of Cognition (PBAC), a validated test of cognition. Univariate and multivariate analyses for PBAC score outcomes were performed. Retinal thinning and retinopathy stage were primary variables of interest and age, gender, genotype, education, and history of stroke were covariates. RESULTS:Univariate analysis revealed associations with total PBAC score and age (P = 0.049), history of stroke (P = 0.04), and genotype (P < 0.001). Focal retinal thinning and Goldberg retinopathy stage were not associated with each other in this sample. Neither the presence of focal retinal thinning nor degree of retinopathy was associated with total PBAC score in univariate or multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS:We find an association between lower cognitive function and older age, history of stroke and sickle cell genotype SS in patients with sickle cell disease. Our data do not provide evidence to support an association between cognitive function and retinopathy in sickle cell patients.
Surgical removal of a congenital fibrovascular pupillary membrane [Case Report]
Bilateral Congenital Posterior Capsular Defects and Ectopic Cataracts [Case Report]
Preexisting posterior capsular defects are rare and can be associated with infantile cataracts. The authors review possible etiologies of this condition and emphasize the importance of cautious preoperative planning and surgery.
The effect of rectus muscle recession, resection and plication on anterior segment circulation in humans
BACKGROUND:Plication is an alternative tightening procedure to resection. In monkeys, plication has been shown to preserve anterior segment circulation compared with full-tendon tenotomy, but this is unconfirmed in humans. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate anterior segment circulation by iris angiography before and after strabismus surgery in humans. METHODS:Prospective, blinded study of 14 patients (mean age (SD), 58.6 (14.3)) undergoing plication and/or full tendon tenotomy (resection or recession) from August 2013 to March 2014. Eight patients (mean age (SD), 59.0 (13.3)) underwent plication of one muscle with or without recession of a second muscle on the same eye and six patients (mean age (SD), 58.2 (16.8)) underwent tenotomy of one to two muscles on the same eye. Preoperative and postoperative iris angiograms were compared for changes in perfusion by a masked examiner. In patients undergoing binocular surgery, one eye was chosen preoperatively to be the study eye. RESULTS:Postoperative iris filling defects were present in four patients (67%) after tenotomy and one patient (12.5%) after plication (p=0.09). Of the seven total vertical rectus muscles operated (three tenotomies and four plications), filling defects were present after three tenotomies and one plication (100% vs 25%; p=0.14). Of the 13 total horizontal rectus muscles operated (eight tenotomies and five plications), filling defects were present after one tenotomy and none of the plications (13% vs 0%; p=0.99). CONCLUSIONS:Rectus muscle plication spares the ciliary vessels and may be considered a safer alternative to resection for patients at risk for anterior segment ischaemia, especially when surgery involves a vertical rectus muscle.