Chiari I malformation and delivery
Nomograms of the axial transverse diameter of the fetal foramen magnum between 14 and 40 weeks' gestation
OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to create reference range nomograms of the axial transverse diameter of the fetal foramen magnum (TDFM) between 14 and 40 weeks' gestation. METHODS:This cross-sectional study included pregnant patients between 14 and 41 weeks' gestation. Inclusion criteria consisted of well-established dates (confirmed by early sonography) and nonanomalous singleton fetuses with intact amniotic membranes. Sonographic measurements included biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length, humerus length, transcerebellar diameter, and sonographically estimated fetal weight. Values of the TDFM were each calculated as the mean of 3 separate measurements. The 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles were estimated at each week of gestational age (GA) by least squares regression for the mean and SD of the TDFM as functions of GA. R(2) and associated P values for the relationships between the TDFM and other biometric measurements were calculated. RESULTS:The study included 602 consecutive patients meeting the inclusion criteria. The mean maternal age +/- SD was 27.5 +/- 6.4 years; median gravidity, 3 (range, 1-12); and median parity, 1 (range, 0-7). The mean TDFM was 13.5 +/- 3.7 mm. The reference curve formulas for the mean and SD of the TDFM (mm) were TDFM = -12.58 + GA/0.5616 - GA(2)/24.9 + GA(3)/2430.7, and SD(TDFM) = 1.05 - GA/19.4 + GA(2)/588.8. The TDFM correlated significantly and strongly with biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, humerus length, femur length, transcerebellar diameter, and estimated fetal weight (all R(2) >or= 0.90; all P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS:We present reference range nomograms of the TDFM between 14 and 40 weeks' gestation.
Failed back syndrome
BACKGROUND:Failed back syndrome (FBS) is a well-recognized complication of surgery of the lumbar spine. It can result in chronic pain and disability, often with disastrous emotional and financial consequences to the patient. Many patients have traditionally been classified as "spinal cripples" and are consigned to a life of long-term narcotic treatment with little chance of recovery. Recent progress in our understanding of this complex condition, as well as advances in surgical and medical treatment, have offered hope for improved outcomes and quality of life for these patients. REVIEW SUMMARY/RESULTS:This study explores the complex and multifactorial etiology of FBS, including reasons for surgical failure, indications for surgical revision, and adjunctive treatments such as pain management procedures. CONCLUSIONS:Despite extensive work in recent years, FBS remains a challenging and costly disorder. Recent advances in surgical reconstruction, rehabilitation, and pain management technique offer hope for patients with this painful and disabling condition.
Pituitary hemorrhage into a Rathke's cleft cyst [Case Report]
This report describes a case of symptomatic pituitary hemorrhage into a Rathke's cleft cyst in a 25-year-old woman. The literature on pituitary hemorrhage in nonadenomatous sellar tumors is reviewed
Clinical versus subclinical pituitary apoplexy: presentation, surgical management, and outcome in 21 patients
A retrospective review of 16 consecutive patients with pituitary apoplexy treated over a 10-year period is reported. Eight men and 8 women (mean age, 48 years) underwent transsphenoidal decompression after an average duration of symptoms of 19 days. The diagnosis of pituitary apoplexy was made by the sudden onset of headache (88%), nausea (56%), or meningismus (13%), with or without visual disturbances (75%), in the setting of a sellar tumor on computed tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging scans. Thirteen of 16 patients showed significant improvement of symptoms after surgery (average follow-up, 2.5 years). In addition, 5 patients with clinically silent yet extensive pituitary hemorrhage were treated. Although extensive pituitary hemorrhage often produced fulminant apoplexy, it also presented insidiously over many days with few, if any, clinical signs. Rapid diagnosis, endocrine replacement, and transsphenoidal decompression constituted effective therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (after at least 12 hours of symptoms) was superior to computed tomography in detecting hemorrhage