A spectroscopic liquid biopsy for the earlier detection of multiple cancer types
BACKGROUND:A rapid, low-cost blood test that can be applied to reliably detect multiple different cancer types would be transformational. METHODS:In this large-scale discovery study (n = 2092 patients) we applied the Dxcover® Cancer Liquid Biopsy to examine eight different cancers. The test uses Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and machine-learning algorithms to detect cancer. RESULTS:Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) values were calculated for eight cancer types versus symptomatic non-cancer controls: brain (0.90), breast (0.76), colorectal (0.91), kidney (0.91), lung (0.91), ovarian (0.86), pancreatic (0.84) and prostate (0.86). We assessed the test performance when all eight cancer types were pooled to classify 'any cancer' against non-cancer patients. The cancer versus asymptomatic non-cancer classification detected 64% of Stage I cancers when specificity was 99% (overall sensitivity 57%). When tuned for higher sensitivity, this model identified 99% of Stage I cancers (with specificity 59%). CONCLUSIONS:This spectroscopic blood test can effectively detect early-stage disease and can be fine-tuned to maximise either sensitivity or specificity depending on the requirements from different healthcare systems and cancer diagnostic pathways. This low-cost strategy could facilitate the requisite earlier diagnosis, when cancer treatment can be more effective, or less toxic. STATEMENT OF TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE/UNASSIGNED:The earlier diagnosis of cancer is of paramount importance to improve patient survival. Current liquid biopsies are mainly focused on single tumour-derived biomarkers, which limits test sensitivity, especially for early-stage cancers that do not shed enough genetic material. This pan-omic liquid biopsy analyses the full complement of tumour and immune-derived markers present within blood derivatives and could facilitate the earlier detection of multiple cancer types. There is a low barrier to integrating this blood test into existing diagnostic pathways since the technology is rapid, simple to use, only minute sample volumes are required, and sample preparation is minimal. In addition, the spectroscopic liquid biopsy described in this study has the potential to be combined with other orthogonal tests, such as cell-free DNA, which could provide an efficient route to diagnosis. Cancer treatment can be more effective when given earlier, and this low-cost strategy has the potential to improve patient prognosis.
Metabolomic Profiles of Human Glioma Inform Patient Survival
Association of partial T2-FLAIR mismatch sign and isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation in WHO grade 4 gliomas: results from the ReSPOND consortium
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:While the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign is highly specific for isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant, 1p/19q-noncodeleted astrocytomas among lower-grade gliomas, its utility in WHO grade 4 gliomas is not well-studied. We derived the partial T2-FLAIR mismatch sign as an imaging biomarker for IDH mutation in WHO grade 4 gliomas. METHODS:Preoperative MRI scans of adult WHO grade 4 glioma patients (n = 2165) from the multi-institutional ReSPOND (Radiomics Signatures for PrecisiON Diagnostics) consortium were analyzed. Diagnostic performance of the partial T2-FLAIR mismatch sign was evaluated. Subset analyses were performed to assess associations of imaging markers with overall survival (OS). RESULTS:One hundred twenty-one (5.6%) of 2165 grade 4 gliomas were IDH-mutant. Partial T2-FLAIR mismatch was present in 40 (1.8%) cases, 32 of which were IDH-mutant, yielding 26.4% sensitivity, 99.6% specificity, 80.0% positive predictive value, and 95.8% negative predictive value. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated IDH mutation was significantly associated with partial T2-FLAIR mismatch (odds ratio [OR] 5.715, 95% CI [1.896, 17.221], p = 0.002), younger age (OR 0.911 [0.895, 0.927], p < 0.001), tumor centered in frontal lobe (OR 3.842, [2.361, 6.251], p < 0.001), absence of multicentricity (OR 0.173, [0.049, 0.612], p = 0.007), and presence of cystic (OR 6.596, [3.023, 14.391], p < 0.001) or non-enhancing solid components (OR 6.069, [3.371, 10.928], p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated cystic components (p = 0.024) and non-enhancing solid components (p = 0.003) were associated with longer OS, while older age (p < 0.001), frontal lobe center (p = 0.008), multifocality (p < 0.001), and multicentricity (p < 0.001) were associated with shorter OS. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Partial T2-FLAIR mismatch sign is highly specific for IDH mutation in WHO grade 4 gliomas.
Long-Term Follow-up of Multinodular and Vacuolating Neuronal Tumors and Implications for Surveillance Imaging
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Most multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumors (MVNTs) are diagnosed and followed radiologically without any change across time. There are no surveillance guidelines or quantitative volumetric assessments of these tumors. We evaluated MVNT volumes during long follow-up periods using segmentation tools with the aim of quantitative assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:All patients with MVNTs in a brain MR imaging report in our system were reviewed. Patients with only 1 brain MR imaging or in whom MVNT was not clearly the most likely diagnosis were excluded. All MVNTs were manually segmented. For all follow-up examinations, absolute and percentage volume change from immediately prior and initial examinations were calculated. RESULTS:= .67), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:MVNT segmentation across follow-up brain MR imaging examinations did not demonstrate significant volume differences, suggesting that these tumors do not enlarge with time. Hence, frequent surveillance imaging of newly diagnosed MVNTs may not be necessary.
Unlocking glioma genetics with deep learning [Comment]
The AI era in medicine has ushered in new opportunities to improve the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. CHARM, an AI algorithm described in this issue,1 has the potential to streamline molecular classification, intraoperative diagnosis, surgical decision making, and trial enrollment for glioma patients.
Stimulated Raman histology, a novel method to allow for rapid pathologic examination of unprocessed, fresh prostate biopsies
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Delay between targeted prostate biopsy (PB) and pathologic diagnosis can lead to a concern of inadequate sampling and repeated biopsy. Stimulated Raman histology (SRH) is a novel microscopic technique allowing real-time, label-free, high-resolution microscopic images of unprocessed, unsectioned tissue. This technology holds potential to decrease the time for PB diagnosis from days to minutes. We evaluated the concordance of pathologist interpretation of PB SRH as compared with traditional hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides. METHODS:, to create SRH images. The cores were then processed as per normal pathologic protocols. Sixteen PB containing a mix of benign and malignant histology were used as an SRH training cohort for four genitourinary pathologists, who were then tested on a set of 32 PBs imaged by SRH and processed by traditional H&E. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and concordance for prostate cancer (PCa) detection on SRH relative to H&E were assessed. RESULTS:The mean pathologist accuracy for the identification of any PCa on PB SRH was 95.7%. In identifying any PCa or ISUP grade group 2-5 PCa, a pathologist was independently able to achieve good and very good concordance (κ: 0.769 and 0.845, respectively; p < 0.001). After individual assessment was completed a pathology consensus conference was held for the interpretation of the PB SRH; after the consensus conference the pathologists' concordance in identifying any PCa was also very good (κ: 0.925, p < 0.001; sensitivity 95.6%; specificity 100%). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:SRH produces high-quality microscopic images that allow for accurate identification of PCa in real-time without need for sectioning or tissue processing. The pathologist performance improved through progressive training, showing that ultimately high accuracy can be obtained. Ongoing SRH evaluation in the diagnostic and treatment setting hold promise to reduce time to tissue diagnosis, while interpretation by convolutional neural network may further improve diagnostic characteristics and broaden use.
Stimulated Raman histology as a method to determine the adequacy of renal mass biopsy and identify malignant subtypes of renal cell carcinoma
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Renal tumor biopsy requires adequate tissue sampling to aid in the investigation of small renal masses. In some centers the contemporary nondiagnostic renal mass biopsy rate may be as high as 22% and may be as high as 42% in challenging cases. Stimulated Raman Histology (SRH) is a novel microscopic technique which has created the possibility for rapid, label-free, high-resolution images of unprocessed tissue which may be viewed on standard radiology viewing platforms. The application of SRH to renal biopsy may provide the benefits of routine pathologic evaluation during the procedure, thereby reducing nondiagnostic results. We conducted a pilot feasibility study, to assess if renal cell carcinoma (RCC) subtypes may be imaged and to see if high-quality hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) could subsequently be generated. METHODS/MATERIALS/METHODS:. The cores were then processed as per routine pathologic protocols. The SRH images and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides were then viewed by a genitourinary pathologist. RESULTS:The SRH microscope took 8 to 11 minutes to produce high-quality images of the renal biopsies. Total of 25 renal tumors including 1 oncocytoma, 3 chromophobe RCC, 16 clear cells RCC, 4 papillary RCC, and 1 medullary RCC were included. All renal tumor subtypes were captured, and the SRH images were easily differentiated from adjacent normal renal parenchyma. High quality H&E slides were produced from each of the renal biopsies after SRH was completed. Immunostains were performed on selected cases and the staining was not affected by the SRH image process. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:SRH produces high quality images of all renal cell subtypes that can be rapidly produced and easily interpreted to determine renal mass biopsy adequacy, and on occasion, may allow renal tumor subtype identification. Renal biopsies remained available to produce high quality H&E slides and immunostains for confirmation of diagnosis. Procedural application has promise to decrease the known rate of renal mass nondiagnostic biopsies, and application of convolutional neural network methodology may further improve diagnostic capability and increase utilization of renal mass biopsy among urologists.
Clinical Validation of Stimulated Raman Histology for Rapid Intraoperative Diagnosis of Central Nervous System Tumors
Stimulated Raman histology (SRH) is an ex vivo optical imaging method that enables microscopic examination of fresh tissue intraoperatively. The conventional intraoperative method uses frozen section analysis, which is labor and time intensive, introduces artifacts that limit diagnostic accuracy, and consumes tissue. SRH imaging allows rapid microscopic imaging of fresh tissue, avoids tissue loss, and enables remote telepathology review. This improves access to expert neuropathology consultation in both low- and high-resource practices. We clinically validated SRH by performing a blinded, retrospective two-arm telepathology study to clinically validate SRH for telepathology at our institution. Using surgical specimens from 47 subjects, we generated a data set composed of 47 SRH images and 47 matched whole slide images (WSIs) of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin, with associated intraoperative clinicoradiologic information and structured diagnostic questions. We compared diagnostic concordance between WSI and SRH-rendered diagnoses. Also, we compared the 1-year median turnaround time (TAT) of intraoperative conventional neuropathology frozen sections with prospectively rendered SRH-telepathology TAT. All SRH images were of sufficient quality for diagnostic review. A review of SRH images showed high accuracy in distinguishing glial from nonglial tumors (96.5% SRH vs 98% WSIs) and predicting final diagnosis (85.9% SRH vs 93.1% WSIs). SRH-based diagnosis and WSI-permanent section diagnosis had high concordance (κ = 0.76). The median TAT for prospectively SRH-rendered diagnosis was 3.7 minutes, approximately 10-fold shorter than the median frozen section TAT (31 minutes). The SRH-imaging procedure did not affect ancillary studies. SRH generates diagnostic virtual histologic images with accuracy comparable to conventional hematoxylin and eosin-based methods in a rapid manner. Our study represents the largest and most rigorous clinical validation of SRH to date. It supports the feasibility of implementing SRH as a rapid method for intraoperative diagnosis complementary to conventional pathology laboratory methods.
Association of partial T2-FLAIR mismatch sign and isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation in WHO grade 4 gliomas: results from the ReSPOND consortium
Purpose: While the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign is highly specific for isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant, 1p/19q-noncodeleted astrocytomas among lower-grade gliomas, its utility in WHO grade 4 gliomas is not well-studied. We derived the partial T2-FLAIR mismatch sign as an imaging biomarker for IDH mutation in WHO grade 4 gliomas. Methods: Preoperative MRI scans of adult WHO grade 4 glioma patients (n = 2165) from the multi-institutional ReSPOND (Radiomics Signatures for PrecisiON Diagnostics) consortium were analyzed. Diagnostic performance of the partial T2-FLAIR mismatch sign was evaluated. Subset analyses were performed to assess associations of imaging markers with overall survival (OS). Results: One hundred twenty-one (5.6%) of 2165 grade 4 gliomas were IDH-mutant. Partial T2-FLAIR mismatch was present in 40 (1.8%) cases, 32 of which were IDH-mutant, yielding 26.4% sensitivity, 99.6% specificity, 80.0% positive predictive value, and 95.8% negative predictive value. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated IDH mutation was significantly associated with partial T2-FLAIR mismatch (odds ratio [OR] 5.715, 95% CI [1.896, 17.221], p = 0.002), younger age (OR 0.911 [0.895, 0.927], p < 0.001), tumor centered in frontal lobe (OR 3.842, [2.361, 6.251], p < 0.001), absence of multicentricity (OR 0.173, [0.049, 0.612], p = 0.007), and presence of cystic (OR 6.596, [3.023, 14.391], p < 0.001) or non-enhancing solid components (OR 6.069, [3.371, 10.928], p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated cystic components (p = 0.024) and non-enhancing solid components (p = 0.003) were associated with longer OS, while older age (p < 0.001), frontal lobe center (p = 0.008), multifocality (p < 0.001), and multicentricity (p < 0.001) were associated with shorter OS. Conclusion: Partial T2-FLAIR mismatch sign is highly specific for IDH mutation in WHO grade 4 gliomas.
Clinical utility of whole-genome DNA methylation profiling as a primary molecular diagnostic assay for central nervous system tumors-A prospective study and guidelines for clinical testing
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Central nervous system (CNS) cancer is the 10th leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for adults, but the leading cause in pediatric patients and young adults. The variety and complexity of histologic subtypes can lead to diagnostic errors. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that provides a tumor type-specific signature that can be used for diagnosis. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:We performed a prospective study using DNA methylation analysis as a primary diagnostic method for 1921 brain tumors. All tumors received a pathology diagnosis and profiling by whole genome DNA methylation, followed by next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing. Results were stratified by concordance between DNA methylation and histopathology, establishing diagnostic utility. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Of the 1602 cases with a World Health Organization histologic diagnosis, DNA methylation identified a diagnostic mismatch in 225 cases (14%), 78 cases (5%) did not classify with any class, and in an additional 110 (7%) cases DNA methylation confirmed the diagnosis and provided prognostic information. Of 319 cases carrying 195 different descriptive histologic diagnoses, DNA methylation provided a definitive diagnosis in 273 (86%) cases, separated them into 55 methylation classes, and changed the grading in 58 (18%) cases. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:DNA methylation analysis is a robust method to diagnose primary CNS tumors, improving diagnostic accuracy, decreasing diagnostic errors and inconclusive diagnoses, and providing prognostic subclassification. This study provides a framework for inclusion of DNA methylation profiling as a primary molecular diagnostic test into professional guidelines for CNS tumors. The benefits include increased diagnostic accuracy, improved patient management, and refinements in clinical trial design.