A Systematic Review of Agreement Between Perceived and Objective Neighborhood Environment Measures and Associations With Physical Activity Outcomes [Review]
Financial incentives for physical activity in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis
OBJECTIVE:The use of financial incentives to promote physical activity (PA) has grown in popularity due in part to technological advances that make it easier to track and reward PA. The purpose of this study was to update the evidence on the effects of incentives on PA in adults. DATA SOURCES/METHODS:Medline, PubMed, Embase, PsychINFO, CCTR, CINAHL and COCH. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA/UNASSIGNED:Randomised controlled trials (RCT) published between 2012 and May 2018 examining the impact of incentives on PA. DESIGN/METHODS:A simple count of studies with positive and null effects ('vote counting') was conducted. Random-effects meta-analyses were also undertaken for studies reporting steps per day for intervention and post-intervention periods. RESULTS:23 studies involving 6074 participants were included (64.42% female, mean age = 41.20 years). 20 out of 22 studies reported positive intervention effects and four out of 18 reported post-intervention (after incentives withdrawn) benefits. Among the 12 of 23 studies included in the meta-analysis, incentives were associated with increased mean daily step counts during the intervention period (pooled mean difference (MD), 607.1; 95% CI: 422.1 to 792.1). Among the nine of 12 studies with post-intervention daily step count data incentives were associated with increased mean daily step counts (pooled MD, 513.8; 95% CI:312.7 to 714.9). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:after incentives were removed, though post-intervention 'vote counting' and pooled results did not align. Nonetheless, and contrary to what has been previously reported, these findings suggest a short-term incentive 'dose' may promote sustained PA.
Neighborhood walkability and physical activity among older women: Tests of mediation by environmental perceptions and moderation by depressive symptoms
Features that enhance neighborhood walkability (higher population density, street connectivity and access to destinations) are associated with higher levels of physical activity among older adults. The perceived neighborhood environment appears to mediate associations between the objective built environment and physical activity. The role of depressed mood in these associations is poorly understood. We examined the degree to which depressive symptoms moderated indirect associations between the objective neighborhood environment and physical activity via the perceived neighborhood environment in older women. We analyzed data on 60,133 women (mean ageâ€¯=â€¯73.1â€¯Â±â€¯6.7â€¯years) in the U.S. Nurses' Health Study cohort who completed the 2008 questionnaire. Self-reported measures included the Geriatric Depression Scale, perceived presence of recreational facilities, retail destinations, sidewalks, and crime, and participation in recreational physical activity and neighborhood walking. We created an objective walkability index by summing z-scores of intersection and facility counts within 1200-meter residential network buffers and census tract-level population density. We used multiple regression with bootstrap-generated 95% bias-corrected confidence intervals (BC CIs) to test for mediation and moderated mediation. Objective walkability was associated with 1.99 times greater odds of neighborhood walking (95% BC CIâ€¯=â€¯1.92, 2.06) and 1.38 times greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations (95% BC CIâ€¯=â€¯1.34, 1.43) via the perceived neighborhood environment. These indirect associations were weaker among women with higher depressive symptom scores. Positive associations between objective neighborhood walkability and physical activities such as walking among older women may be strengthened with a reduction in their depressive symptoms.
Park Proximity and Use for Physical Activity among Urban Residents: Associations with Mental Health
Increasing global urbanization limits interaction between people and natural environments, which may negatively impact population health and wellbeing. Urban residents who live near parks report better mental health. Physical activity (PA) reduces depression and improves quality of life. Despite PA's protective effects on mental health, the added benefit of urban park use for PA is unclear. Thus, we examined whether park-based PA mediated associations between park proximity and mental distress among 3652 New York City residents (61.4% 45 + years, 58.9% female, 56.3% non-white) who completed the 2010-2011 Physical Activity and Transit (PAT) random-digit-dial survey. Measures included number of poor mental health days in the previous month (outcome), self-reported time to walk to the nearest park from home (exposure), and frequency of park use for sports, exercise or PA (mediator). We used multiple regression with bootstrap-generated 95% bias-corrected confidence intervals (BC CIs) to test for mediation by park-based PA and moderation by gender, dog ownership, PA with others, and perceived park crime. Park proximity was indirectly associated with fewer days of poor mental health via park-based PA, but only among those not concerned about park crime (index of moderated mediation = 0.04; SE = 0.02; 95% BC CI = 0.01, 0.10). Investment in park safety and park-based PA promotion in urban neighborhoods may help to maximize the mental health benefits of nearby parks.
The observed and perceived neighborhood environment and physical activity among urban-dwelling adults: The moderating role of depressive symptoms
RATIONALE:Physical environmental features of neighborhoods are associated with physical activity, but the influence of mental health factors, such as depression, on these associations is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE:We examined whether the perceived neighborhood environment mediated associations between the observed neighborhood environment and physical activity, and whether these associations were moderated by depressive symptoms. METHODS:Data consisted of systematic social observations of 343 neighborhoods and resident surveys. Participants' (NÂ =Â 2969) mean age was 41.9Â Â±Â 16.2 years, 60.2% were female, and 67.9% were non-White. We conducted multiple linear regression and tests for mediation and moderated mediation. RESULTS:Observed recreation facilities, commercial destinations, physical disorder, and physical deterioration were indirectly associated with walking via perceived neighborhood environment variables. Observed recreation facilities was indirectly and positively associated with leisure-time physical activity via perceived park access, and indirectly and inversely associated with walking and leisure-time physical activity via perceived traffic danger, but only among participants with low depressive symptom scores. Observed recreation facilities was indirectly and inversely associated, and observed physical disorder and physical deterioration were indirectly and positively associated with walking via perceived disorder, but only among participants with high depressive symptom scores. CONCLUSION:Depressive symptoms affected the strength and direction of associations between the observed neighborhood environment and physical activity via residents' perceptions.
Correlates of Trail Use for Recreation and Transportation on 5 Massachusetts Trails
BACKGROUND:Promoting use of community trails is a recommended strategy for increasing population levels of physical activity. Correlates of walking and cycling for recreation or transportation differ, though few studies have compared correlates of trail-based physical activity for recreation and transportation purposes. This study examined associations of demographic, social, and perceived built environmental factors with trail use for recreation and transportation and whether associations were moderated by age, gender, and prior trail use. METHODS:Adults (N = 1195) using 1 of 5 trails in Massachusetts responded to an intercept survey. We used multiple linear and logistic regression models to examine associations with trail use. RESULTS:Respondents' mean age was 44.9 years (standard deviation = 12.5), 55.3% were female, and 82.0% were white. Age (longer-term users only), trail use with others, travel time to the trail, and trail design were significantly associated with use for recreation (P < .05). Age, gender, trail safety (longer-term users only), travel time to the trail, trail design (younger users only), and trail beauty were associated with use for transportation (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS:Some common correlates were found for recreational and transportation trail use, whereas some variables were uniquely associated with use for 1 purpose. Tailored strategies are suggested to promote trail use for recreation and transportation.
Goal-directed versus outcome-based financial incentives for weight loss among low-income patients with obesity: rationale and design of the Financial Incentives foR Weight Reduction (FIReWoRk) randomised controlled trial
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Obesity is a major public health challenge and exacerbates economic disparities through employment discrimination and increased personal health expenditures. Financial incentives for weight management may intensify individuals' utilisation of evidence-based behavioural strategies while addressing obesity-related economic disparities in low-income populations. Trials have focused on testing incentives contingent on achieving weight loss outcomes. However, based on social cognitive and self-determination theories, providing incentives for achieving intermediate behavioural goals may be more sustainable than incentivising outcomes if they enhance an individual's skills and self-efficacy for maintaining long-term weight loss. The objective of this paper is to describe the rationale and design of the Financial Incentives foR Weight Reduction study, a randomised controlled trial to test the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two financial incentive strategies for weight loss (goal directed vs outcome based) among low-income adults with obesity, as well as compared with the provision of health behaviour change resources alone. METHODS AND ANALYSIS/UNASSIGNED:, from three primary care clinics serving residents of socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in New York City and Los Angeles. All participants receive a 1-year commercial weight loss programme membership, self-monitoring tools (bathroom scale, food journal and Fitbit Alta HR), health education and monthly check-in visits. In addition to these resources, those in the two intervention groups can earn up to $750 over 6 months for: (1) participating in an intensive weight management programme, self-monitoring weight and diet and meeting physical activity guidelines (goal-directed arm); or (2) a â‰¥1.5%â€‰to â‰¥5%â€‰reduction in baseline weight (outcome-based arm). To maximise incentive efficacy, we incorporate concepts from behavioural economics, including immediacy of payments and framing feedback to elicit regret aversion. We will use generalised mixed effect models for repeated measures to examine intervention effects on weight at 6, 9 and 12 months. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION/UNASSIGNED:Human research protection committees at New York University School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) David Geffen School of Medicine and Olive-View-UCLA Medical Center granted ethics approval. We will disseminate the results of this research via peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and meetings with stakeholders. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER/BACKGROUND:NCT03157713.
Defining Valid Activity Monitor Data: A Multimethod Analysis of Weight-Loss Intervention Participants' Barriers to Wear and First 100 Days of Physical Activity
Research communication: Poor sleep health and quality of life among caregivers of patients with prostate cancer
Systematic review of sleep and sleep disorders among prostate cancer patients and caregivers: a call to action for using validated sleep assessments during prostate cancer care
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE:To examine the impact of prostate cancer (PCa) on sleep health for patients and caregivers. We hypothesized that sleep disturbances and poor sleep quality would be prevalent among patients with PCa and their caregivers. PATIENTS/METHODS/METHODS:A systematic literature search was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis guidelines. To be eligible for this systematic review, studies had to include: (1) patients diagnosed with PCa and/or their caregivers; and (2) objective or subjective data on sleep. 2431 articles were identified from the search. After duplicates were removed, 1577 abstracts were screened for eligibility, and 315 underwent full-text review. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS/CONCLUSIONS:Overall, 83 articles met inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. The majority of papers included patients with PCa (98%), who varied widely in their treatment stage. Only 3 studies reported on sleep among caregivers of patients with PCa. Most studies were designed to address a different issue and examined sleep as a secondary endpoint. Commonly used instruments included the Insomnia Severity Index and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaires (EORTC-QLQ). Overall, patients with PCa reported a variety of sleep issues, including insomnia and general sleep difficulties. Both physical and psychological barriers to sleep are reported in this population. There was common use of hypnotic medications, yet few studies of behavioral interventions to improve sleep for patients with PCa or their caregivers. Many different sleep issues are reported by patients with PCa and caregivers with diverse sleep measurement methods and surveys. Future research may develop consensus on validated sleep assessment tools for use in PCa clinical care and research to promote facilitate comparison of sleep across PCa treatment stages. Also, future research is needed on behavioral interventions to improve sleep among this population.