A multisite randomized trial of implicit versus explicit modeling in clinical teaching
Anderson, Mel L; Beltran, Christine P; Harnik, Victoria; Atkins, Meredith; Corral, Janet; Farina, Gino; Fornari, Alice; Hamburger, Marcelle; Holliday, Scott; Manko, Jeff; Normand, Katherine; Ownby, Alisson; Pfeil, Sheryl; Rankin, Demicha; Cohen, Amy; Schwartzstein, Richard M; Hayes, Margaret M
PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:Faculty modeling of desired behaviors has historically been a part of the apprenticeship model of clinical teaching, yet little is known about best practices for modeling. This study compared the educational impact of implicitly versus explicitly modeled communication skills among U.S. medical students. METHOD/UNASSIGNED:Fourth-year medical students from six U.S. academic medical centers were randomly assigned one simulated clinical encounter in which faculty provided either implicit or explicit modeling of important communication skills. Outcomes were assessed by electronic surveys immediately before and after the simulations. Students were blinded to the purpose of the study. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:â€‰=â€‰0.002). Participating faculty stated they would modify their teaching approach in response to their experiences in the study. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:In a multi-center randomized trial, explicit faculty role-modeling led to greater uptake of communication knowledge, greater recognition of skills, and a greater sense that faculty expected these skills to be adopted by students. These results must be considered in the context, however, of a simulated environment and a short timeframe for assessing learning with students who volunteered for a simulated experience.
Does a measure of Medical Professional Identity Formation predict communication skills performance?
Kalet, Adina; Ark, Tavinder K; Monson, Verna; Song, Hyuksoon S; Buckvar-Keltz, Lynn; Harnik, Victoria; Yingling, Sandra; Rivera, Rafael; Tewksbury, Linda; Lusk, Penelope; Crowe, Ruth
OBJECTIVE:To validate an approach to measuring professional identity formation (PIF), we explore if the Professional Identity Essay (PIE), a stage score measure of medical professional identity (PI), predicts clinical communication skills. METHODS:Students completed the PIE during medical school orientation and a 3-case Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) where standardized patients reliably assessed communication skills in 5 domains. Using mediation analyses, relationships between PIE stage scores and communication skills were explored. RESULTS:For the 351 (89%) consenting students, controlling for individual characteristics, there were increases in patient counseling (6.5%, p<0.01), information gathering (4.3%, pâ€¯=â€¯0.01), organization and management (4.1%, pâ€¯=â€¯0.02), patient assessment (3.6%, pâ€¯=â€¯0.04), and relationship development (3.5%, pâ€¯=â€¯0.03) skills for every half stage increase in PIE score. The communication skills of lower socio-economic status (SES) students are indirectly impacted by their slightly higher PIE stage scores. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Higher PIE stage scores are associated with higher communication skills and lower SES. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:PIE predicts critical clinical skills and identifies how SES and other characteristics indirectly impact future clinical performance, providing validity evidence for using PIE as a tool in longitudinal formative academic coaching, program and curriculum evaluation, and research.
Exploring the professional identity of exemplars of medical professionalism [Meeting Abstract]
Altshuler, L; Monson, V; Chen, D T; Lusk, P; Bukvar-Keltz, L; Crowe, R; Tewksbury, L; Poag, M; Harnik, V; Belluomini, P; Kalet, A
BACKGROUND: A core responsibility of medical educators is to foster a strong sense of medical professional identity (PI). Few studies specifically examine the qualities that constitute the PI of physicians recognized for exemplary professionalism. We describe those qualities based on an assessment of PI to inform educational efforts and support learners' development of PI.
METHOD(S): We used Colby and Damon's criteria for selection of moral exemplars (1992) to invite nominations of exemplary faculty physicians at NYUGSOM from faculty and trainees. Participants completed the Professional Identity Essay (PIE), a 9-question reflective writing measure based on a wellknown model of adult development that explores meaning making on PI (Bebeau & Lewis, 2004; Kegan, 1982, 1994). Two raters with extensive training and experience in adult developmental theory rated PIE responses for stage or transition phase. PI stages include independent operator, teamoriented idealist, self-defining, and self-transforming. These stages reflect increasing complexity and internalization of PI. We also gathered information on specialty, years in practice, gender, and race/ethnicity.
RESULT(S): Two hundred and twelve faculty were nominated; 35 were invited to participate (based on number of nominations, diversity of ages, backgrounds and career stage), and 21 completed scorable PIEs. They were from 13 specialties; mean career length was 21.5 years (range 6-45), and 35% were female. All but 2 were Caucasian. PIE scores ranged from 3 to 4.5 (Table 1), demonstrating differing and increasingly complex and internalized ways faculty understand their PI, and that not all nominated exemplars share a singular view of professionalism.
CONCLUSION(S): Physicians nominated as exemplars of professionalism embody a range of professional identities and professionalism world-views. Our study provides rich descriptions of multiple pathways to strengthening a physician's professionalidentities, of critical importance to faculty and physician development in a milieu of challenges to recruitment and retention of physicians. This approach can also inform educators' efforts to support PI development in learners and support the development of learning communities that foster a growth mindset. LEARNING OBJECTIVE #1: Recognize importance of strong role models for MPI. LEARNING OBJECTIVE #2: Describe the varying levels of MPI in a cohort of exemplar physicians
Describing faculty exemplars of medical professionalism [Meeting Abstract]
Lusk, P; Altshuler, L; Monson, V; Buckvar-Keltz, L; Crowe, R; Tewksbury, L; Poag, M; Harnik, V; Rivera, R; Kalet, A
BACKGROUND: Internalizing a strong medical professional identity (PI) is a critical part of medical education. Recent studies of medical students have documented that students' PI, measured by the Professional Identity Essay (PIE), a reflective writing assessment of PI based on Kegan's theory of adult development and Bebeau's developmental model of PI, vary and are impacted by education. Little is known about the PI of exemplary professional physicians. We sought to: 1) describe the PI of physicians who exemplify the highest principles of the medical profession, and 2) evaluate NYU faculty identified as professional exemplars by peers to provide data and demonstrate clear role models for learners METHODS: We elicited nominations for professional exemplar physicians from NYU faculty, chief residents, and 4th-year students, using the definition of professionalism developed by Colby and Damon (1992). Participants were recruited after receiving at least 3 nominations; select participants who received 1 or 2 nominations were also recruited to diversify the participants in terms of specialty, years of practice, gender and race.We also used snowball techniques to get nominations fromstudy participants. After consenting, faculty received the 11-question PIE. We analyzed demographic data of nominated faculty and completed a content analysis of the PIE.
RESULT(S): 206 individual faculty were nominated at least one time by 70 community members. 32 individuals were recruited to the study; to date 22 have completed the PIE. The 206 nominees/22 participants represent: 34/12 specialties, average years in practice 17.6/23.8, range of years in practice 62 for nominees/44 for participants. We identified 3 primary themes through the content analysis: (1) Response to Expectations, "Everything. The profession demands everything.As much as this profession takes fromme, it is dwarfed by what I have received in return." (2) Response to Failure: "I fail to live up to expectations every day. Some days thismotivatesme, other days I disappoint myself." (3) Learning from Others: "I view teaching as integral to medical professionalism." There was a range of developmental levels in the responses with some focusing more on external rather than internal motivations: "I can say that the [malpractice] process for me was very threatening, emotionally consuming and had the potential to alter professional behavior in the wrong way."
CONCLUSION(S): Nominated faculty represented a diverse group with respect to PI. Many participants demonstrated great professionalism and a sense of internal PI in responses to the PIE questions, while others focused onmore externalmotivations to drive their professional behaviors. Further analysis is needed to define the qualities of a true exemplary professional. The range of responses of the exemplars can both serve as role models for learners and provide multiple pathways for learners and faculty to strengthen their own professional identities
In Reply to Green et al [Letter]
Harnik, Vicky; Santen, Sally A; Fleming, Amy; Sein, Aubrie Swan
Experimental Biology 2020 Meeting Abstracts
Oh, So-Young; Dorsainville, Gregory A; Harnik, Victoria; Rapkiewicz, Amy; Shearer, Brian; Ramirez, Kristen; Alfaro, Veronica; Rosenfeld, Mel
NYU School of Medicine recently embarked on a re-design of its anatomy curriculum that decreased the use of cadavers with plastinated specimens. Plastinated models provide an authentic learning experience of the human body, but lack necessary labels outlining important structures. Due to the fragile nature of the specimens, we endeavored to solve the challenge of labeling by developing a digitized supplement and archive of plastinated and pathology specimens. An interdisciplinary team of faculty and multimedia designers at NYU School of Medicine designed and developed electronic resources related to the artistic models and plastinated specimens. Over the course of three months, 60 artistic and plastinated models of different sizes were captured from dozens of angles using a digital camera or an Artec Leo Scanner. The numerous image captures of the plastinated specimens were processed in Agisoft Metashape, a stand-alone software product, that performs photogrammetric processing of digital images and generates 3D spatial data. After Agisoft Metashape exported a complex 3D mesh with a high-resolution texture, anatomy faculty added labels to the digitized 3D anatomy specimens using the Sketchfab web platform. The labeled 3D anatomy models were then uploaded into the Living Anatomy site on NYU School of Medicine's learning management system for students to explore before, during, and after their anatomy lab sessions. Quizzes using these models also were created to help students identify the structures and link them to physiology and clinical scenarios. The digitized 3D models allow students to zoom in, rotate and explore the specimens in a more interactive way, thereby enhancing the process of just observing fragile plastination models. When asked, 84% of students reported that the 3D models of plastinated specimens contributed "very much so" to their learning of anatomical relationships. We will continue to find opportunities for the meaningful integration of these 3D models within the anatomy curriculum as well as into other pre-clerkship and clerkship modules. We will also assess the educational outcomes of the 3D models and, by doing so, will incorporate instructional design into the process.
Effects of Moving the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 After Core Clerkships on Step 2 Clinical Knowledge Performance
Jurich, Daniel; Santen, Sally A; Paniagua, Miguel; Fleming, Amy; Harnik, Victoria; Pock, Arnyce; Swan-Sein, Aubrie; Barone, Michael A; Daniel, Michelle
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of a change in USMLE Step 1 timing on Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK) scores, the effect of lag-time on Step 2 CK performance, and the relationship of incoming MCAT score to Step 2 CK performance pre- and post-change. METHOD/METHODS:Four LCME-accredited schools that moved Step 1 after core clerkships between academic years 2008-2009 and 2017-2018 were analyzed in a pre-post format. Standard t-tests were used to examine the change in Step 2 CK scores pre- and post-change. Tests of differences in proportions were used to evaluate whether Step 2 CK failure rates differed between curricular change groups. Linear regressions were used to examine the relationships between Step 2 CK performance, lag-time and incoming MCAT score, and curricular change group. RESULTS:Step 2 CK performance did not change significantly (P = .20). Failure rates remained highly consistent (pre-change: 1.83%, post-change: 1.79%). The regression indicated that lag-time had a significant effect on Step 2 CK performance, with scores declining with increasing lag-time. The regression yielded small but significant interaction effects between MCAT and Step 2 CK scores. Students with lower incoming MCATs tended to perform better on Step 2 CK when Step 1 was after clerkships. CONCLUSIONS:Moving Step 1 after core clerkships appears to have had no significant impact on Step 2 CK scores or failure rates, supporting the argument that such a change is noninferior to the traditional model. Students with lower MCAT scores benefit most from the change.
Teaching cutaneous sensory distribution of the upper limb using interactive virtual reality [Meeting Abstract]
Shearer, Brian; Ramirez, Kristen; Dorsainville, Greg; Harnik, Victoria; Rosenfeld, Mel
Use of Digitally Annotated and Printed 3D Models for Teaching the Pterygopalatine Fossa [Meeting Abstract]
Ramirez, Kristen; Shearer, Brian; Dorsainville, Gregory; Harnik, Victoria
Photogrammetric Digitization and labeling of Plastinated Models for Pre-Clerkship Education [Meeting Abstract]
Dorsainville, Gregory; Harnik, Victoria; Rapkiewicz, Amy; Shearer, Brian; Ramirez, Kristen; Alfaro, Veronica; Rosenfeld, Mel