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Morbidity and complications following percutaneous calcaneal autograft bone harvest

O'Malley, Martin J; Sayres, Stephanie C; Saleem, Omar; Levine, David; Roberts, Matthew; Deland, Jonathan T; Ellis, Scott
BACKGROUND:Autogenous bone grafting is commonly used as an adjuvant in foot and ankle procedures. The iliac crest and tibia are common sources of autogenous bone graft but require a separate operative site and have been reported to have significant morbidity including pain, fractures, and prolonged hospitalization. Bone grafting from the posterolateral calcaneus offers advantages such as a single operative field, ability to be done under an ankle block, and a theoretical low complication rate. We report our morbidity and complications of percutaneous calcaneal autograft bone harvest in patients undergoing foot operations. METHODS:Between 2006 and 2010, 6 foot and ankle surgeons performed a calcaneal bone graft on 393 patients undergoing foot procedures. Outcomes were measured through the use of a 4-question survey evaluating pain, subjective sensitivity at the incision site, numbness at the incision site, and limitation of shoe wear at a minimum of 1 year following the operation. Patient records were also examined for any additional complications that may have been reported. RESULTS:Of the 393 patients eligible for this study, 210 patients responded at an average of 2.8 years (range, 1.2-5.8 years) after the operation (minimum 1 year). Of those, 181 patients (86.2%) reported no problems. Minor complications included 6 patients (2.9%) who experienced only incisional nerve sensitivity, 4 patients (1.9%) with only incisional pain, 4 patients (1.9%) who reported some degree of incisional numbness only, 2 patients (1.0%) who reported only shoe wear limitations, and 10 patients (4.8%) who had a combination of symptoms. Three patients (1.4%) had more significant complications, which consisted of a pathological fracture through the graft site, a calcaneal stress fracture, and 1 patient with permanent numbness along the distribution of the sural nerve. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Calcaneal bone graft was an easily accessible source of local autogenous bone graft for foot and ankle procedures. Despite the simplicity of the procedure, minor complications are not infrequent, with 13.8% of patients reporting some residual symptoms along the lateral border of the calcaneus when bone graft was obtained through an oblique incision. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level IV, case series.
PMID: 24318626
ISSN: 1944-7876
CID: 3466982

Extra-abdominal periosteal desmoid tumor of the third toe [Case Report]

Saleem, Omar; Sayres, Stephanie; O'Malley, Martin
Extra-abdominal periosteal desmoid tumors are uncommon nonmetastatic tumors of the extremities with a propensity for local recurrence. Lesions in the distal extremities are rare; a majority of extra-abdominal lesions occur in more proximal portions of the upper and lower extremities. This article reports a patient with an extra-abdominal periosteal desmoid tumor in the toe. A 37-year-old woman had a mass in her left third distal phalanx that was originally noted 3 years prior to presenting to the authors' institution. She reported the mass expanded during pregnancy. The toe was red and elongated and had expanded to approximately the same size as her great toe. The plantar aspect of the toe was thick and callused, and the toenail was slightly elevated. Marginal excision with retention of the nail was performed without complication. The mass was determined to be an extra-abdominal periosteal desmoid tumor and was successfully removed without recurrence. To date, the patient remains asymptomatic, with no pain and complete sensation in her third toe. Although extra-abdominal periosteal desmoid tumors have been identified in the extremities, to the authors' knowledge none have been reported as far distal as the toe. Identifying this lesion in the distal extremity will allow a hasty diagnosis and treatment in future cases of similar presentation. Knowledge of the existence of this type of tumor in the distal extremity may also assist in narrowing differential diagnoses.
PMID: 24025015
ISSN: 1938-2367
CID: 3466972

Axial load weightbearing radiography in determining lateral malleolus fracture stability: a cadaveric study

Stewart, Christopher; Saleem, Omar; Mukherjee, Debi P; Suk, Michael; Marymont, John; Anissian, Lucas
BACKGROUND:Ankle fractures are the most common fracture treated by orthopaedic surgeons in the United States. Isolated lateral malleolus fractures are treated nonoperatively, while associated deltoid disruption injuries are unstable and usually treated by fixation of the fracture. Various stress radiographs and MRI have been used to determine deltoid competency and the subsequent need for operative stabilization of lateral malleolus fractures. To date, no standardization of stress radiography has been performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of weightbearing ankle X-rays to determine stability and their reliability. METHODS:This study sought to utilize simulated weightbearing radiography as a potential method to determine the need for lateral malleolus fixation. Twelve cadaveric ankle specimens were tested by obtaining ankle mortise radiographs for interpretation of medial clear space. Each ankle was tested with 0, 25, 36, and 50 kg of axially applied weight. The groups of measurements obtained were: intact ankles (Group A), ankles with an isolated oblique fibular osteotomy (Group B), and osteotomized ankles after complete deltoid ligament transaction (Group C). Three authors measured the medial clear space for every ankle using PACSR software. Instability of the ankle mortise was defined as medial clear space widening of greater than 2 mm from the intact ankle. RESULTS:An isolated lateral malleolus fracture (Group B) and a lateral malleolus fracture with an incompetent deltoid ligament (Group C) showed no statistical medial clear space widening with simulated axial weightbearing radiography when compared to intact ankles (Group A). ANOVA's between Group A and B had p < 0.001, and between Group A and C of p < 0.001. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our model did not find instability with an osteotomized fibula and a disrupted deltoid. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests a weightbearing radiograph of an isolated lateral malleolus fracture cannot determine deltoid ligament integrity and thus need for fibular operative fixation.
PMID: 22835391
ISSN: 1071-1007
CID: 3466962

An assessment of the methodological quality of research published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine

Brophy, Robert H; Gardner, Michael J; Saleem, Omar; Marx, Robert G
BACKGROUND:Evidence-based medicine has become a popular topic in academic medicine during the past several decades and more recently in orthopaedics and sports medicine. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE:Articles published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine have shown an improvement in methodological quality in 2001-2003, compared with 1991-1993. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Systematic review. METHODS:All articles published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine during the periods 1991-1993 and 2001-2003 were reviewed and classified by type of study. The use of pertinent methodologies such as prospective data collection, randomization, blinding, and controlled studies was noted for each article. The frequency of each article type and the use of evidence-based techniques were compared across study periods. RESULTS:Case series and descriptive studies decreased during the study period, from 27.4% to 15.3% (P = .00003) and from 11.9% to 5.6% (P = .001), respectively, of articles published. Prospective cohort studies increased from 4.7% to 14.1% (P = .000005), and randomized, prospective clinical trials increased from 2.7% to 5.9% of articles (P = .04). More studies tested an explicit hypothesis (P = .0000002), used prospective data collection (P = .000003), and used blinding (P = .02), and more studies identified a funding source (P = .004). CONCLUSIONS:Overall, there was a shift toward more prospective and randomized research designs published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine during 2001-2003 compared to 1991-1993, demonstrating an improvement in the methodological quality of published research.
PMID: 16157847
ISSN: 0363-5465
CID: 3466952