Recurrence of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis After Liver Transplant in Children: An International Observational Study
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis (rPSC) following liver transplant (LT) has a negative impact on graft and patient survival; little is known about risk factors for rPSC or disease course in children. APPROACH AND RESULTS:We retrospectively evaluated risk factors for rPSC in 140 children from the Pediatric PSC Consortium, a multicenter international registry. Recipients underwent LT for PSC and had >90 days of follow-up. The primary outcome, rPSC, was defined using Graziadei criteria. Median follow-up after LT was 3 years (interquartile range 1.1-6.1). rPSC occurred in 36 children, representing 10% and 27% of the subjects at 2 years and 5 years following LT, respectively. Subjects with rPSC were younger at LT (12.9 vs. 16.2 years), had faster progression from PSC diagnosis to LT (2.5 vs. 4.1 years), and had higher alanine aminotransferase (112 vs. 66 IU/L) at LT (all P < 0.01). Inflammatory bowel disease was more prevalent in the rPSC group (86% vs. 66%; P = 0.025). After LT, rPSC subjects had more episodes of biopsy-proved acute rejection (mean 3 vs. 1; P < 0.001), and higher prevalence of steroid-refractory rejection (41% vs. 20%; P = 0.04). In those with rPSC, 43% developed complications of portal hypertension, were relisted for LT, or died within 2 years of the diagnosis. Mortality was higher in the rPSC group (11.1% vs. 2.9%; P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The incidence of rPSC in this cohort was higher than previously reported, and was associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Patients with rPSC appeared to have a more aggressive, immune-reactive phenotype. These findings underscore the need to understand the immune mechanisms of rPSC, to lay the foundation for developing new therapies and improve outcomes in this challenging population.
Liver involvement in children with SARS-COV-2 infection: Two distinct clinical phenotypes caused by the same virus
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) associated acute liver injury (ALI) has been linked to poor outcomes in adults. Here we compare characteristics in children with elevated ALT (E-ALT) in two distinct manifestations of the infection, multisystem inflammatory syndrome-children (MIS-C) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS:This is a retrospective study of patients â‰¤21Â years of age with positive for SARS-CoV-2 PCR. E-ALT was defined as alanine aminotransferase (ALT)Â >Â 40Â U/L. Bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were obtained to describe differences in children with and without E-ALT in COVID-19 and MIS-C. RESULTS:E-ALT was detected in 36% of the 291 patients; 31% with COVID-19, and 51% with MIS-C. E-ALT in COVID-19 was associated with obesity (PÂ <Â .001), immunocompromised status (PÂ =Â .04), and chronic liver disease (PÂ =Â .01). In the regression models, E-ALT in COVID-19 was associated with higher c-reactive protein (OR 1.08, PÂ =Â .01) after adjusting for common independent predictors. Children with E-ALT and MIS-C were more often boys (PÂ =Â .001), Hispanic (PÂ =Â .04), or Black (PÂ <Â .001). In MIS-C, male gender (OR 5.3, PÂ =Â .02) and Black race (OR 4.4, PÂ =Â .04) were associated with increased odds of E-ALT. Children with E-ALT in both cohorts had significantly higher multiorgan dysfunction, longer hospitalization, and ICU stay. Children with MIS-C had 2.3-fold increased risk of E-ALT compared to COVID-19. No association was found between E-ALT and mortality. CONCLUSION:E-ALT with SARS-CoV-2 presents as elevated transaminases without hepatic synthetic dysfunction. Patients with either manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and E-ALT experienced more severe disease.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 Infection in Children With Liver Transplant and Native Liver Disease: An International Observational Registry Study
OBJECTIVE:Increased mortality risk because of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) infection in adults with native liver disease (LD) and liver transplant (LT) is associated with advanced age and comorbid conditions. We aim to report outcomes for children with LD and LT enrolled in the NASPGHAN/SPLIT SARS-CoV2 registry. METHODS:In this multicenter observational cohort study, we collected data from 91 patients <21 years (LD 44, LT 47) with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV2 infection between April 21 and September 17, 2020. RESULTS:Patients with LD were more likely to require admission (70% vs 43% LT, P = 0.007) and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) management (32% vs 4% LT, P = 0.001). Seven LD patients required mechanical ventilation (MV) and 2 patients died; no patients in the LT cohort died or required MV. Four LD patients presented in pediatric acute liver failure (PALF), 2 with concurrent multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C); all recovered without LT. Two LD patients had MIS-C alone and 1 patient died. Bivariable logistic-regression analysis found that patients with nonalcoholic fatty LD (NAFLD) (odds ratio [OR] 5.6, P = 0.02) and LD (OR 6.1, P = 0.01, vs LT) had higher odds of severe disease (PICU, vasopressor support, MV, renal replacement therapy or death). CONCLUSIONS:Although not directly comparable, LT recipients had lower odds of severe SARS-CoV2 infection (vs LD), despite immunosuppression burden. NAFLD patients reported to the registry had higher odds of severe SARS-CoV2 disease. Future controlled studies are needed to evaluate effective treatments and further stratify LD and LT patients with SARS-CoV2 infection.
Colorectal Dysplasia and Cancer in Pediatric-Onset Ulcerative Colitis Associated With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially when associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), is a risk factor for developing colorectal cancer (CRC).1-3 We aimed to determine the incidence of CRC in a large cohort of pediatric-onset PSC-ulcerative colitis (UC) patients.
Relationship of Vitamin D Deficiency and Fatty Liver in Children as Defined by Multiple Imaging and Histologic Endpoints
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The relationship between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains uncertain due to conflicting results and few studies with histologic endpoints. We therefore used multiple imaging and histologic NAFLD endpoints to more comprehensively assess the association between VDD and NAFLD in a large pediatric population. METHODS:Data were obtained from an ongoing pediatric NAFLD study in Bronx, NY. Briefly, overweight and obese children aged 2-18 years with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels ≥ 35 U/L were serially enrolled. Liver biopsy was obtained in accordance with clinical guidelines. All participants had liver imaging, namely, controlled attenuation parameter (CAP; Echosens, France) to assess steatosis and, to assess fibrosis, vibration controlled transient elastography (VCTE; FibroScan™, Echosens, France) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI; Philips, Netherlands) imaging. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured serologically. RESULTS:N=276 (88%) of 315 participants had 25-OH vitamin D results, of whom 241 (87%) were Hispanic, 199 (72%) were male, and 92 (33%) underwent liver biopsy. VDD was univariately associated with high waist circumference (p=0.004), high-density lipoprotein level (p=0.01), season (p=0.009), and CAP score (p=0.01). In multivariate analysis, only waist circumference (p=0.0002) and biopsy inflammation grade (p=0.03) were associated with VDD, though the latter had not approximated statistical significance in univariate analysis (p=0.56). There was no association between VDD and hepatic steatosis, ballooning, NAFLD Activity Score, ARFI or VCTE elasticity scores. CONCLUSIONS:VDD was not associated with NAFLD defined by imaging and histologic endpoints, except for a possible relation with histologic inflammation grade.
50 Years Ago in TheJournalofPediatrics: Wilson's Disease Remains a Great Masquerader
Oral Vancomycin, Ursodeoxycholic Acid, or No Therapy for Pediatric Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: A Matched Analysis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Many children with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) receive oral vancomycin therapy (OVT) or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). There is a paucity of data on whether these medications improve outcomes. APPROACH AND RESULTS:We analyzed retrospective data from the Pediatric PSC Consortium. Children treated with OVT were matched 1:1:1 to those treated with UDCA or managed with observation (no treatment) based on the closest propensity score, ensuring similar baseline characteristics. Two hundred sixty-four patients (88 each with OVT, UDCA, or observation) had matching propensity scores and were similar in demographics, phenotype, immunosuppression, baseline biochemistry, and hepatic fibrosis. After 1 year in an intention-to-treat analysis, all outcome metrics were similar regardless of treatment group. In OVT, UDCA, and untreated groups, respectively: Gamma-glutamyltransferase normalized in 53%, 49%, and 52% (P = not significant [NS]), liver fibrosis stage was improved in 20%, 13%, and 18% and worsened in 11%, 29%, and 18% (P = NS), and the 5-year probability of liver transplant listing was 21%, 10%, and 12% (P = NS). Favorable outcome was associated with having a mild phenotype of PSC and minimal hepatic fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS:We presented the largest-ever description of outcomes on OVT in PSC and compared them to carefully matched patients on UDCA or no therapy. Neither OVT nor UDCA showed improvement in outcomes compared to a strategy of observation. Patients progressed to end-stage liver disease at similar rates. Spontaneous normalization of biochemistry is common in children receiving no therapy, particularly in the majority of children with a mild phenotype and an early stage of disease. Placebo-controlled treatment trials are needed to identify effective treatments for pediatric PSC.
The Sclerosing Cholangitis Outcomes in Pediatrics (SCOPE) Index: A Prognostic Tool for Children
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Disease progression in children with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is variable. Prognostic and risk-stratification tools exist for adult-onset PSC, but not for children. We aimed to create a tool that accounts for the biochemical and phenotypic features and early disease stage of pediatric PSC. APPROACH AND RESULTS:We used retrospective data from the Pediatric PSC Consortium. The training cohort contained 1,012 patients from 40 centers. We generated a multivariate risk index (Sclerosing Cholangitis Outcomes in Pediatrics [SCOPE] index) that contained total bilirubin, albumin, platelet count, gamma glutamyltransferase, and cholangiography to predict a primary outcome of liver transplantation or death (TD) and a broader secondary outcome that included portal hypertensive, biliary, and cancer complications termed hepatobiliary complications (HBCs). The model stratified patients as low, medium, or high risk based on progression to TD at rates of <1%, 3%, and 9% annually and to HBCs at rates of 2%, 6%, and 13% annually, respectively (P < 0.001). C-statistics to discriminate outcomes at 1 and 5 years were 0.95 and 0.82 for TD and 0.80 and 0.76 for HBCs, respectively. Baseline hepatic fibrosis stage was worse with increasing risk score, with extensive fibrosis in 8% of the lowest versus 100% with the highest risk index (P < 0.001). The model was validated in 240 children from 11 additional centers and performed well. CONCLUSIONS:The SCOPE index is a pediatric-specific prognostic tool for PSC. It uses routinely obtained, objective data to predict a complicated clinical course. It correlates strongly with biopsy-proven liver fibrosis. SCOPE can be used with families for shared decision making on clinical care based on a patient's individual risk, and to account for variable disease progression when designing future clinical trials.
Cystic Fibrosis and Congenital Anomalies of the Exocrine Pancreas
Philadelphia : Elsevier, 2021
THE ROLE OF LIVER BIOPSY IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS OF PEDIATRIC PRIMARY SCLEROSING CHOLANGITIS AND AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS OVERLAP [Meeting Abstract]