Cutaneous α-Synuclein Signatures in Patients With Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson Disease
Gibbons, Christopher; Wang, Ningshan; Rajan, Sharika; Kern, Drew; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio; Freeman, Roy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by the abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein in the nervous system. Clinical features include autonomic and motor dysfunction, which overlap with those of Parkinson disease (PD), particularly at early disease stages. There is an unmet need for accurate diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for MSA and, specifically, a critical need to distinguish MSA from other synucleinopathies, particularly PD. The purpose of the study was to develop a unique cutaneous pathologic signature of phosphorylated α-synuclein that could distinguish patients with MSA from patients with PD and healthy controls. METHODS:We studied 31 patients with MSA and 54 patients with PD diagnosed according to current clinical consensus criteria. We also included 24 matched controls. All participants underwent neurologic examinations, autonomic testing, and skin biopsies at 3 locations. The density of intraepidermal, sudomotor, and pilomotor nerve fibers was measured. The deposition of phosphorylated α-synuclein was quantified. Results were compared with clinical rating assessments and autonomic function test results. RESULTS:< 0.0001) than patients with PD. These results provided >90% sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between the 2 disorders. DISCUSSION:α-synuclein is present in the peripheral autonomic nerves of patients with MSA and when combined with synuclein distribution accurately distinguishes MSA from PD. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE:This study provides Class II evidence that measurement of phosphorylated α-synuclein in skin biopsies can differentiate patients with MSA from those with PD.
Sensorimotor control in the congenital absence of functional muscle spindles
Macefield, Vaughan G; Smith, Lyndon J; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio
NEW FINDINGS/RESULTS:What is the topic of this review? Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (HSAN III). What advances does it highlight? In individuals with (HSAN III) functional muscle spindles appear to be absent throughout the body, though myelinated cutaneous afferents are present. The former may explain the poor proprioception at the knee joint, while the latter may explain why increasing cutaneous feedback improves proprioception at the knee. Reaching and lifting small objects was greatly compromised, arguing for an important role of muscles spindles in sensorimotor control. ABSTRACT/UNASSIGNED:Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (HSAN III), also known as familial dysautonomia or Riley-Day syndrome, results from an autosomal recessive genetic mutation that causes a selective loss of specific sensory neurones, leading to greatly elevated pain and temperature thresholds, poor proprioception, marked ataxia and disturbances in blood pressure control. Stretch reflexes are absent throughout the body, which can be explained by the absence of functional muscle spindle afferents - assessed by intraneural microelectrodes inserted into peripheral nerves in the upper and lower limbs. This also explains the greatly compromised proprioception at the knee joint, as assessed by passive joint-angle matching. Moreover, there is a tight correlation between loss of proprioceptive acuity at the knee and the severity of gait impairment. Surprisingly, proprioception is normal at the elbow, suggesting that participants are relying more on sensory cues from the overlying skin; microelectrode recordings have shown that myelinated tactile afferents in the upper and lower limbs appear to be normal. Nevertheless, the lack of muscle spindles does affect sensorimotor control in the upper limb: in addition to poor performance in the finger-to-nose test, manual performance in the Purdue pegboard task is much worse than in age-matched healthy controls. Unlike those rare individuals with large-fibre sensory neuropathy, in which both muscle spindle and cutaneous afferents are absent, those with HSAN III present as a means of assessing sensorimotor control following the selective loss of muscle spindle afferents.
Gastrointestinal bleeding in children with familial dysautonomia: a case-control study
Ramprasad, Chethan; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Levy, Joseph; Chen, Lea Ann; Kaufmann, Horacio
OBJECTIVE:Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive disorder with abnormal somatosensory, enteric, and afferent autonomic neurons. We aimed to define the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding and its associated risk factors in patients with FD. METHODS:In this retrospective case-control study, we identified all episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with FD, occurring over four decades (January 1980-December 2017), using the New York University FD registry. RESULTS:We identified 104 episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding occurring in 60 patients with FD. The estimated incidence rate of gastrointestinal bleeds in the FD population rate was 4.20 episodes per 1000 person-years. We compared the 60 cases with 94 age-matched controls. Bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract from gastric and duodenal ulcers occurred most frequently (64 bleeds, 75.6%). Patients were more likely to have a gastrostomy (G)-tube and a Nissen fundoplication [odds ratio (OR) 3.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.303-13.565] than controls. The mean time from G-tube placement to first gastrointestinal bleed was 7.01 years. The mean time from Nissen fundoplication to bleed was 7.01 years. Cases and controls had similar frequency of intake of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding in the pediatric FD population was estimated to be 4.20 per 1000 person-years, 21 times higher than in the general pediatric population (0.2 per 1000 person-years). Patients with FD with a G-tube and a Nissen fundoplication had a higher risk of a subsequent gastrointestinal bleeding.
Toward a biomarker panel measured in CNS-originating extracellular vesicles for improved differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy [Letter]
Taha, Hash Brown; Hornung, Simon; Dutta, Suman; Fenwick, Leony; Lahgui, Otmane; Howe, Kathryn; Elabed, Nour; Del Rosario, Irish; Wong, Darice Y; Duarte Folle, Aline; Markovic, Daniela; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kang, Un Jung; Alcalay, Roy N; Sklerov, Miriam; Kaufmann, Horacio; Fogel, Brent L; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate; Bitan, Gal
Blood Pressure and Risk of Dementia in Parkinson Disease and Multiple System Atrophy: Should You Buy the Dip in Such a Volatile Market? [Editorial]
Palma, Jose-Alberto; Cortelli, Pietro
The Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale: Status, Critique, and Recommendations
Krismer, Florian; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Stankovic, Iva; Vignatelli, Luca; Berger, Anna-Karin; Falup-Pecurariu, Cristian; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; HÃ¶glinger, GÃ¼nter; Kaufmann, Horacio; Kellerman, Larry; Kim, Han-Joon; Klockgether, Thomas; Levin, Johannes; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Mestre, Tiago A; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Perlman, Susan; Qureshi, Irfan; Rascol, Olivier; Schrag, Anette; Seppi, Klaus; Shang, Huifang; Stebbins, Glenn T; Wenning, Gregor K; Singer, Wolfgang; Meissner, Wassilios G
Patient-Reported Symptoms in the Global Multiple System Atrophy Registry
Palma, Jose-Alberto; Krismer, Florian; Meissner, Wassilios G; Kuijpers, Mechteld; Millar-Vernetti, Patricio; Perez, Miguel A; Fanciulli, Alessandra; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Bower, Pam; Wenning, Gregor K; Kaufmann, Horacio
Background/UNASSIGNED:The Global Multiple System Atrophy Registry (GLOMSAR) was established in 2013. It is an online patient-reported contact registry open and free that relies on self-reported diagnosis by the patient or caregiver. Objectives/UNASSIGNED:To report the demographics of patients enrolled in GLOMSAR and the results of an ancillary online symptom questionnaire. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Patients enrolled in GLOMSAR were invited to complete a custom-designed online questionnaire about disease onset and symptom prevalence. Results/UNASSIGNED:At the time of writing, there were 1083 participants in GLOMSAR, of which 33% (365) completed the questionnaire. The onset and frequency of most symptoms was similar to those reported in the literature in physician-reported studies. Some were understudied or not typically associated with multiple system atrophy (MSA), including reduced female sexual sensation (55%), forgetfulness (60%), pseudobulbar affect (37%), olfactory changes (36%), and visual hallucinations (21%). Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Patient-reported studies and ancillary online questionnaires are valid, underused research tools useful to advance our knowledge on understudied MSA features and highlight the patients' voice.
Multiple system atrophy
Poewe, Werner; Stankovic, Iva; Halliday, Glenda; Meissner, Wassilios G; Wenning, Gregor K; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Seppi, Klaus; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by neuronal loss and gliosis in multiple areas of the central nervous system including striatonigral, olivopontocerebellar and central autonomic structures. Oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions containing misfolded and aggregated Î±-synuclein are the histopathological hallmark of MSA. A firm clinical diagnosis requires the presence of autonomic dysfunction in combination with parkinsonism that responds poorly to levodopa and/or cerebellar ataxia. Clinical diagnostic accuracy is suboptimal in early disease because of phenotypic overlaps with Parkinson disease or other types of degenerative parkinsonism as well as with other cerebellar disorders. The symptomatic management of MSA requires a complex multimodal approach to compensate for autonomic failure, alleviate parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia and associated disabilities. None of the available treatments significantly slows the aggressive course of MSA. Despite several failed trials in the past, a robust pipeline of putative disease-modifying agents, along with progress towards early diagnosis and the development of sensitive diagnostic and progression biomarkers for MSA, offer new hope for patients.
Views on Memory and Treatment of Cognitive Impairment in 17th-Century Spain: Juan GutiÃ©rrez de Godoy's Work
Palma, Jose-Alberto; Palma, Fermin
Memory and its care were significant sociocultural and scientific topics in early modern Spain. While a major interest in memory was related to its rhetorical implications, medical treatises discussing memory, cognitive impairment, and its treatment began to appear in the 16th- and 17th-century. Among these treatises, Disputationes phylosophicÃ¦ ac medicÃ¦ super libros Aristotelis de memoria, et reminiscentia (Philosophical and medical arguments on Aristotle's "De memoria et reminiscentia"), published in 1629 by the physician Juan GutiÃ©rrez de Godoy, is unique in that it is entirely devoted to the medical aspects of memory. While many of its concepts are now superseded, the treatise is valuable to understand the views on memory and cognitive impairment in 17th-century Spain and their sources, as GutiÃ©rrez quoted many classical, medieval, and contemporary scholars and physicians. The book, written in Latin, is exclusively devoted to memory from a physiological and medical point of view, with chapters on the classification of memory loss, a description of its causes (including old age, something not widely recognized before), and several chapters on its prevention and treatment, with a fascinating emphasis on confectio anacardina, or anacardium, an intranasal concoction made with the "marking nut", the fruit of the Semecarpus anacardium tree (also known as Malacca bean), with alleged memory-enhancing properties. We review GutiÃ©rrez's Disputationes phylosophicÃ¦, putting it into the wider intellectual and social context in the Europe of its time, and discuss the relevance and purported neuropharmacological effects of anacardina.
The Movement Disorder Society Criteria for the Diagnosis of Multiple System Atrophy
Wenning, Gregor K; Stankovic, Iva; Vignatelli, Luca; Fanciulli, Alessandra; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Seppi, Klaus; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Meissner, Wassilios G; Krismer, Florian; Berg, Daniela; Cortelli, Pietro; Freeman, Roy; Halliday, Glenda; Höglinger, GÃ¼nter; Lang, Anthony; Ling, Helen; Litvan, Irene; Low, Phillip; Miki, Yasuo; Panicker, Jalesh; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Quinn, Niall; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Stamelou, Maria; Tolosa, Eduardo; Tsuji, Shoji; Warner, Tom; Poewe, Werner; Kaufmann, Horacio
BACKGROUND:The second consensus criteria for the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA) are widely recognized as the reference standard for clinical research, but lack sensitivity to diagnose the disease at early stages. OBJECTIVE:To develop novel Movement Disorder Society (MDS) criteria for MSA diagnosis using an evidence-based and consensus-based methodology. METHODS:We identified shortcomings of the second consensus criteria for MSA diagnosis and conducted a systematic literature review to answer predefined questions on clinical presentation and diagnostic tools relevant for MSA diagnosis. The criteria were developed and later optimized using two Delphi rounds within the MSA Criteria Revision Task Force, a survey for MDS membership, and a virtual Consensus Conference. RESULTS:The criteria for neuropathologically established MSA remain unchanged. For a clinical MSA diagnosis a new category of clinically established MSA is introduced, aiming for maximum specificity with acceptable sensitivity. A category of clinically probable MSA is defined to enhance sensitivity while maintaining specificity. A research category of possible prodromal MSA is designed to capture patients in the earliest stages when symptoms and signs are present, but do not meet the threshold for clinically established or clinically probable MSA. Brain magnetic resonance imaging markers suggestive of MSA are required for the diagnosis of clinically established MSA. The number of research biomarkers that support all clinical diagnostic categories will likely grow. CONCLUSIONS:This set of MDS MSA diagnostic criteria aims at improving the diagnostic accuracy, particularly in early disease stages. It requires validation in a prospective clinical and a clinicopathological study. Â© 2022 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.