Infection and disease spectrum in individuals with household exposure to SARS-CoV-2: A family cluster cohort study
We primarily quantified exposure patterns, transmission characteristics, and the clinical spectrum of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among household contacts of individuals with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 20 index patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 and 79 of their household contacts. We determined the transmission frequency, range of manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and factors associated with infection in household settings. Of the 79 household contacts, 53 (67%) developed SARS-CoV-2 infection (49 [62%] symptomatic, 4 [5%] asymptomatic). Eight patients (10%) developed severe COVID-19, and one died of COVID-19 pneumonia (case-fatality rate: 1.9%). The probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection was similar in children and adults (55% vs. 72%, pâ€‰=â€‰.14), with children being less likely to develop the symptomatic disease (46% vs. 68%, pâ€‰=â€‰.06). Handwashingâ€‰â‰¥â€‰5 times/day was associated with reduced infection risk (52.8% vs. 76.9%, pâ€‰=â€‰.04). SARS-CoV-2 has a high frequency of transmission among household contacts. Nonhospitalized individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection should be quarantined in patient care facilities rather than at home to minimize spread, if possible, and frequent handwashing should be practiced to prevent transmission.
Long-term safety of infants from mothers with chronic hepatitis B treated with tenofovir disoproxil in China
OBJECTIVE:The physical and neuromental development of infants remains uncertain after fetal exposure to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HBV. We aimed to investigate the safety of TDF therapy during the third trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN/METHODS:Infants from a previous randomised controlled trial were recruited for our long-term follow-up (LTFU) study. Mothers with chronic hepatitis B were randomised to receive TDF therapy or no treatment during the third trimester. Infants' physical growth or malformation, bone mineral density (BMD) and neurodevelopment, as assessed using Bayley-III assessment, were examined at 192 weeks of age. RESULTS:Of 180 eligible infants, 176/180 (98%) were enrolled and 145/176 (82%) completed the LTFU (control group: 75; TDF-treated group: 70). In the TDF-treated group, the mean duration of fetal exposure to TDF was 8.57Â±0.53 weeks. Congenital malformation rates were similar between the two groups at week 192. The mean body weight of boys in the control and TDF-treated groups was significantly higher (19.84Â±3.46â€‰kg vs. 18.47Â±2.34â€‰kg; p=0.03) and within the normal range (18.48Â±2.35â€‰kg vs. 17.80Â±2.50â€‰kg; p=0.07), respectively, when compared with the national standard. Other prespecified outcomes (head circumference, height, BMD, and cognitive, motor, social-emotional, and adaptive behaviour measurements) were all comparable between the groups. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Infants with fetal exposure to TDF had normal physical growth, BMD and neurodevelopment at week 192. Our findings provide evidence on the long-term safety of infants after fetal exposure to maternal TDF therapy for preventing hepatitis B transmission. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER/BACKGROUND:NCT01488526.
Genome-wide analysis identifies novel susceptibility loci for myocardial infarction
AIMS:While most patients with myocardial infarction (MI) have underlying coronary atherosclerosis, not all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) develop MI. We sought to address the hypothesis that some of the genetic factors which establish atherosclerosis may be distinct from those that predispose to vulnerable plaques and thrombus formation. METHODS AND RESULTS:We carried out a genome-wide association study for MI in the UK Biobank (nâˆ¼472Â 000), followed by a meta-analysis with summary statistics from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium (nâˆ¼167Â 000). Multiple independent replication analyses and functional approaches were used to prioritize loci and evaluate positional candidate genes. Eight novel regions were identified for MI at the genome wide significance level, of which effect sizes at six loci were more robust for MI than for CAD without the presence of MI. Confirmatory evidence for association of a locus on chromosome 1p21.3 harbouring choline-like transporter 3 (SLC44A3) with MI in the context of CAD, but not with coronary atherosclerosis itself, was obtained in Biobank Japan (nâˆ¼165Â 000) and 16 independent angiography-based cohorts (nâˆ¼27Â 000). Follow-up analyses did not reveal association of the SLC44A3 locus with CAD risk factors, biomarkers of coagulation, other thrombotic diseases, or plasma levels of a broad array of metabolites, including choline, trimethylamine N-oxide, and betaine. However, aortic expression of SLC44A3 was increased in carriers of the MI risk allele at chromosome 1p21.3, increased in ischaemic (vs. non-diseased) coronary arteries, up-regulated in human aortic endothelial cells treated with interleukin-1Î² (vs. vehicle), and associated with smooth muscle cell migration in vitro. CONCLUSIONS:A large-scale analysis comprising âˆ¼831Â 000 subjects revealed novel genetic determinants of MI and implicated SLC44A3 in the pathophysiology of vulnerable plaques.
Serum IL-21 levels predict HBeAg decline during rescue therapy in patients with partial response to nucleos(t)ide analogues
To investigate whether IL-21 levels predict treat- ment outcomes of salvage therapy among patients with suboptimal response (SOR) to nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), serum IL-21 levels were measured in a prospective cohort of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients with SOR to antiviral therapy. The patients switched therapy to entecavir (ETV) with or without adefovir (ADV) for 104 weeks. IL-21 levels at treatment week 12 in patients who achieved HBeAg loss with undetectable levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA at week 104 were the primary endpoint and the results were compared with those of corresponding patients without such an endpoint. Furthermore, IL-21 levels at treatment week 12 in patients who achieved an HBeAg-level decline at week 104 were assessed as the secondary endpoint. Among 24 enrolled patients with SOR to ADV (n=21), telbivudine (n=2) or ETV (n=1), the median (10-90th percentile) levels of HBeAg, HBV-DNA and ALT at baseline were 2.7 (0.2-3.1) log10 S/CO, 5.2 (3.5-7.5) log10 IU/ml and 0.9 (0.5-3.1) upper limit of normal, respectively. Comparison of the patients with and without HBeAg loss at week 104 indicated that their mean IL-21 levels did not significantly differ at week 12 (63.0+/-14.4 vs. 55.9+/-10.5 pg/ml; P=0.26). In the secondary endpoint analyses of patients with and without HBeAg level decline, the elevated levels of IL-21 at the first 12 weeks were significantly higher in the decline group (15.6+/-8.3 vs. 3.1+/-13.2 pg/ml; P=0.03). Following adjustment for confounding factors, the elevated levels of IL-21 from baseline to week 12 indepen- dently predicted an HBeAg level decline at week 104 (odds ratio=1.137, R2=0.23; P=0.047). In conclusion, the serum IL-21 levels at the first 12 weeks during the salvage therapy independently predicted HBeAg level decline at treatment week 104 in patients with SOR to NAs (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01829685; date of registration, April 2013).
The clinical course and management of cervical cancer with splenic metastasis: Case report and review of the literature [Case Report]
Adenovirus-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene therapy (ADV-TK) in combination with interventional treatment could relieve the symptoms in patients with widespread splenic metastasis.
Advancing the global public health agenda for NAFLD: a consensus statement
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a potentially serious liver disease that affects approximately one-quarter of the global adult population, causing a substantial burden of ill health with wide-ranging social and economic implications. It is a multisystem disease and is considered the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome. Unlike other highly prevalent conditions, NAFLD has received little attention from the global public health community. Health system and public health responses to NAFLD have been weak and fragmented, and, despite its pervasiveness, NAFLD is largely unknown outside hepatology and gastroenterology. There is only a nascent global public health movement addressing NAFLD, and the disease is absent from nearly all national and international strategies and policies for non-communicable diseases, including obesity. In this global Delphi study, a multidisciplinary group of experts developed consensus statements and recommendations, which a larger group of collaborators reviewed over three rounds until consensus was achieved. The resulting consensus statements and recommendations address a broad range of topics "” from epidemiology, awareness, care and treatment to public health policies and leadership "” that have general relevance for policy-makers, health-care practitioners, civil society groups, research institutions and affected populations. These recommendations should provide a strong foundation for a comprehensive public health response to NAFLD.
The case for simplifying and using absolute targets for viral hepatitis elimination goals
The 69th World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Health Sector Strategy for Viral Hepatitis, embracing a goal to eliminate hepatitis infection as a public health threat by 2030. This was followed by the World Health Organization's (WHO) global targets for the care and management of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. These announcements and targets were important in raising awareness and calling for action; however, tracking countries' progress towards these elimination goals has provided insights to the limitations of these targets. The existing targets compare a country's progress relative to its 2015 values, penalizing countries who started their programmes prior to 2015, countries with a young population, or countries with a low prevalence. We recommend that (1) WHO simplify the hepatitis elimination targets, (2) change to absolute targets and (3) allow countries to achieve these disease targets with their own service coverage initiatives that will have the maximum impact. The recommended targets are as follows: reduce HCV new chronic cases to Ã¢â€°Â¤5 per 100Ã‚ 000, reduce HBV prevalence among 1-year-olds to Ã¢â€°Â¤0.1%, reduce HBV and HCV mortality to Ã¢â€°Â¤5 per 100Ã‚ 000, and demonstrate HBV and HCV year-to-year decrease in new HCV- and HBV-related HCC cases. The objective of our recommendations is not to lower expectations or diminish the hepatitis elimination standards, but to provide clearer targets that recognize the past and current elimination efforts by countries, help measure progress towards true elimination, and motivate other countries to follow suit.
The Characteristics of Natural Killer Cells in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Who Received PEGylated-Interferon versus Entecavir Therapy
Background/UNASSIGNED:To explore the role of natural killer (NK) cells in the process of hepatitis B virus (HBV) clearance and whether their phenotype is related to antiviral treatment outcome in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Method/UNASSIGNED:NK cells and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of receptors NKp46 and IFNAR2 on the surface of NK cells were measured. Subgroup analyses were performed by comparing treatment responders versus nonresponders with aforementioned parameters in each group. Results/UNASSIGNED:NK frequency and IFNAR2 MFI significantly decreased at 12 and 24 weeks from baseline. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:treatment significantly enhanced NK cell frequency and function when compared to entacavir. Positive treatment responses to either interferon or entecavir were associated with NK cell function improvement. This trial is registered with clinical trial registration no. NCT03208998.
Antiviral kinetics of tenofovir alafenamide and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate over 24 weeks in women of childbearing potential with chronic HBV
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) improves patient outcomes in preventing mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in mothers with chronic HBV and high viral loads. Given the lack of data for tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) in pMTCT, rates of early viral suppression with TAF and TDF were evaluated in women of childbearing potential (WOCBP) participating in 2 randomized, double-blind, Phase 3 studies in chronic HBV. METHODS:In a patient subset meeting WOCBP criteria and with baseline HBV DNA >200,000 IU/mL, rates of viral suppression with TAF or TDF in achieving the target of HBV DNA <200,000 IU/mL at weeks 12 and 24 were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors predictive of failure to suppress HBV DNA to the target level. RESULTS:In 275 of 1298 (21%) patients meeting WOCBP criteria with high viral load, 93% and 96% had HBV DNA <200,000 IU/mL at weeks 12 and 24, respectively. Results for TAF (n = 194) vs TDF (n = 81) treatment were similar at weeks 12 and 24 (94% vs. 90% and 97% vs. 93%), respectively. High baseline HBV DNA level, genotype D infection, and prior interferon (week 24 only) were predictive of failure to achieve the target level. Both treatments were well tolerated with TAF showing less impact on renal and bone parameters. CONCLUSIONS:In WOCBP with high VL, no differences were found between TAF and TDF in reducing HBV DNA to levels associated with lower transmission risk. These data support ongoing studies of TAF for pMTCT.
Editorial: tenofovir alafenamide fumarate-a new bullet to prevent mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus. Authors' reply [Editorial]