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Biochemical characterization of two novel mutations in the human high-affinity choline transporter 1 identified in a patient with congenital myasthenic syndrome

Rizvi, Midhat; Truong, Tina K; Zhou, Janet; Batta, Manav; Moran, Ellen S; Pappas, John; Chu, Mary Lynn; Caluseriu, Oana; Evrony, Gilad D; Leslie, Elaine M; Cordat, Emmanuelle
Congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) is a heterogeneous condition associated with 34 different genes, including SLC5A7, which encodes the high affinity choline transporter 1 (CHT1). CHT1 is expressed in presynaptic neurons of the neuromuscular junction where it uses the inward sodium gradient to re-uptake choline. Bi-allelic CHT1 mutations often lead to neonatal lethality, and less commonly to non-lethal motor weakness and developmental delays. Here, we report detailed biochemical characterization of two novel mutations in CHT1, p.I294T and p.D349N, that we identified in an 11 year-old patient with a history of neonatal respiratory distress, and subsequent hypotonia and global developmental delay. Heterologous expression of each CHT1 mutant in human embryonic kidney cells showed two different mechanisms of reduced protein function. The p.I294T CHT1 mutant transporter function was detectable, but its abundance and half-life were significantly reduced. In contrast, the p.D349N CHT1 mutant was abundantly expressed at the cell membrane, but transporter function was absent. The residual function of the p.I294T CHT1 mutant may explain the non-lethal form of CMS in this patient, and the divergent mechanisms of reduced CHT1 function that we identified may guide future functional studies of the CHT1 myasthenic syndrome. Based on these in vitro studies that provided a diagnosis, treatment with cholinesterase inhibitor together with physical and occupational therapy significantly improved the patient's strength and quality of life.
PMID: 36611016
ISSN: 1460-2083
CID: 5433572

Impaired protein hydroxylase activity causes replication stress and developmental abnormalities in humans

Fletcher, Sally C; Hall, Charlotte L; Kennedy, Tristan J; Pajusalu, Sander; Wojcik, Monica H; Boora, Uncaar; Li, Chan; Oja, Kaisa Teele; Hendrix, Eline; Westrip, Christian Ae; Andrijes, Regina; Piasecka, Sonia K; Singh, Mansi; El-Asrag, Mohammed E; Ptasinska, Anetta; Tillmann, Vallo; Higgs, Martin R; Carere, Deanna Alexis; Beggs, Andrew D; Pappas, John; Rabin, Rachel; Smerdon, Stephen J; Stewart, Grant S; Õunap, Katrin; Coleman, Mathew L
Although protein hydroxylation is a relatively poorly characterized post-translational modification, it has received significant recent attention following seminal work uncovering its role in oxygen sensing and hypoxia biology. Although the fundamental importance of protein hydroxylases in biology is becoming clear, the biochemical targets and cellular functions often remain enigmatic. JMJD5 is a 'JmjC-only' protein hydroxylase that is essential for murine embryonic development and viability. However, no germline variants in JmjC-only hydroxylases, including JMJD5, have yet been described that are associated with any human pathology. Here we demonstrate that biallelic germline JMJD5 pathogenic variants are deleterious to JMJD5 mRNA splicing, protein stability, and hydroxylase activity, resulting in a human developmental disorder characterised by severe failure to thrive, intellectual disability, and facial dysmorphism. We show that the underlying cellular phenotype is associated with increased DNA replication stress and that this is critically dependent on the protein hydroxylase activity of JMJD5. This work contributes to our growing understanding of the role and importance of protein hydroxylases in human development and disease.
PMID: 36795492
ISSN: 1558-8238
CID: 5432172

Bi-allelic variants in NAE1 cause intellectual disability, ischiopubic hypoplasia, stress-mediated lymphopenia and neurodegeneration

Muffels, Irena J J; Schene, Imre F; Rehmann, Holger; Massink, Maarten P G; van der Wal, Maria M; Bauder, Corinna; Labeur, Martha; Armando, Natalia G; Lequin, Maarten H; Houben, Michiel L; Giltay, Jaques C; Haitjema, Saskia; Huisman, Albert; Vansenne, Fleur; Bluvstein, Judith; Pappas, John; Shailee, Lala V; Zarate, Yuri A; Mokry, Michal; van Haaften, Gijs W; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Refojo, Damian; van Wijk, Femke; Fuchs, Sabine A; van Hasselt, Peter M
Neddylation has been implicated in various cellular pathways and in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases. We identified four individuals with bi-allelic variants in NAE1, which encodes the neddylation E1 enzyme. Pathogenicity was supported by decreased NAE1 abundance and overlapping clinical and cellular phenotypes. To delineate how cellular consequences of NAE1 deficiency would lead to the clinical phenotype, we focused primarily on the rarest phenotypic features, based on the assumption that these would best reflect the pathophysiology at stake. Two of the rarest features, neuronal loss and lymphopenia worsening during infections, suggest that NAE1 is required during cellular stress caused by infections to protect against cell death. In support, we found that stressing the proteasome system with MG132-requiring upregulation of neddylation to restore proteasomal function and proteasomal stress-led to increased cell death in fibroblasts of individuals with NAE1 genetic variants. Additionally, we found decreased lymphocyte counts after CD3/CD28 stimulation and decreased NF-κB translocation in individuals with NAE1 variants. The rarest phenotypic feature-delayed closure of the ischiopubic rami-correlated with significant downregulation of RUN2X and SOX9 expression in transcriptomic data of fibroblasts. Both genes are involved in the pathophysiology of ischiopubic hypoplasia. Thus, we show that NAE1 plays a major role in (skeletal) development and cellular homeostasis during stress. Our approach suggests that a focus on rare phenotypic features is able to provide significant pathophysiological insights in diseases caused by mutations in genes with pleiotropic effects.
PMID: 36608681
ISSN: 1537-6605
CID: 5400362

Expanding the phenotypic spectrum of COLEC10-Related 3MC syndrome: A glimpse into COLEC10-Related 3MC syndrome in the Ashkenazi Jewish population [Case Report]

Rabin, Rachel; Hirsch, Yoel; Chung, Wendy K; Ekstein, Josef; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Zuckerman, Shachar; Mor-Shaked, Hagar; Meiner, Vardiella; Booth, Kevin T; Pappas, John
Bi-allelic variants in COLEC11 and MASP1 have been associated with 3MC syndrome, a clinical entity made of up four rare autosomal recessive disorders: Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech, and Michels syndromes, characterized by variable expression of facial dysmorphia, cleft lip/palate, postnatal growth deficiency, hearing loss, cognitive impairment, craniosynostosis, radioulnar synostosis, and genital and vesicorenal anomalies. More recently, bi-allelic variants in COLEC10 have been described to be associated with 3MC syndrome. Syndromic features seen in 3MC syndrome are thought to be due to disruption of the chemoattractant properties that influence neural crest cell migration. We identified nine individuals from five families of Ashkenazi Jewish descent with homozygosity of the c.311G > T (p.Gly104Val) variant in COLEC10 and phenotype consistent with 3MC syndrome. Carrier frequency was calculated among 52,278 individuals of Jewish descent. Testing revealed 400 carriers out of 39,750 individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, giving a carrier frequency of 1 in 99 or 1.01%. Molecular protein modeling suggested that the p.Gly104Val substitution alters local conformation. The c.311G > T (p.Gly104Val) variant likely represents a founder variant, and homozygosity is associated with features of 3MC syndrome. 3MC syndrome should be in the differential diagnosis for individuals with short stature, radioulnar synostosis, cleft lip and cleft palate.
PMID: 35943032
ISSN: 1552-4833
CID: 5286812

De Novo ZMYND8 variants result in an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder with cardiac malformations

Dias, Kerith-Rae; Carlston, Colleen M; Blok, Laura E R; De Hayr, Lachlan; Nawaz, Urwah; Evans, Carey-Anne; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Htun, Stephanie; Zhu, Ying; Ma, Alan; Lynch, Sally Ann; Moorwood, Catherine; Stals, Karen; Ellard, Sian; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Friedman, Jennifer; Pappas, John G; Rabin, Rachel; Nowak, Catherine B; Douglas, Jessica; Wilson, Theodore E; Guillen Sacoto, Maria J; Mullegama, Sureni V; Palculict, Timothy Blake; Kirk, Edwin P; Pinner, Jason R; Edwards, Matthew; Montanari, Francesca; Graziano, Claudio; Pippucci, Tommaso; Dingmann, Bri; Glass, Ian; Mefford, Heather C; Shimoji, Takeyoshi; Suzuki, Toshimitsu; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Streff, Haley; Schaaf, Christian P; Slavotinek, Anne M; Voineagu, Irina; Carey, John C; Buckley, Michael F; Schenck, Annette; Harvey, Robert J; Roscioli, Tony
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:ZMYND8 encodes a multidomain protein that serves as a central interactive hub for coordinating critical roles in transcription regulation, chromatin remodeling, regulation of super-enhancers, DNA damage response and tumor suppression. We delineate a novel neurocognitive disorder caused by variants in the ZMYND8 gene. METHODS:An international collaboration, exome sequencing, molecular modeling, yeast two-hybrid assays, analysis of available transcriptomic data and a knockdown Drosophila model were used to characterize the ZMYND8 variants. RESULTS:ZMYND8 variants were identified in 11 unrelated individuals; 10 occurred de novo and one suspected de novo; 2 were truncating, 9 were missense, of which one was recurrent. The disorder is characterized by intellectual disability with variable cardiovascular, ophthalmologic and minor skeletal anomalies. Missense variants in the PWWP domain of ZMYND8 abolish the interaction with Drebrin and missense variants in the MYND domain disrupt the interaction with GATAD2A. ZMYND8 is broadly expressed across cell types in all brain regions and shows highest expression in the early stages of brain development. Neuronal knockdown of the DrosophilaZMYND8 ortholog results in decreased habituation learning, consistent with a role in cognitive function. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We present genomic and functional evidence for disruption of ZMYND8 as a novel etiology of syndromic intellectual disability.
PMID: 35916866
ISSN: 1530-0366
CID: 5287932

Heterozygous variants in CTR9, which encodes a major component of the PAF1 complex, are associated with a neurodevelopmental disorder

Meuwissen, Marije; Verstraeten, Aline; Ranza, Emmanuelle; Iwaszkiewicz, Justyna; Bastiaansen, Maaike; Mateiu, Ligia; Nemegeer, Merlijn; Meester, Josephina A N; Afenjar, Alexandra; Amaral, Michelle; Ballhausen, Diana; Barnett, Sarah; Barth, Magalie; Asselbergh, Bob; Spaas, Katrien; Heeman, Bavo; Bassetti, Jennifer; Blackburn, Patrick; Schaer, Marie; Blanc, Xavier; Zoete, Vincent; Casas, Kari; Courtin, Thomas; Doummar, Diane; Guerry, Frédéric; Keren, Boris; Pappas, John; Rabin, Rachel; Begtrup, Amber; Shinawi, Marwan; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Wagner, Matias; Ziegler, Alban; Schaefer, Elise; Gerard, Benedicte; De Bie, Charlotte I; Holwerda, Sjoerd J B; Abbot, Mary Alice; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Loeys, Bart
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:CTR9 is a subunit of the PAF1 complex (PAF1C) that plays a crucial role in transcription regulation by binding CTR9 to RNA polymerase II. It is involved in transcription-coupled histone modification through promoting H3K4 and H3K36 methylation. We describe the clinical and molecular studies in 13 probands, harboring likely pathogenic CTR9 missense variants, collected through GeneMatcher. METHODS:Exome sequencing was performed in all individuals. CTR9 variants were assessed through 3-dimensional modeling of the activated human transcription complex Pol II-DSIF-PAF-SPT6 and the PAF1/CTR9 complex. H3K4/H3K36 methylation analysis, mitophagy assessment based on tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester perchlorate immunofluorescence, and RNA-sequencing in skin fibroblasts from 4 patients was performed. RESULTS:Common clinical findings were variable degrees of intellectual disability, hypotonia, joint hyperlaxity, speech delay, coordination problems, tremor, and autism spectrum disorder. Mild dysmorphism and cardiac anomalies were less frequent. For 11 CTR9 variants, de novo occurrence was shown. Three-dimensional modeling predicted a likely disruptive effect of the variants on local CTR9 structure and protein interaction. Additional studies in fibroblasts did not unveil the downstream functional consequences of the identified variants. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We describe a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by (mainly) de novo variants in CTR9, likely affecting PAF1C function.
PMID: 35499524
ISSN: 1530-0366
CID: 5215882

De novo mutations in childhood cases of sudden unexplained death that disrupt intracellular Ca2+ regulation

Halvorsen, Matthew; Gould, Laura; Wang, Xiaohan; Grant, Gariel; Moya, Raquel; Rabin, Rachel; Ackerman, Michael J; Tester, David J; Lin, Peter T; Pappas, John G; Maurano, Matthew T; Goldstein, David B; Tsien, Richard W; Devinsky, Orrin
Sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC) is an understudied problem. Whole-exome sequence data from 124 "trios" (decedent child, living parents) was used to test for excessive de novo mutations (DNMs) in genes involved in cardiac arrhythmias, epilepsy, and other disorders. Among decedents, nonsynonymous DNMs were enriched in genes associated with cardiac and seizure disorders relative to controls (odds ratio = 9.76, P = 2.15 × 10-4). We also found evidence for overtransmission of loss-of-function (LoF) or previously reported pathogenic variants in these same genes from heterozygous carrier parents (11 of 14 transmitted, P = 0.03). We identified a total of 11 SUDC proband genotypes (7 de novo, 1 transmitted parental mosaic, 2 transmitted parental heterozygous, and 1 compound heterozygous) as pathogenic and likely contributory to death, a genetic finding in 8.9% of our cohort. Two genes had recurrent missense DNMs, RYR2 and CACNA1C Both RYR2 mutations are pathogenic (P = 1.7 × 10-7) and were previously studied in mouse models. Both CACNA1C mutations lie within a 104-nt exon (P = 1.0 × 10-7) and result in slowed L-type calcium channel inactivation and lower current density. In total, six pathogenic DNMs can alter calcium-related regulation of cardiomyocyte and neuronal excitability at a submembrane junction, suggesting a pathway conferring susceptibility to sudden death. There was a trend for excess LoF mutations in LoF intolerant genes, where ≥1 nonhealthy sample in denovo-db has a similar variant (odds ratio = 6.73, P = 0.02); additional uncharacterized genetic causes of sudden death in children might be discovered with larger cohorts.
PMID: 34930847
ISSN: 1091-6490
CID: 5108732

Expanding the phenotype of ASXL3-related syndrome: A comprehensive description of 45 unpublished individuals with inherited and de novo pathogenic variants in ASXL3

Schirwani, Schaida; Albaba, Shadi; Carere, Deanna Alexis; Guillen Sacoto, Maria J; Milan Zamora, Francisca; Si, Yue; Rabin, Rachel; Pappas, John; Renaud, Deborah L; Hauser, Natalie; Reid, Evan; Blanchet, Patricia; Foulds, Nichola; Dixit, Abhijit; Fisher, Richard; Armstrong, Ruth; Isidor, Bertrand; Cogne, Benjamin; Schrier Vergano, Samantha; Demirdas, Serwet; Dykzeul, Natalie; Cohen, Julie S; Grand, Katheryn; Morel, Dayna; Slavotinek, Anne; Albassam, Hessa F; Naik, Swati; Dean, John; Ragge, Nicola; Cinzia, Costa; Tedesco, Maria Giovanna; Harrison, Rachel E; Bouman, Arjan; Palen, Emily; Challman, Thomas D; Willemsen, Marjolein H; Vogt, Julie; Cunniff, Christopher; Bergstrom, Katherine; Walia, Jagdeep S; Bruel, Ange-Line; Kini, Usha; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Slegesky, Valerie; Meeks, Naomi; Girotto, Paula; Johnson, Diana; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Ockeloen, Charlotte W; Prontera, Paolo; Lynch, Sally Ann; Li, Dong; Graham, John M; Balasubramanian, Meena
The study aimed at widening the clinical and genetic spectrum of ASXL3-related syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder, caused by truncating variants in the ASXL3 gene. In this international collaborative study, we have undertaken a detailed clinical and molecular analysis of 45 previously unpublished individuals with ASXL3-related syndrome, as well as a review of all previously published individuals. We have reviewed the rather limited functional characterization of pathogenic variants in ASXL3 and discuss current understanding of the consequences of the different ASXL3 variants. In this comprehensive analysis of ASXL3-related syndrome, we define its natural history and clinical evolution occurring with age. We report familial ASXL3 pathogenic variants, characterize the phenotype in mildly affected individuals and discuss nonpenetrance. We also discuss the role of missense variants in ASXL3. We delineate a variable but consistent phenotype. The most characteristic features are neurodevelopmental delay with consistently limited speech, significant neuro-behavioral issues, hypotonia, and feeding difficulties. Distinctive features include downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, tubular nose with a prominent nasal bridge, and low-hanging columella. The presented data will inform clinical management of individuals with ASXL3-related syndrome and improve interpretation of new ASXL3 sequence variants.
PMID: 34436830
ISSN: 1552-4833
CID: 5011592

PPP3CA truncating variants clustered in the regulatory domain cause early-onset refractory epilepsy

Panneerselvam, Sugi; Wang, Julia; Zhu, Wenmiao; Dai, Hongzheng; Pappas, John G; Rabin, Rachel; Low, Karen J; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Emrick, Lisa; Xiao, Rui; Xia, Fan; Yang, Yaping; Eng, Christine M; Anderson, Anne; Chau, Vann; Soler-Alfonso, Claudia; Streff, Haley; Lalani, Seema R; Mercimek-Andrews, Saadet; Bi, Weimin
PPP3CA encodes the catalytic subunit of calcineurin, a calcium-calmodulin-regulated serine-threonine phosphatase. Loss-of-function (LoF) variants in the catalytic domain have been associated with epilepsy, while gain-of-function (GoF) variants in the auto-inhibitory domain cause multiple congenital abnormalities. We herein report five new patients with de novo PPP3CA variants. Interestingly, the two frameshift variants in this study and the six truncating variants reported previously are all located within a 26-amino acid region in the regulatory domain (RD). Patients with a truncating variant had more severe earlier onset seizures compared to patients with a LoF missense variant, while autism spectrum disorder was a more frequent feature in the latter. Expression studies of a truncating variant showed apparent RNA expression from the mutant allele, but no detectable mutant protein. Our data suggest that PPP3CA truncating variants clustered in the RD, causing more severe early-onset refractory epilepsy and representing a type of variants distinct from LoF or GoF missense variants.
PMID: 33963760
ISSN: 1399-0004
CID: 4878142

A synonymous variant in MYO15A enriched in the Ashkenazi Jewish population causes autosomal recessive hearing loss due to abnormal splicing

Hirsch, Yoel; Tangshewinsirikul, Chayada; Booth, Kevin T; Azaiez, Hela; Yefet, Devorah; Quint, Adina; Weiden, Tzvi; Brownstein, Zippora; Macarov, Michal; Davidov, Bella; Pappas, John; Rabin, Rachel; Kenna, Margaret A; Oza, Andrea M; Lafferty, Katherine; Amr, Sami S; Rehm, Heidi L; Kolbe, Diana L; Frees, Kathy; Nishimura, Carla; Luo, Minjie; Farra, Chantal; Morton, Cynthia C; Scher, Sholem Y; Ekstein, Josef; Avraham, Karen B; Smith, Richard J H; Shen, Jun
Nonsyndromic hearing loss is genetically heterogeneous. Despite comprehensive genetic testing, many cases remain unsolved because the clinical significance of identified variants is uncertain or because biallelic pathogenic variants are not identified for presumed autosomal recessive cases. Common synonymous variants are often disregarded. Determining the pathogenicity of synonymous variants may improve genetic diagnosis. We report a synonymous variant c.9861 C > T/p.(Gly3287=) in MYO15A in homozygosity or compound heterozygosity with another pathogenic or likely pathogenic MYO15A variant in 10 unrelated families with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. Biallelic variants in MYO15A were identified in 21 affected and were absent in 22 unaffected siblings. A mini-gene assay confirms that the synonymous variant leads to abnormal splicing. The variant is enriched in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Individuals carrying biallelic variants involving c.9861 C > T often exhibit progressive post-lingual hearing loss distinct from the congenital profound deafness typically associated with biallelic loss-of-function MYO15A variants. This study establishes the pathogenicity of the c.9861 C > T variant in MYO15A and expands the phenotypic spectrum of MYO15A-related hearing loss. Our work also highlights the importance of multicenter collaboration and data sharing to establish the pathogenicity of a relatively common synonymous variant for improved diagnosis and management of hearing loss.
PMID: 33398081
ISSN: 1476-5438
CID: 4747522