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Cognitive behavior therapy with Orthodox Jews

Chapter by: Firedman, Steven; Paradis, Cheryl M; Cukor, Daniel
in: Culturally responsive cognitive behavior therapy : practice and supervision by Iwamasa, Gayle; Hays, Pamela A (Eds)
Washington, DC : American Psychological Association, [2019]
pp. ?-?
ISBN: 1433830167paperback
CID: 3634992

Evaluations of Urban Sovereign Citizens' Competency to Stand Trial

Paradis, Cheryl M; Owen, Elizabeth; McCullough, Gene
There are few studies of sovereign citizens undergoing competency-to-stand-trial evaluations and little has been written about African-American or urban sovereign citizens. In this study, we examined competency-to-stand-trial reports of 36 New York City defendants who declared themselves to be sovereign citizens during their evaluations. All were men and 33 were African American. The majority denied recent or remote histories of psychiatric hospitalizations or substance use. Sixty-nine percent were deemed competent. Compared with those deemed competent, those deemed not competent were significantly more likely to have diagnosed psychotic disorders and to have reported histories of psychiatric hospitalizations. The 36 who declared themselves sovereign citizens were compared with 200 who did not, from a study conducted in the same forensic clinic. The sovereign citizens were significantly more likely to be male, African American, and high school graduates and were significantly less likely to report a history of psychiatric hospitalization or substance use. Compared with the nonsovereign citizens, they were less likely to receive a diagnosis of psychotic or mood disorders during the competency evaluation and were more likely to be deemed competent. Included are suggestions to assist forensic examiners conducting evaluations of these difficult cases.
PMID: 30026393
ISSN: 1943-3662
CID: 3633482

Assessment of Intimate Partner Violence and the Battered Woman Syndrome

Paradis, Cheryl
Forensic experts are often retained to conduct an evaluation of the mental state at the time of the offense of women charged with assaulting or killing spouses or partners. Many of these women report histories of intimate partner violence and a cluster of psychiatric/psychological symptoms that researchers have termed the battered woman syndrome (BWS). The clinical picture is similar to posttraumatic stress disorder. Expert testimony on BWS has become more accepted in the legal system during the past 30 years. Testimony can be mitigating and, at times, sufficient for the trier of fact to conclude that the defendant acted in self-defense. This article reviews research on BWS and describes the forensic expert's role in these cases. In addition to assessing mental state at the time of the offense, the expert often dispels myths associated with BWS and describes how each defendant did or did not fit the stereotype of the battered woman.
ISSN: 0048-5713
CID: 3633492

Competency to stand trial evaluations in a multicultural population: Associations between psychiatric, demographic, and legal factors

Paradis, Cheryl M; Owen, Elizabeth; Solomon, Linda Z; Lane, Benjamin; Gulrajani, Chinmoy; Fullar, Michael; Perry, Alan; Rai, Sasha; Lavy, Tamar; McCullough, Gene
Data were examined from an archival sample of Competency to Stand Trial (CST) reports of 200 consecutive New York City pre-trial defendants evaluated over a five-month period. Approximately a fourth of defendants in the present study were immigrants; many required the assistance of interpreters. The examiners conducting the CST evaluation diagnosed approximately half of the defendants with a primary diagnosis of a psychotic disorder and deemed over half not competent. Examiners reached the same conclusion about competency in 96% of cases, about the presence of a psychotic disorder in 91% of cases, and affective disorder in 85% of cases. No significant differences between psychologists and psychiatrists were found for rates of competency/incompetency opinions. Compared to those deemed competent, defendants deemed not competent had significantly higher rates of prior psychiatric hospitalization and diagnosis of psychotic illness at the time of the CST evaluation but lower rates of reported substance abuse.
PMID: 27085728
ISSN: 1873-6386
CID: 3633472

Detection of Cognitive Malingering or Suboptimal Effort in Defendants Undergoing Competency to Stand Trial Evaluations

Paradis, Cheryl M.; Solomon, Linda Z.; Owen, Elizabeth; Brooker, Monica
The present study evaluated the usefulness of two popular tests of cognitive malingering in a real-life forensic setting. Only 25 of 166 defendants referred for competency to stand trial evaluations claimed to have memory problems. Compared with the rest of the defendants, these individuals had a significantly higher incidence of affective disorders and lower incidence of psychotic disorders. Almost half failed both the Rey 15-Item Test (RFT) and the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), and 64% failed one or both. Seven of the eight suspected malingerers diagnosed with psychotic disorders failed both the RFT and TOMM. The incidence of psychotic disorders was significantly higher in those who failed the RFT than those who passed and somewhat higher in those who failed the TOMM than those who passed. The possibility that some defendants scored below the recommended cutoff scores because of intellectual limitations or concentration problems stemming from their psychotic illness is discussed.
ISSN: 1522-8932
CID: 3633502

Two cases of zolpidem-associated homicide

Paradis, Cheryl M; Siegel, Lawrence A; Kleinman, Stuart B
Zolpidem is the most commonly prescribed medication for the short-term treatment of insomnia. Adverse reactions include nightmares, confusion, and memory deficits. Reported rare adverse neuropsychiatric reactions include sensory distortions such as hallucinations. Previous research has identified 4 factors that may place a patient at increased risk of zolpidem-associated psychotic or delirious reactions: (1) concomitant use of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), (2) female gender, (3) advanced age, and (4) zolpidem doses of 10 mg or higher. In this article, 2 cases are presented in which individuals killed their spouses and claimed total or partial amnesia. Neither individual had a history of aggressive behavior. Both had concomitantly taken 10 mg or more of zolpidem in addition to an SSRI (paroxetine).
PMID: 23251862
ISSN: 2155-7772
CID: 3633462

The measure of madness : inside the disturbed and disturbing criminal mind

Paradis, Cheryl
New York : Citadel Press, 2010
Extent: [xv], 272 p. ; 23 cm
ISBN: 0806534168
CID: 3634962

The assessment of the phenomenology of sleep paralysis: the Unusual Sleep Experiences Questionnaire (USEQ)

Paradis, Cheryl; Friedman, Steven; Hinton, Devon E; McNally, Richard J; Solomon, Linda Z; Lyons, Kelly A
Previous research has found a relationship between sleep paralysis (SP) and anxiety states and higher rates have been reported among certain ethnic groups. To advance the cross-cultural study of SP, we developed a brief assessment instrument (which can be self-administered), the Unusual Sleep Experiences Questionnaire (USEQ). In this article, we report on a pilot study with the USEQ in a sample of 208 college students. The instrument was easily understood by the participants, with one quarter reporting at least one lifetime episode of SP. As in previous studies, SP was associated with anxiety (in particular, panic attacks).
PMID: 19691541
ISSN: 1755-5949
CID: 3633452

Tackling college admissions : sanity

Paradis, Cheryl; Siminoff, Faren Rhea
Lanham : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008
Extent: ix, 227 p. ; 23 cm
ISBN: 0742547833
CID: 3634972

Sleep paralysis in African Americans with panic disorder

Paradis, Cheryl M; Friedman, Steven
Studies have reported a wide range in lifetime prevalence of sleep paralysis (SP). This variation may stem from cultural factors, stressful life events and genetic differences in studied populations. We found that recurrent SP was more common among African-American participants, especially those with panic disorder. Recurrent SP was reported by 59% of African Americans with panic disorder, 7% of whites with panic disorder, 23% of African-American community volunteers and 6% of white community volunteers. Significantly more early life stressors were reported by African Americans than whites. Higher levels of psychosocial stressors, including poverty, racism and acculturation, may contribute to the higher rates of SP experienced by African Americans.
PMID: 15881272
ISSN: 1363-4615
CID: 3633832