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(Reg)ulation of hematopoietic lineage fates [Comment]

Sreejit, Gopalkrishna; Park, Christopher Y
PMID: 38236614
ISSN: 1528-0020
CID: 5626682

The Effect of Diet Composition on the Post-operative Outcomes of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Mice

Stevenson, Matthew; Srivastava, Ankita; Nacher, Maria; Hall, Christopher; Palaia, Thomas; Lee, Jenny; Zhao, Chaohui Lisa; Lau, Raymond; Ali, Mohamed A.E.; Park, Christopher Y.; Schlamp, Florencia; Heffron, Sean P.; Fisher, Edward A.; Brathwaite, Collin; Ragolia, Louis
Purpose: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) leads to the improvement of many obesity-associated conditions. The degree to which post-operative macronutrient composition contributes to metabolic improvement after RYGB is understudied. Methods: A mouse model of RYGB was used to examine the effects of diet on the post-operative outcomes of RYGB. Obese mice underwent either Sham or RYGB surgery and were administered either chow or HFD and then monitored for an additional 8 weeks. Results: After RYGB, reductions to body weight, fat mass, and lean mass were similar regardless of diet. RYGB and HFD were independently detrimental to bone mineral density and plasma vitamin D levels. Independent of surgery, HFD accelerated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation and exhibited greater myeloid lineage commitment. Independent of diet, systemic iron deficiency was present after RYGB. In both Sham and RYGB groups, HFD increased energy expenditure. RYGB increased fecal energy loss, and HFD after RYGB increased fecal lipid content. RYGB lowered fasting glucose and liver glycogen levels but HFD had an opposing effect. Indices of insulin sensitivity improved independent of diet. HFD impaired improvements to dyslipidemia, NAFLD, and fibrosis. Conclusion: Post-operative diet plays a significant role in determining the degree to which RYGB reverses obesity-induced metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and NAFLD. Diet composition may be targeted in order to assist in the treatment of post-RYGB bone mineral density loss and vitamin D deficiency as well as to reverse myeloid lineage commitment. HFD after RYGB continues to pose a significant multidimensional health risk. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
ISSN: 0960-8923
CID: 5630102

Correction: The Effect of Diet Composition on the Post-operative Outcomes of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Mice (Obesity Surgery, (2024), 10.1007/s11695-023-07052-w)

Stevenson, Matthew; Srivastava, Ankita; Nacher, Maria; Hall, Christopher; Palaia, Thomas; Lee, Jenny; Zhao, Chaohui Lisa; Lau, Raymond; Ali, Mohamed A.E.; Park, Christopher Y.; Schlamp, Florencia; Heffron, Sean P.; Fisher, Edward A.; Brathwaite, Collin; Ragolia, Louis
The original article has been corrected to replace the Electronic Supplemental Material.
ISSN: 0960-8923
CID: 5629732

The expression profile and tumorigenic mechanisms of CD97 (ADGRE5) in glioblastoma render it a targetable vulnerability

Ravn-Boess, Niklas; Roy, Nainita; Hattori, Takamitsu; Bready, Devin; Donaldson, Hayley; Lawson, Christopher; Lapierre, Cathryn; Korman, Aryeh; Rodrick, Tori; Liu, Enze; Frenster, Joshua D; Stephan, Gabriele; Wilcox, Jordan; Corrado, Alexis D; Cai, Julia; Ronnen, Rebecca; Wang, Shuai; Haddock, Sara; Sabio Ortiz, Jonathan; Mishkit, Orin; Khodadadi-Jamayran, Alireza; Tsirigos, Aris; Fenyö, David; Zagzag, David; Drube, Julia; Hoffmann, Carsten; Perna, Fabiana; Jones, Drew R; Possemato, Richard; Koide, Akiko; Koide, Shohei; Park, Christopher Y; Placantonakis, Dimitris G
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy. Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) have attracted interest for their potential as treatment targets. Here, we show that CD97 (ADGRE5) is the most promising aGPCR target in GBM, by virtue of its de novo expression compared to healthy brain tissue. CD97 knockdown or knockout significantly reduces the tumor initiation capacity of patient-derived GBM cultures (PDGCs) in vitro and in vivo. We find that CD97 promotes glycolytic metabolism via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which depends on phosphorylation of its C terminus and recruitment of β-arrestin. We also demonstrate that THY1/CD90 is a likely CD97 ligand in GBM. Lastly, we show that an anti-CD97 antibody-drug conjugate selectively kills tumor cells in vitro. Our studies identify CD97 as a regulator of tumor metabolism, elucidate mechanisms of receptor activation and signaling, and provide strong scientific rationale for developing biologics to target it therapeutically in GBM.
PMID: 37938973
ISSN: 2211-1247
CID: 5590372

Loss of Notch signaling in skeletal stem cells enhances bone formation with aging

Remark, Lindsey H; Leclerc, Kevin; Ramsukh, Malissa; Lin, Ziyan; Lee, Sooyeon; Dharmalingam, Backialakshmi; Gillinov, Lauren; Nayak, Vasudev V; El Parente, Paulo; Sambon, Margaux; Atria, Pablo J; Ali, Mohamed A E; Witek, Lukasz; Castillo, Alesha B; Park, Christopher Y; Adams, Ralf H; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Morgani, Sophie M; Leucht, Philipp
Skeletal stem and progenitor cells (SSPCs) perform bone maintenance and repair. With age, they produce fewer osteoblasts and more adipocytes leading to a loss of skeletal integrity. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this detrimental transformation are largely unknown. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed that Notch signaling becomes elevated in SSPCs during aging. To examine the role of increased Notch activity, we deleted Nicastrin, an essential Notch pathway component, in SSPCs in vivo. Middle-aged conditional knockout mice displayed elevated SSPC osteo-lineage gene expression, increased trabecular bone mass, reduced bone marrow adiposity, and enhanced bone repair. Thus, Notch regulates SSPC cell fate decisions, and moderating Notch signaling ameliorates the skeletal aging phenotype, increasing bone mass even beyond that of young mice. Finally, we identified the transcription factor Ebf3 as a downstream mediator of Notch signaling in SSPCs that is dysregulated with aging, highlighting it as a promising therapeutic target to rejuvenate the aged skeleton.
PMID: 37752132
ISSN: 2095-4700
CID: 5608842

IL-34: a novel differentiation therapy for AML? [Comment]

Roy, Nainita; Park, Christopher Y
PMID: 37383007
ISSN: 1528-0020
CID: 5538702

Mitotic CDK1 and 4E-BP1 I: Loss of 4E-BP1 serine 82 phosphorylation promotes proliferative polycystic disease and lymphoma in aged or sublethally irradiated mice

Sun, Rui; Guo, Siying; Shuda, Yoko; Chakka, Anish B; Rigatti, Lora H; Zhao, Guangyi; Ali, Mohammed A E; Park, Christopher Y; Chandran, Uma; Yu, Jian; Bakkenist, Christopher J; Shuda, Masahiro; Moore, Patrick S; Chang, Yuan
4E-BP1 is a tumor suppressor regulating cap-dependent translation that is in turn controlled by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) or cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) phosphorylation. 4E-BP1 serine 82 (S82) is phosphorylated by CDK1, but not mTOR, and the consequences of this mitosis-specific phosphorylation are unknown. Knock-in mice were generated with a single 4E-BP1 S82 alanine (S82A) substitution leaving other phosphorylation sites intact. S82A mice were fertile and exhibited no gross developmental or behavioral abnormalities, but the homozygotes developed diffuse and severe polycystic liver and kidney disease with aging, and lymphoid malignancies after irradiation. Sublethal irradiation caused immature T-cell lymphoma only in S82A mice while S82A homozygous mice have normal T-cell hematopoiesis before irradiation. Whole genome sequencing identified PTEN mutations in S82A lymphoma and impaired PTEN expression was verified in S82A lymphomas derived cell lines. Our study suggests that the absence of 4E-BP1S82 phosphorylation, a subtle change in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, might predispose to polycystic proliferative disease and lymphoma under certain stressful circumstances, such as aging and irradiation.
PMID: 37145994
ISSN: 1932-6203
CID: 5503162

Pathogenic Mechanisms in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Chakraborty, Sohini; Park, Christopher Y
OPINION STATEMENT/UNASSIGNED:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common form of leukemia in adults, leading to the highest number of annual leukemia-associated deaths in the USA. Although most AML patients initially enter remission following induction therapy, most eventually relapse, underscoring the unmet need for more effective therapies. In recent years, novel high-throughput sequencing techniques, and mouse and human models of disease have increased our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to AML. Leukemogenic mechanisms can be broadly classified into two types-cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic. Cell-intrinsic mechanisms include an array of genetic and epigenetic alterations that lead to dysregulated gene expression and function in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, leading to their increased fitness and ultimately, malignant transformation. Extrinsic mechanisms include both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic stromal components of the leukemic microenvironment that interact with pre-leukemic and leukemic clones to promote their survival, self-renewal, and/or resistance to therapy. Through the individual and concerted action of these factors, pre-leukemic clones acquire the changes necessary for leukemic transformation. In addition, following therapy, specific leukemic clones are selected for that eventually re-initiate disease. Improving our understanding of these cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic mechanisms will provide novel opportunities to treat AML as well as prevent the development of disease.
PMID: 36190670
ISSN: 1534-6277
CID: 5351362

Connecting the dots: lenalidomide and t-MNs

Chakraborty, Sohini; Park, Christopher Y
PMID: 36264593
ISSN: 1528-0020
CID: 5352482

Translational regulation of TFH cell differentiation and autoimmune pathogenesis

Patel, Preeyam S; Pérez-Baos, Sandra; Walters, Beth; Orlen, Margo; Volkova, Angelina; Ruggles, Kelly; Park, Christopher Y; Schneider, Robert J
Little is known regarding T cell translational regulation. We demonstrate that T follicular helper (TFH) cells use a previously unknown mechanism of selective messenger RNA (mRNA) translation for their differentiation, role in B cell maturation, and in autoimmune pathogenesis. We show that TFH cells have much higher levels of translation factor eIF4E than non-TFH CD4+ T cells, which is essential for translation of TFH cell fate-specification mRNAs. Genome-wide translation studies indicate that modest down-regulation of eIF4E activity by a small-molecule inhibitor or short hairpin RN impairs TFH cell development and function. In mice, down-regulation of eIF4E activity specifically reduces TFH cells among T helper subtypes, germinal centers, B cell recruitment, and antibody production. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, eIF4E activity down-regulation blocks TFH cell participation in disease pathogenesis while promoting rapid remission and spinal cord remyelination. TFH cell development and its role in autoimmune pathogenesis involve selective mRNA translation that is highly druggable.
PMID: 35749506
ISSN: 2375-2548
CID: 5278122