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Cerebral oximetry: a developing tool for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Huppert, Elise L; Parnia, Sam
Despite improvements in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), survival and neurologic recovery after cardiac arrest remain very poor because of the impact of severe ischemia and subsequent reperfusion injury. As the likelihood of survival and favorable neurologic outcome decreases with increasing severity of ischemia during CPR, developing methods to measure the magnitude of ischemia during resuscitation, particularly cerebral ischemia, is critical for improving overall outcomes. Cerebral oximetry, which measures regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 ) by near-infrared spectroscopy, has emerged as a potentially beneficial marker of cerebral ischemia during CPR. In numerous preclinical and clinical studies, higher rSO2 during CPR has been associated with improved cardiac arrest survival and neurologic outcome. In this narrative review, we summarize the scientific rationale and validation of cerebral oximetry across populations and pathophysiologic states, discuss the evidence surrounding its use to predict return of spontaneous circulation, rearrest, and neurologic outcome, and provide suggestions for incorporation of cerebral oximetry into CPR practice.
PMID: 34780070
ISSN: 1749-6632
CID: 5048952

Therapeutic Anticoagulation with Heparin in Critically Ill Patients with Covid-19

Goligher, Ewan C; Bradbury, Charlotte A; McVerry, Bryan J; Lawler, Patrick R; Berger, Jeffrey S; Gong, Michelle N; Carrier, Marc; Reynolds, Harmony R; Kumar, Anand; Turgeon, Alexis F; Kornblith, Lucy Z; Kahn, Susan R; Marshall, John C; Kim, Keri S; Houston, Brett L; Derde, Lennie P G; Cushman, Mary; Tritschler, Tobias; Angus, Derek C; Godoy, Lucas C; McQuilten, Zoe; Kirwan, Bridget-Anne; Farkouh, Michael E; Brooks, Maria M; Lewis, Roger J; Berry, Lindsay R; Lorenzi, Elizabeth; Gordon, Anthony C; Ahuja, Tania; Al-Beidh, Farah; Annane, Djillali; Arabi, Yaseen M; Aryal, Diptesh; Baumann Kreuziger, Lisa; Beane, Abi; Bhimani, Zahra; Bihari, Shailesh; Billett, Henny H; Bond, Lindsay; Bonten, Marc; Brunkhorst, Frank; Buxton, Meredith; Buzgau, Adrian; Castellucci, Lana A; Chekuri, Sweta; Chen, Jen-Ting; Cheng, Allen C; Chkhikvadze, Tamta; Coiffard, Benjamin; Contreras, Aira; Costantini, Todd W; de Brouwer, Sophie; Detry, Michelle A; Duggal, Abhijit; Džavík, Vladimír; Effron, Mark B; Eng, Heather F; Escobedo, Jorge; Estcourt, Lise J; Everett, Brendan M; Fergusson, Dean A; Fitzgerald, Mark; Fowler, Robert A; Froess, Joshua D; Fu, Zhuxuan; Galanaud, Jean P; Galen, Benjamin T; Gandotra, Sheetal; Girard, Timothy D; Goodman, Andrew L; Goossens, Herman; Green, Cameron; Greenstein, Yonatan Y; Gross, Peter L; Haniffa, Rashan; Hegde, Sheila M; Hendrickson, Carolyn M; Higgins, Alisa M; Hindenburg, Alexander A; Hope, Aluko A; Horowitz, James M; Horvat, Christopher M; Huang, David T; Hudock, Kristin; Hunt, Beverley J; Husain, Mansoor; Hyzy, Robert C; Jacobson, Jeffrey R; Jayakumar, Devachandran; Keller, Norma M; Khan, Akram; Kim, Yuri; Kindzelski, Andrei; King, Andrew J; Knudson, M Margaret; Kornblith, Aaron E; Kutcher, Matthew E; Laffan, Michael A; Lamontagne, Francois; Le Gal, Grégoire; Leeper, Christine M; Leifer, Eric S; Lim, George; Gallego Lima, Felipe; Linstrum, Kelsey; Litton, Edward; Lopez-Sendon, Jose; Lother, Sylvain A; Marten, Nicole; Saud Marinez, Andréa; Martinez, Mary; Mateos Garcia, Eduardo; Mavromichalis, Stavroula; McAuley, Daniel F; McDonald, Emily G; McGlothlin, Anna; McGuinness, Shay P; Middeldorp, Saskia; Montgomery, Stephanie K; Mouncey, Paul R; Murthy, Srinivas; Nair, Girish B; Nair, Rahul; Nichol, Alistair D; Nicolau, Jose C; Nunez-Garcia, Brenda; Park, John J; Park, Pauline K; Parke, Rachael L; Parker, Jane C; Parnia, Sam; Paul, Jonathan D; Pompilio, Mauricio; Quigley, John G; Rosenson, Robert S; Rost, Natalia S; Rowan, Kathryn; Santos, Fernanda O; Santos, Marlene; Santos, Mayler O; Satterwhite, Lewis; Saunders, Christina T; Schreiber, Jake; Schutgens, Roger E G; Seymour, Christopher W; Siegal, Deborah M; Silva, Delcio G; Singhal, Aneesh B; Slutsky, Arthur S; Solvason, Dayna; Stanworth, Simon J; Turner, Anne M; van Bentum-Puijk, Wilma; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; van Diepen, Sean; Vazquez-Grande, Gloria; Wahid, Lana; Wareham, Vanessa; Widmer, R Jay; Wilson, Jennifer G; Yuriditsky, Eugene; Zhong, Yongqi; Berry, Scott M; McArthur, Colin J; Neal, Matthew D; Hochman, Judith S; Webb, Steven A; Zarychanski, Ryan
BACKGROUND:Thrombosis and inflammation may contribute to morbidity and mortality among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We hypothesized that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation would improve outcomes in critically ill patients with Covid-19. METHODS:In an open-label, adaptive, multiplatform, randomized clinical trial, critically ill patients with severe Covid-19 were randomly assigned to a pragmatically defined regimen of either therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin or pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis in accordance with local usual care. The primary outcome was organ support-free days, evaluated on an ordinal scale that combined in-hospital death (assigned a value of -1) and the number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support up to day 21 among patients who survived to hospital discharge. RESULTS:The trial was stopped when the prespecified criterion for futility was met for therapeutic-dose anticoagulation. Data on the primary outcome were available for 1098 patients (534 assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and 564 assigned to usual-care thromboprophylaxis). The median value for organ support-free days was 1 (interquartile range, -1 to 16) among the patients assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and was 4 (interquartile range, -1 to 16) among the patients assigned to usual-care thromboprophylaxis (adjusted proportional odds ratio, 0.83; 95% credible interval, 0.67 to 1.03; posterior probability of futility [defined as an odds ratio <1.2], 99.9%). The percentage of patients who survived to hospital discharge was similar in the two groups (62.7% and 64.5%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, 0.84; 95% credible interval, 0.64 to 1.11). Major bleeding occurred in 3.8% of the patients assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and in 2.3% of those assigned to usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS:In critically ill patients with Covid-19, an initial strategy of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin did not result in a greater probability of survival to hospital discharge or a greater number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support than did usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. (REMAP-CAP, ACTIV-4a, and ATTACC ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02735707, NCT04505774, NCT04359277, and NCT04372589.).
PMCID:8362592
PMID: 34351722
ISSN: 1533-4406
CID: 4980752

Therapeutic Anticoagulation with Heparin in Noncritically Ill Patients with Covid-19

Lawler, Patrick R; Goligher, Ewan C; Berger, Jeffrey S; Neal, Matthew D; McVerry, Bryan J; Nicolau, Jose C; Gong, Michelle N; Carrier, Marc; Rosenson, Robert S; Reynolds, Harmony R; Turgeon, Alexis F; Escobedo, Jorge; Huang, David T; Bradbury, Charlotte A; Houston, Brett L; Kornblith, Lucy Z; Kumar, Anand; Kahn, Susan R; Cushman, Mary; McQuilten, Zoe; Slutsky, Arthur S; Kim, Keri S; Gordon, Anthony C; Kirwan, Bridget-Anne; Brooks, Maria M; Higgins, Alisa M; Lewis, Roger J; Lorenzi, Elizabeth; Berry, Scott M; Berry, Lindsay R; Aday, Aaron W; Al-Beidh, Farah; Annane, Djillali; Arabi, Yaseen M; Aryal, Diptesh; Baumann Kreuziger, Lisa; Beane, Abi; Bhimani, Zahra; Bihari, Shailesh; Billett, Henny H; Bond, Lindsay; Bonten, Marc; Brunkhorst, Frank; Buxton, Meredith; Buzgau, Adrian; Castellucci, Lana A; Chekuri, Sweta; Chen, Jen-Ting; Cheng, Allen C; Chkhikvadze, Tamta; Coiffard, Benjamin; Costantini, Todd W; de Brouwer, Sophie; Derde, Lennie P G; Detry, Michelle A; Duggal, Abhijit; Džavík, Vladimír; Effron, Mark B; Estcourt, Lise J; Everett, Brendan M; Fergusson, Dean A; Fitzgerald, Mark; Fowler, Robert A; Galanaud, Jean P; Galen, Benjamin T; Gandotra, Sheetal; García-Madrona, Sebastian; Girard, Timothy D; Godoy, Lucas C; Goodman, Andrew L; Goossens, Herman; Green, Cameron; Greenstein, Yonatan Y; Gross, Peter L; Hamburg, Naomi M; Haniffa, Rashan; Hanna, George; Hanna, Nicholas; Hegde, Sheila M; Hendrickson, Carolyn M; Hite, R Duncan; Hindenburg, Alexander A; Hope, Aluko A; Horowitz, James M; Horvat, Christopher M; Hudock, Kristin; Hunt, Beverley J; Husain, Mansoor; Hyzy, Robert C; Iyer, Vivek N; Jacobson, Jeffrey R; Jayakumar, Devachandran; Keller, Norma M; Khan, Akram; Kim, Yuri; Kindzelski, Andrei L; King, Andrew J; Knudson, M Margaret; Kornblith, Aaron E; Krishnan, Vidya; Kutcher, Matthew E; Laffan, Michael A; Lamontagne, Francois; Le Gal, Grégoire; Leeper, Christine M; Leifer, Eric S; Lim, George; Lima, Felipe Gallego; Linstrum, Kelsey; Litton, Edward; Lopez-Sendon, Jose; Lopez-Sendon Moreno, Jose L; Lother, Sylvain A; Malhotra, Saurabh; Marcos, Miguel; Saud Marinez, Andréa; Marshall, John C; Marten, Nicole; Matthay, Michael A; McAuley, Daniel F; McDonald, Emily G; McGlothlin, Anna; McGuinness, Shay P; Middeldorp, Saskia; Montgomery, Stephanie K; Moore, Steven C; Morillo Guerrero, Raquel; Mouncey, Paul R; Murthy, Srinivas; Nair, Girish B; Nair, Rahul; Nichol, Alistair D; Nunez-Garcia, Brenda; Pandey, Ambarish; Park, Pauline K; Parke, Rachael L; Parker, Jane C; Parnia, Sam; Paul, Jonathan D; Pérez González, Yessica S; Pompilio, Mauricio; Prekker, Matthew E; Quigley, John G; Rost, Natalia S; Rowan, Kathryn; Santos, Fernanda O; Santos, Marlene; Olombrada Santos, Mayler; Satterwhite, Lewis; Saunders, Christina T; Schutgens, Roger E G; Seymour, Christopher W; Siegal, Deborah M; Silva, Delcio G; Shankar-Hari, Manu; Sheehan, John P; Singhal, Aneesh B; Solvason, Dayna; Stanworth, Simon J; Tritschler, Tobias; Turner, Anne M; van Bentum-Puijk, Wilma; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; van Diepen, Sean; Vazquez-Grande, Gloria; Wahid, Lana; Wareham, Vanessa; Wells, Bryan J; Widmer, R Jay; Wilson, Jennifer G; Yuriditsky, Eugene; Zampieri, Fernando G; Angus, Derek C; McArthur, Colin J; Webb, Steven A; Farkouh, Michael E; Hochman, Judith S; Zarychanski, Ryan
BACKGROUND:Thrombosis and inflammation may contribute to the risk of death and complications among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We hypothesized that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation may improve outcomes in noncritically ill patients who are hospitalized with Covid-19. METHODS:In this open-label, adaptive, multiplatform, controlled trial, we randomly assigned patients who were hospitalized with Covid-19 and who were not critically ill (which was defined as an absence of critical care-level organ support at enrollment) to receive pragmatically defined regimens of either therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin or usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. The primary outcome was organ support-free days, evaluated on an ordinal scale that combined in-hospital death (assigned a value of -1) and the number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support up to day 21 among patients who survived to hospital discharge. This outcome was evaluated with the use of a Bayesian statistical model for all patients and according to the baseline d-dimer level. RESULTS:The trial was stopped when prespecified criteria for the superiority of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation were met. Among 2219 patients in the final analysis, the probability that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation increased organ support-free days as compared with usual-care thromboprophylaxis was 98.6% (adjusted odds ratio, 1.27; 95% credible interval, 1.03 to 1.58). The adjusted absolute between-group difference in survival until hospital discharge without organ support favoring therapeutic-dose anticoagulation was 4.0 percentage points (95% credible interval, 0.5 to 7.2). The final probability of the superiority of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation over usual-care thromboprophylaxis was 97.3% in the high d-dimer cohort, 92.9% in the low d-dimer cohort, and 97.3% in the unknown d-dimer cohort. Major bleeding occurred in 1.9% of the patients receiving therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and in 0.9% of those receiving thromboprophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS:In noncritically ill patients with Covid-19, an initial strategy of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin increased the probability of survival to hospital discharge with reduced use of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support as compared with usual-care thromboprophylaxis. (ATTACC, ACTIV-4a, and REMAP-CAP ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT04372589, NCT04505774, NCT04359277, and NCT02735707.).
PMCID:8362594
PMID: 34351721
ISSN: 1533-4406
CID: 4996262

Outcomes among Hospitalized Chronic Kidney Disease Patients with COVID-19

Khatri, Minesh; Charytan, David M; Parnia, Sam; Petrilli, Christopher M; Michael, Jeffrey; Liu, David; Tatapudi, Vasishta; Jones, Simon; Benstein, Judith; Horwitz, Leora I
ORIGINAL:0015230
ISSN: 2641-7650
CID: 4966642

Low-Dose Tocilizumab With High-Dose Corticosteroids in Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19 Hypoxic Respiratory Failure Improves Mortality Without Increased Infection Risk

Brosnahan, Shari B; Chen, Xian Jie Cindy; Chung, Juri; Altshuler, Diana; Islam, Shahidul; Thomas, Sarun V; Winner, Megan D; Greco, Allison A; Divers, Jasmin; Spiegler, Peter; Sterman, Daniel H; Parnia, Sam
BACKGROUND:Severe hypoxic respiratory failure from COVID-19 pneumonia carries a high mortality risk. There is uncertainty surrounding which patients benefit from corticosteroids in combination with tocilizumab and the dosage and timing of these agents. The balance of controlling inflammation without increasing the risk of secondary infection is difficult. At present, dexamethasone 6 mg is the standard of care in COVID-19 hypoxia; whether this is the ideal choice of steroid or dosage remains to be proven. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The primary objective was to assess the impact on mortality of tocilizumab only, corticosteroids only, and combination therapy in patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure. METHODS:A multihospital, retrospective study of adult patients with severe respiratory failure from COVID-19 who received supportive therapy, corticosteroids, tocilizumab, or combination therapy were assessed for 28-day mortality, biomarker improvement, and relative risk of infection. Propensity-matched analysis was performed between corticosteroid alone and combination therapies to further assess mortality benefit. RESULTS:= 0.005] without increasing the risk of infection. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE/UNASSIGNED:Combination of tocilizumab and corticosteroids was associated with improved 28-day survival when compared with corticosteroids alone. Modification of steroid dosing strategy as well as steroid type may further optimize therapeutic effect of the COVID-19 treatment.
PMID: 34180274
ISSN: 1542-6270
CID: 4926192

A proposed classification for CPR-related cognitive activity, consciousness, awareness and recall [Letter]

West, Rebecca L; Otto, Quentin; Parnia, Sam; Soar, Jasmeet
PMID: 34146621
ISSN: 1873-1570
CID: 4917952

Pharmacologic neuroprotection in ischemic brain injury after cardiac arrest

Katz, Alyson; Brosnahan, Shari B; Papadopoulos, John; Parnia, Sam; Lam, Jason Q
Cardiac arrest has many implications for morbidity and mortality. Few interventions have been shown to improve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and long-term outcomes after cardiac arrest. Ischemic-reperfusion injury upon achieving ROSC creates an imbalance between oxygen supply and demand. Multiple events occur in the postcardiac arrest period, including excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress and inflammation, all of which contribute to ongoing brain injury and cellular death. Given that complex pathophysiology underlies global brain hypoxic ischemia, neuroprotective strategies targeting multiple stages of the neuropathologic cascade should be considered as a means of mitigating secondary neuronal injury and improving neurologic outcomes and survival in cardiac arrest victims. In this review article, we discuss a number of different pharmacologic agents that may have a potential role in targeting these injurious pathways following cardiac arrest. Pharmacologic therapies most relevant for discussion currently include memantine, perampanel, magnesium, propofol, thiamine, methylene blue, vitamin C, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10 , minocycline, steroids, and aspirin.
PMID: 34060087
ISSN: 1749-6632
CID: 4891152

Decreasing Incidence of AKI in Patients with COVID-19 critical illness in New York City

Charytan, David M; Parnia, Sam; Khatri, Minesh; Petrilli, Christopher M; Jones, Simon; Benstein, Judith; Horwitz, Leora I
Introduction/UNASSIGNED:Reports from the United States suggest that acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently complicates COVID-19, but understanding of AKI risks and outcomes is incomplete. Additionally, whether kidney outcomes have evolved during the course of the pandemic is unknown. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We used electronic records to identify COVID-19 patients with and without AKI admitted to 3 New York Hospitals between March 2 and August 25, 2020. Outcomes included AKI overall and according to admission week, AKI stage, the requirement for new renal replacement therapy (RRT), mortality and recovery of kidney function. Logistic regression was utilized to assess associations of patient characteristics and outcomes. Results/UNASSIGNED:Out of 4732 admissions 1386 (29.3%) patients had AKI. Among those with AKI, 717 (51.7%) had Stage 1, 132 (9.5%) Stage 2, 537 (38.7%) stage 3, and 237 (17.1%) required RRT initiation. In March 536/1648 (32.5%) of patients developed AKI compared with 15/87 (17.2%) in August (P<0.001 for monthly trend) whereas RRT initiation was required in 6.9% and 0% of admission, in March and August respectively. Mortality was higher with than without AKI (51.6% vs 8.6%) and was 71.9% in individuals requiring RRT. However, most patients with AKI who survived hospitalization (77%) recovered to within 0.3 mg/dL of baseline creatinine. Among those surviving to discharge, 62% discontinued RRT. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:AKI impacts a high proportion of admitted COVID-19 patients and is associated with high mortality, particularly when RRT is required. AKI incidence appears to be decreasing over time and kidney function frequently recovers in those who survive.
PMCID:7857986
PMID: 33558853
ISSN: 2468-0249
CID: 4779502

The impact of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on cerebral oxygen delivery during cardiac arrest: a case series [Case Report]

Roellke, Emma; Parnia, Sam; Patel, Jignesh; Friedman, Steven; Mengotto, Amanda
Aim/UNASSIGNED:To describe the impact of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) assisted CPR (E-CPR) on cerebral oxygen delivery during in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). Methods/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective case series from a tertiary academic medical center. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) was measured continuously using cerebral oximetry in six patients who experienced IHCA. During CPR, the time of E-CPR initiation was recorded, and rSO2 values were subsequently analyzed for a period beginning 5 min before and ending 2.5 min after the initiation of E-CPR. Results/UNASSIGNED:value in the 2.5 min period following E-CPR initiation increased by 20.8% as compared to the 5-min period before E-CPR initiation. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:ECMO can be employed in parallel with cerebral rSO2 monitoring during CPR for adult IHCA patients. E-CPR is associated with rapid and significant increases in brain oxygen delivery.
PMCID:8244461
PMID: 34223338
ISSN: 2666-5204
CID: 4932922

Association of Post-Resuscitation Inflammatory Response with Favorable Neurologic Outcomes in Adults with In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Patel, Jignesh K; Sinha, Niraj; Hou, Wei; Shah, Rian; Qadeer, Asem; Tran, Linh; Parikh, Puja B; Parnia, Sam
BACKGROUND:Early prediction of mortality in adults after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) remains vital to optimizing treatment strategies. Inflammatory cytokines specific to early prognostication in this population have not been well studied. We evaluated whether novel inflammatory cytokines obtained from adults with IHCA helped predict favorable neurologic outcome. METHODS:The study population included adults with IHCA who underwent ACLS-guided resuscitation between March 2014 and May 2019 at an academic tertiary medical center. Peripheral blood samples were obtained within 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of IHCA and analysis of 15 cytokines were performed. The primary outcome of interest was presence of favorable neurologic outcome at hospital discharge, defined as a Glasgow Outcome Score of 4 or 5. RESULTS:Of the 105 adults with IHCA studied, 27 (25.7%) were noted to have survival with a favorable neurologic outcome while 78 (74.3%) did not. Patients who survived with favorable neurologic outcome were more often men (88.9% vs 61.5%, p = 0.008) and had higher rates of ventricular tachyarrhythmias as their initial rhythm (34.6% vs 11.7%, p = 0.018). Levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-R1 within 6 or 24 hours were significantly lower in patients with favorable neurologic outcome compared with those who had unfavorable neurologic outcome. In multivariable analysis, IL-10 levels within 6 hours was the only independent predictor of favorable neurologic outcomes [odds ratio (OR) 0.895, 95% confidence interval 0.805-0.996, p = 0.041]. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this contemporary observational study of adults with IHCA receiving ACLS-guided resuscitative and post-resuscitative care, inflammatory cytokines specific to early prognostication in adults with IHCA exist. Further larger scale studies examining the association of these inflammatory cytokines with prognosis are warranted.
PMID: 33385467
ISSN: 1873-1570
CID: 4731992