Congenital absence of the left atrial appendage [Case Report]
Intramyocardial Fat in Family With Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2E Cardiomyopathy and Sudden Cardiac Death [Case Report]
Predictors of Late Mortality in D-Transposition of the Great Arteries After Atrial Switch Repair: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background Existing data on predictors of late mortality and prevention of sudden cardiac death after atrial switch repair surgery for D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) are heterogeneous and limited by statistical power. Methods and Results We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 29 observational studies, comprising 5035 patients, that reported mortality after atrial switch repair with a minimum follow-up of 10Â years. We also examined 4 additional studies comprising 105 patients who reported rates of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in this population. Average survival dropped to 65% at 40Â years after atrial switch repair, with sudden cardiac death accounting for 45% of all reported deaths. Mortality was significantly lower in cohorts that were more recent and operated on younger patients. Patient-level risk factors for late mortality were history of supraventricular tachycardia (odds ratio [OR] 3.8, 95% CI 1.4-10.7), Mustard procedure compared with Senning (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9-4.5) and complex D-TGA compared with simple D-TGA (OR 4.4, 95% CI 2.2-8.8). Significant risk factors for sudden cardiac death were history of supraventricular tachycardia (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.2-9.8), Mustard procedure (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.1), and complex D-TGA (OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.8-18.0). Out of a total 124 implantable cardioverter-defibrillator discharges over 330 patient-years in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for primary prevention, only 8% were appropriate. Conclusions Patient-level risk of both mortality and sudden cardiac death after atrial switch repair are significantly increased by history of supraventricular tachycardia, Mustard procedure, and complex D-TGA. This knowledge may help refine current selection practices for primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation, given disproportionately high rates of inappropriate discharges.
Gender Differences in In-Hospital Outcomes After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
Women historically have a greater risk of operative mortality than men after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). There is paucity of contemporary data in gender outcomes of surgical revascularization and understanding modifiable factors that contribute to gender differences are critical for quality improvement and practice change. We, therefore, sought to examine whether the gender gap in CABG outcomes is closing in the contemporary era by conducting a retrospective analysis from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2003 to 2012. We included all patients who underwent isolated CABG surgery (nÂ =Â 2,272,998; female nÂ = 623,423 [27.4%]; male nÂ = 1,649,575 [72.6%]). The annual rate of CABG surgeries decreased by 53.7% in men and 57.8% in women over the 10-year study period. Although internal mammary artery use in women was less frequent than in men in 2003 (77.4% vs 81.9%, p <0.001), a significant uptrend closed this gap by 2012 (86.2% vs 87.0%, ptrend 0.003). Overall, unadjusted in-hospital mortality was greater in women (3.2%Â vs 1.8%, p <0.001). Female gender remained an independent predictor of mortality after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio 1.40, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.43, p <0.001) across all age groups. However, in-hospital mortality decreased at a faster rate in women (3.8% to 2.7%, RRÂ -29.1%, ptrend 0.002) than in men (2.2% to 1.6%, RRÂ -25.7%, ptrend <0.001) from 2003 to 2012. In conclusion, CABG rates in the United States are decreasing over time, yet in-hospital mortality continues to improve. Women have worse in-hospital outcomes than men; however, the gender gap is slowly closing.
Coronary Angiography and Revascularization Prior to Noncardiac Surgery
OPINION STATEMENT/UNASSIGNED:The role of coronary angiography and revascularization, including percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) prior to noncardiac surgery remains poorly defined. The goal of preoperative angiography and PCI is improved risk stratification and ideally risk reduction of postoperative cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction (MI). By current guidelines, these procedures should be performed sparingly in high-risk stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and routinely in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Anatomic assessment of CAD by routine invasive angiography is discouraged, although noninvasive assessment may soon be possible. As prior trials have failed to show a clear benefit in outcomes, PCI should only be considered in patients with high-risk anatomic features. The ideal management of other anatomic disease discovered by angiography is currently unknown. Limited registry data suggest that PCI is used more frequently than recommended, although the features of these procedures remain poorly elaborated. In patients who do undergo preoperative PCI, careful attention must be paid to patient-specific factors including the nature and urgency of surgery and duration of dual antiplatelet therapy. In summary, substantial evidence gaps warrant further research in this important area.
Markedly Improved Glycemic Control in Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes following Direct Acting Antiviral Treatment of Genotype 1 Hepatitis C
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Successful HCV treatment may improve glycemic control and potentially induce remission of T2DM. We report a case of an obese 52-year-old woman with mixed genotype 1a/1b HCV infection with compensated cirrhosis and a 10-year history of poorly controlled T2DM on insulin therapy. Following successful therapy with sofosbuvir, simeprevir, and ribavirin, her insulin requirements decreased and her glycosylated hemoglobin (HgA1c) normalized despite weight gain. This case suggests an association between HCV and T2DM and the potential for significant improvement in glycemic control with eradication of HCV.
Therapeutic Role of Innovative Anti-Inflammatory Medications in the Prevention of Acute Coronary Syndrome
An improved understanding of the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes and its relationship to atherosclerotic plaque rupture and thrombosis has contributed to the investigation of novel therapies for prevention and treatment. New data ascribe an increasingly important role of active inflammation in contributing to thinning of the atherosclerotic fibrous cap and plaque instability. Despite this understanding, there are currently no therapeutic approaches to specifically target the unstable plaque. Multiple randomized trials investigating treatment strategies have recently been completed or are currently being conducted, using anti-inflammatory medications, such as methotrexate, colchicine, darapladib, varespladib, losmapimod, and canakinumab, to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events including acute coronary syndromes. These anti-inflammatory medications differ in their mechanism of action from having widespread targets (as is the case for methotrexate and colchicine) to having specific targets (as is the case for darapladib, varespladib, losmapimod, and canakinumab). The trials investigating the efficacy of darapladib in reducing cardiovascular events revealed no significant benefit when compared with the current standard of care. The varespladib studies were terminated early because of adverse outcomes. However, the outcomes of the remaining drug studies may still contribute to novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of patients with unstable coronary artery disease.