Is frailty responsive to surgical correction of adult spinal deformity? An investigation of sagittal re-alignment and frailty component drivers of postoperative frailty status
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Frailty has been associated with adverse postoperative outcomes. Recently, a novel frailty index for preoperative risk stratification in patients with adult spinal deformity was developed. Components of the ASD-FI utilize patient comorbidity, clinical symptoms, and patient-reported-outcome-measures (PROMS). Our purpose was to investigate components of the Adult Spinal Deformity Frailty Index (ASD-FI) responsive to surgery and drivers of overall frailty. METHODS:Operative ASD patientsâ€‰â‰¥â€‰18Â years, undergoing multilevel fusions, with complete baseline, 6Â W, 1Y and 2Y ASD-FI scores. Descriptive analysis assessed demographics, radiographic parameters, and surgical details. Pearson bivariate correlations, independent and paired t tests assessed postoperative changes to ASD-FI components, total score, and radiographic parameters. Linear regression models determined the effect of successful surgery (achieving lowest level SRS-Schwab classification modifiers) on change in ASD-FI total scores. RESULTS:409 6-week, 696 1-year, and 253 2-year operative ASD patients were included. 6-week and 1-year baseline frailty scores were 0.34, 2Â years was 0.38. Following surgery, 6-week frailty was 0.36 (pâ€‰=â€‰0.033), 1Â year was 0.25 (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001), and 2Â years was 0.28 (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). Of the ASD-FI variables, 17/40 improved at 6Â weeks, 21/40 at 1Â year, and 18/40 at 2Â years. Successful surgery significantly predicted decreases in 1-year frailty scores (Râ€‰=â€‰0.27, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001), SRS-Schwab SVA modifier was the greatest predictor (Adjusted Beta: - 0.29, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Improvement in sagittal realignment and functional status correlated with improved postoperative frailty. Additional research and deformity sub-group analyses are needed to describe associations between specific functional activities that correlated with frailty improvement as well as evaluation of modifiable and non-modifiable indices. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3/METHODS/:
The Impact of Osteoporosis on Adverse Outcomes After Short Fusion for Degenerative Lumbar Disease
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Osteoporosis affects nearly 200 million individuals worldwide. There are little available data regarding outcomes in patients with osteoporosis who undergo short-segment lumbar fusion for degenerative disk disease (DDD). We sought to identify a relationship between osteoporosis and risk of adverse outcomes in patients with DDD undergoing short-segment lumbar fusion. METHODS:Using the New York State Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System, all patients with DDD who underwent 2- to 3-level lumbar fusion from 2009 through 2011 were identified. Patients with bone mineralization disorders and other systemic and endocrine disorders and surgical indications of trauma, systemic disease(s), and infection were excluded. Patients were stratified by the presence or absence of osteoporosis and compared for demographics, hospital-related parameters, and 2-year complications and revision surgeries. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were used to identify notable predictors of complications. RESULTS:A total of 29,028 patients (osteoporosis = 1,353 [4.7%], nonosteoporosis = 27,675 [95.3%]) were included. Patients with osteoporosis were older (66.9 vs 52.6 years), more often female (85.1% vs 48.4%), and White (82.8% vs 73.5%) (all P < 0.001). The Charlson/Deyo comorbidity index did not significantly differ between groups. Hospital lengths of stay and total charges were higher for patients with osteoporosis (4.9 vs 4.1 days; $74,484 vs $73,724; both P < 0.001). Medical complication rates were higher in patients with osteoporosis, including acute renal failure and deep-vein thrombosis (both P < 0.01). This cohort also had higher rates of implant-related (3.4% vs 1.9%) and wound (9.8% vs 5.9%) complications (both P < 0.01). Preoperative osteoporosis was strongly associated with 2-year medical and surgical complications (odds ratios, 1.6 and 1.7) as well as greater odds of revision surgeries (odds ratio, 1.3) (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients with osteoporosis undergoing 2- to 3-level lumbar fusion for DDD were at higher risk of 2-year medical and surgical complications, especially implant-related and wound complications. These findings highlight the importance of rigorous preoperative metabolic workup and patients' optimization before spinal surgery.
Defining age-adjusted spinopelvic alignment thresholds: should we integrate BMI?
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To develop age- and BMI-adjusted alignment targets to improve patient-specific management and operative treatment outcomes. METHODS:Retrospective review of a single-center stereographic database. ASD patients receiving operative or non-operative treatment,â€‰â‰¥â€‰18y/o with complete baseline (BL) ODI scores and radiographic parameters (PT, SVA, PILL, TPA) were included. Patients were stratified by age consistent with US-Normative values (norms) of SF-36(<â€‰35, 35-55, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74,â€‰â‰¥â€‰75y/o), and dichotomized by BMI (Non-Obeseâ€‰<â€‰30; Obeseâ€‰â‰¥â€‰30). Linear regression analysis established normative age- and BMI-specific radiographic thresholds, utilizing previously published age-specific US-Normative ODI values converted from SF-36 PCS (Lafage et al.), in conjunction with BL age and BMI means. RESULTS:486 patients were included (Age: 52.5, Gender: 68.7%F, mean BMI: 26.2, mean ODI: 32.7), 135 of which were obese. Linear regression analysis developed age- and BMI-specific alignment thresholds, indicating PT, SVA, PILL, and TPA to increase with both increased age and increased BMI (all Râ€‰>â€‰0.5, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). For non-obese patients, PT, SVA, PILL, and TPA ranged from 10.0, -Â 25.8, -Â 9.0, 3.1 in patientsâ€‰<â€‰35y/o to 27.8, 53.4, 17.7, 25.8 in patientsâ€‰â‰¥â€‰75 y/o. Obese patients' PT, SVA, PILL, and TPA ranged from 10.5, -Â 7.6, -Â 7.1, 5.8 in patientsâ€‰<â€‰35 y/o to 28.3, 67.0, 19.15, 27.7 in patientsâ€‰â‰¥â€‰75y/o. Normative SVA values in obese patients were consistentlyâ€‰â‰¥â€‰10Â mm greater compared to non-obese values, at all ages. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Significant associations exist between age, BMI, and sagittal alignment. While BMI influenced age-adjusted alignment norms for PT, SVA, PILL, and TPA at all ages, obesity most greatly influenced SVA, with normative values similar to non-obese patients who were 10Â years older. Age-adjusted alignment thresholds should take BMI into account, calling for less rigorous alignment objectives in older and obese patients.
Radiographic Characteristics of Cervical Deformity (CD) Using a Discriminant Analysis: The Value of Extension Radiographs
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:This was a retrospective review of a prospectively collected database. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to delineate radiographic parameters that distinguish severe cervical spine deformity (CSD). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:Our objective was to define parameters that distinguish severe CSD using a consensus approach combined with discriminant analysis as no system currently exists in the literature. METHODS:Twelve CSD surgeons reviewed preoperative x-rays from a CSD database. A consensus was reached for categorizing patients into a severe cervical deformity (sCD), non-severe cervical deformity (non-sCD), or an indeterminate cohort. Radiographic parameters were found including classic cervical and spinopelvic parameters in neutral/flexion/extension alignment. To perform our discriminant analysis, we selected for parameters that had a significant difference between the sCD and non-sCD groups using the Student t test. A discriminant function analysis was used to determine which variables discriminate between the sCD versus non-sCD. A stepwise analysis was performed to build a model of parameters to delineate sCD. RESULTS:A total of 146 patients with cervical deformity were reviewed (60.5Â±10.5â€‰y; body mass index: 29.8â€‰kg/m2; 61.3% female). There were 83 (56.8%) classified as sCD and 51 (34.9%) as non-sCD. The comparison analysis led to 16 radiographic parameters that were different between cohorts, and 5 parameters discriminated sCD and non-sCD. These parameters were cervical sagittal vertical axis, T1 slope, maximum focal kyphosis in extension, C2 slope in extension, and number of kyphotic levels in extension. The canonical coefficient of correlation was 0.689, demonstrating a strong association between our model and cervical deformity classification. The accuracy of classification was 87.0%, and cross-validation was 85.2% successful. CONCLUSIONS:More than one third of a series of CSD patients were not considered to have a sCD. Analysis of an initial 17 parameters showed that a subset of 5 parameters can discriminate between sCD versus non-sCD with 85% accuracy. Our study demonstrates that flexion/extension images are critical for defining severe CD.
"Reverse roussouly": cervicothoracic curvature ratios define characteristic shapes in adult cervical deformity
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To investigate normal curvature ratios of the cervicothoracic spine and to establish radiographic thresholds for severe myelopathy and disability, within the context of shape. METHODS:Adult cervical deformity (CD) patients undergoing cervical fusion were included. C2-C7 Cobb angle (CL) and thoracic kyphosis (TK), using T2-T12 Cobb angle, were used as a ratio, ranging from -1 toâ€‰+â€‰1. Pearson bivariate r and univariate analyses analyzed radiographic correlations and differences in myelopathy(mJOAâ€‰>â€‰14) or disability(NDIâ€‰>â€‰40) across ratio groups. RESULTS:Sixty-three CD patients included. Regarding CL:TK ratio, 37 patients had a negative ratio and 26 patients had a positive ratio. A more positive CL:TK correlated with increased TS-CL(râ€‰=â€‰0.655, pâ€‰=â€‰â€‰<â€‰0.001)and mJOA(râ€‰=â€‰0.530, pâ€‰=â€‰0.001), but did not correlate with cSVA/SVA or NDI scores. A positive CL:TK ratio was associated with moderate disability(NDIâ€‰>â€‰40)(OR: 7.97[1.22-52.1], pâ€‰=â€‰0.030). Regression controlling for CL:TK ratio revealed cSVAâ€‰>â€‰25Â mm increased the odds of moderate to severe myelopathy and cSVAâ€‰>â€‰30Â mm increased the odds of significant neck disability. Lastly, TS-CLâ€‰>â€‰29 degrees increased the odds of neck disability by 4.1â€‰Ã—â€‰with no cutoffs for severe mJOA(pâ€‰>â€‰0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Cervical deformity patients with an increased CL:TK ratio had higher rates of moderate neck disability at baseline, while patients with a negative ratio had higher rates of moderate myelopathy clinically. Specific thresholds for cSVA and TS-CL predicted severe myelopathy or neck disability scores, regardless of baseline neck shape. A thorough evaluation of the cervical spine should include exploration of relationships with the thoracic spine and may better allow spine surgeons to characterize shapes and curves in cervical deformity patients.
Bariatric Surgery Lowers Rates of Spinal Symptoms and Spinal Surgery in a Morbidly Obese Population
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective analysis of New York State Inpatient Database years 2004-2013. OBJECTIVE:Assess rates of spinal diagnoses and procedures before and after bariatric surgery (BS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:BS for morbid obesity helps address common comorbidity burdens and improves quality of life for patients. The effects of BS on spinal disorders and surgical intervention have yet to be investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Patients included in analysis if they underwent BS and were seen at the hospital before and after this intervention. Spinal conditions and rates of surgery assessed before and after BS using Ï‡2 tests for categorical variables. Multivariable logistic regression analysis used to compare rates in BS patients to control group of nonoperative morbidly obese patients. Logistic testing controlled for comorbidities, age, biological sex. RESULTS:A total of 73,046 BS patients included (age 67.88Â±17.66â€‰y, 56.1% female). For regression analysis, 299,504 nonbariatric, morbidly obese patients included (age 53.45Â±16.52â€‰y, 65.6% female). Overall, rates of spinal symptoms decreased following BS (7.40%-5.14%, P<0.001). Cervical, thoracic, lumbar spine diagnoses rates dropped from 3.28% to 2.99%, 2.91% to 2.57%, and 5.39% to 3.92% (all P<0.001), respectively. Most marked reductions seen in cervical spontaneous compression fractures, cervical disc herniation, thoracic radicular pain, spontaneous lumbar compression fractures, lumbar spinal stenosis, lumbar spondylosis. Controlling for comorbidities, age and sex, obese nonbariatric patients more likely to have encounters associated with several cervical, thoracic or lumbar spinal diagnoses and procedures, especially for cervical spontaneous compression fracture, radicular pain, lumbar spondylosis, lumbar spinal stenosis, posterior procedures. BS significantly lowered comorbidity burden for many specific factors. CONCLUSIONS:BS lowered rates of documented spinal disorders and procedures in a morbidly obese population. These findings provide evidence of additional health benefits following BS, including reduction in health care encounters for spinal disorders and rates of surgical intervention.
Proximal and distal reciprocal changes following cervical deformity malalignment correction
OBJECTIVE:Hyperextension of C0-2 is a debilitating compensatory mechanism used to maintain horizontal gaze, analogous to high pelvic tilt in the lumbopelvic complex to maintain an upright posture. This study aims to investigate the impact of cervical deformity (CD) correction on this hyperextension. The authors hypothesize that correction of cervical sagittal malalignment allows for relaxation of C0-2 hyperextension and improved clinical outcomes. METHODS:A retrospective review was conducted of a multicenter database of patients with CD undergoing spinal realignment and fusion caudal to C2 and cephalad to the pelvis. Range of motion (ROM) and reserve of extension (ROE) were calculated across C2-7 and C0-2. The association between C2-7 correction and change in C0-2 ROE was investigated while controlling for horizontal gaze, followed by stratification into Î”C2-7 percentiles. RESULTS:Sixty-five patients were included (mean age 61.8 Â± 9.6 years, 68% female). At baseline, patients had cervical kyphosis (C2-7, -11.7Â° Â± 18.2Â°; T1 slope-cervical lordosis mismatch, 38.6Â° Â± 18.6Â°), negative global alignment (sagittal vertical axis [SVA] -12.8 Â± 71.2 mm), and hyperlordosis at C0-2 (mean 33.2Â° Â± 11.8Â°). The mean ROM was 25.7Â° Â± 17.7Â° and 21.3Â° Â± 9.9Â° at C2-7 and C0-2, respectively, with an ROE of approximately 9Â° for each segment. Limited C0-2 ROM and ROE correlated with the Neck Disability Index (r = -0.371 and -0.394, p < 0.01). The mean number of levels fused was 7.0 Â± 3.1 (24.6% anterior, 43.1% posterior), with 87.7% undergoing at least an osteotomy. At 1 year, mean C2-7 increased to 5.5Â° Â± 13.4Â°, SVA became neutral (11.5 Â± 54.8 mm), C0-2 hyperlordosis decreased to 27.8Â° Â± 11.7Â°, and thoracic kyphosis (TK) increased to -49.4Â° Â± 18.1Â° (all p < 0.001). Concurrently, mean C0-2 ROM increased to 27.6Â° Â± 8.1Â° and C2-7 ROM decreased significantly to 9.0Â° Â± 12.3Â° without a change in ROE. Controlling for horizontal gaze, change in C2-7 lordosis significantly correlated with increased TK (r = -0.617, p < 0.001), decreased C0-2 (r = -0.747, p < 0.001), and increased C0-2 ROE (r = 0.550, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS:CD correction can significantly impact cephalad and caudal compensation in the upper cervical and thoracic spine. Restoration of cervical alignment resulted in increased C0-2 ROE and TK and was also associated with improved clinical outcome.
Health-related quality of life measures in adult spinal deformity: can we replace the SRS-22 with PROMIS?
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To determine the validity and responsiveness of PROMIS metrics versus the SRS-22r questionnaire in adult spinal deformity (ASD). METHODS:Surgical ASD patients undergoing â‰¥â€‰4 levels fused with complete baseline PROMIS and SRS-22r data were included. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)] were compared. Cronbach's alpha and ICC values â‰¥â€‰0.70 were predefined as satisfactory. Convergent validity was evaluated via Spearman's correlations. Responsiveness was assessed via paired samples t tests with Cohen's d to assess measure of effect (baseline to 3 months). RESULTS:One hundred and ten pts are included. Mean baseline SRS-22r score was 2.62â€‰Â±â€‰0.67 (domainsâ€‰=â€‰Function: 2.6, Pain: 2.5, Self-image: 2.2, Mental Health: 3.0). Mean PROMIS domainsâ€‰=â€‰Physical Function (PF): 12.4, Pain Intensity (PI): 91.7, Pain Interference (Int): 55.9. Cronbach's alpha, and ICC were not satisfactory for any SRS-22 and PROMIS domains. PROMIS-Int reliability was low for all SRS-22 domains (0.037-0.225). Convergent validity demonstrated strong correlation via Spearman's rho between PROMIS-PI and overall SRS-22r (-â€‰0.61), SRS-22 Function (-â€‰0.781), and SRS-22 Pain (-â€‰0.735). PROMIS-PF had strong correlation with SRS-22 Function (0.643), while PROMIS-Int had moderate correlation with SRS-22 Pain (-â€‰0.507). Effect size via Cohen's d showed that PROMIS had superior responsiveness across all domains except for self-image. CONCLUSIONS:PROMIS is a valid measure compared to SRS-22r in terms of convergent validity, and has greater measure of effect in terms of responsiveness, but failed in reliability and internal consistency. Surgeons should consider the lack of reliability and internal consistency (despite validity and responsiveness) of the PROMIS to SRS-22r before replacing the traditional questionnaire with the computer-adaptive testing.
Primary Paraganglioma of the Spine: A Systematic Review of Clinical Features and Surgical Management in Cauda Equina vs Non-Cauda Equina Lesions
BACKGROUND:Primary spine paragangliomas are rare tumors. Surgical resection plays a role, but aggressive lesions are challenging. We reviewed the literature on primary spine paragangliomas. METHODS:PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane were searched upon the PRISMA guidelines to include studies on primary spine paragangliomas. Clinical-radiological features, treatments, and outcomes were analyzed and compared between cauda-equina vs non-cauda-equina tumors. RESULTS:We included 143 studies comprising 334 patients. Median age was 46 years (range, 6-85). The most frequent symptoms were lower-back (64.1%) and radicular (53.9%) pain, and sympathetic in 18 patients (5.4%). Cauda-equina paragangliomas (84.1%) had frequently lumbar (49.1%) or lumbosacral (29%) locations. Non-cauda-equina tumors were mostly in the thoracic (11.4%), thoracolumbar (5.1%), and cervical (3.6%) spine. Median tumor diameter was 2.5cm (range, 0.5-13.0). Surgical resection (98.5%) was preferred over biopsy (1.5%). Decompressive laminectomy (53%) and spine fusion (6.9%) were also performed. Adjuvant radiotherapy was delivered in 39 patients (11.7%) with aggressive tumors. Post-treatment symptomatic improvement was described in 86.2% cases. Median follow-up was 19.5 months (range, 0.1-468.0), and 23 patients (3.9%) had tumor recurrences. No significant differences were found between cauda-equina vs non-cauda-equina tumors. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Surgical resection is effective and safe in treating primary spine paragangliomas; however, adjuvant treatments may be needed for aggressive lesions.
Radiofrequency ablation for spinal osteoid osteoma: A systematic review of safety and treatment outcomes
AIM/OBJECTIVE:We sought to systematically assess and summarize the available literature on the clinical outcomes and complications following radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for painful spinal osteoid osteoma (OO). METHODS:PubMed, Scopus, and CENTRAL databases were searched in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Studies with available data on safety and clinical outcomes following RFA for spinal OO were included. RESULTS:In the 14 included studies (11 retrospective; 3 prospective), 354 patients underwent RFA for spinal OO. The mean ages ranged from 16.4 to 28 years (FemalesÂ =Â 31.3%). Lesion diameters ranged between 3 and 20Â mm and were frequently seen in the posterior elements in 211/331 (64%) patients. The mean distance between OO lesions and neural elements ranged between 1.7 and 7.4Â mm. The estimated pain reduction on the numerical rating scale was 6.85/10 (95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 4.67-9.04) at a 12-24-month follow-up; and 7.29/10 (95% CI 6.67-7.91) at a >24-month follow-up (range 24-55 months). Protective measures (e.g., epidural air insufflation or neuroprotective sterile water infusion) were used in 43/354 (12.1%) patients. Local tumor progression was seen in 23/354 (6.5%) patients who were then successfully re-treated with RFA or open surgical resection. Grade I-II complications such as temporary limb paresthesia and wound dehiscence were reported in 4/354 (1.1%) patients. No Grade III-V complications were reported. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:RFA demonstrated safety and clinical efficacy in most patients harboring painful spinal OO lesions. However, further prospective studies evaluating these outcomes are warranted.