Actions and Consequences of Insulin in the Striatum
Patel, Jyoti C; Carr, Kenneth D; Rice, Margaret E
Insulin crosses the blood-brain barrier to enter the brain from the periphery. In the brain, insulin has well-established actions in the hypothalamus, as well as at the level of mesolimbic dopamine neurons in the midbrain. Notably, insulin also acts in the striatum, which shows abundant expression of insulin receptors (InsRs) throughout. These receptors are found on interneurons and striatal projections neurons, as well as on glial cells and dopamine axons. A striking functional consequence of insulin elevation in the striatum is promoting an increase in stimulated dopamine release. This boosting of dopamine release involves InsRs on cholinergic interneurons, and requires activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on dopamine axons. Opposing this dopamine-enhancing effect, insulin also increases dopamine uptake through the action of insulin at InsRs on dopamine axons. Insulin acts on other striatal cells as well, including striatal projection neurons and astrocytes that also influence dopaminergic transmission and striatal function. Linking these cellular findings to behavior, striatal insulin signaling is required for the development of flavor-nutrient learning, implicating insulin as a reward signal in the brain. In this review, we discuss these and other actions of insulin in the striatum, including how they are influenced by diet and other physiological states.
Leptin promotes striatal dopamine release via cholinergic interneurons and regionally distinct signaling pathways
Mancini, Maria; Patel, Jyoti C; Affinati, Alison H; Witkovsky, Paul; Rice, Margaret E
Dopamine (DA) is a critical regulator of striatal network activity and is essential for motor activation and reward-associated behaviors. Previous work has shown that DA is influenced by the reward value of food, as well as by hormonal factors implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Changes in striatal DA signaling also have been linked to aberrant eating patterns. Here we test the effect of leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone involved in feeding and energy homeostasis regulation, on striatal DA release and uptake. Immunohistochemical evaluation identified leptin receptor expression throughout mouse striatum, including on striatal cholinergic interneurons and their extensive processes. Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, we found that leptin causes a concentration-dependent increase in evoked extracellular DA concentration ([DA]o) in dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and shell in male mouse striatal slices, and also an increase in the rate of DA uptake. Further, we found that leptin increases cholinergic interneuron excitability, and that the enhancing effect of leptin on evoked [DA]o is lost when nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors are antagonized or when examined in striatal slices from mice lacking ACh synthesis. Evaluation of signaling pathways underlying leptin's action revealed a requirement for intracellular Ca2+, and the involvement of different downstream pathways in dorsal striatum and NAc core versus NAc shell. These results provide the first evidence for dynamic regulation of DA release and uptake by leptin within brain motor and reward pathways, and highlight the involvement of cholinergic interneurons in this process.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTGiven the importance of striatal dopamine in reward, motivation, motor behavior and food intake, identifying the actions of metabolic hormones on dopamine release in striatal subregions should provide new insight into factors that influence dopamine-dependent motivated behaviors. We find that one of these hormones, leptin, boosts striatal dopamine release through a process involving striatal cholinergic interneurons and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Moreover, we find that the intracellular cascades downstream from leptin receptor activation underlying enhanced dopamine release differ among striatal subregions. Thus, we not only show that leptin regulates dopamine release, but also identify characteristics of this process that could be harnessed to alter pathological eating behaviors.
Development and validation of a simple and practical method for differentiating MS from other neuroinflammatory disorders based on lesion distribution on brain MRI
Patel, J; Pires, A; Derman, A; Fatterpekar, G; Charlson, R E; Oh, C; Kister, I
There is an unmet need to develop practical methods for differentiating multiple sclerosis (MS) from other neuroinflammatory disorders using standard brain MRI. To develop a practical approach for differentiating MS from neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and MOG antibody-associated disorder (MOGAD) with brain MRI, we first identified lesion locations in the brain that are suggestive of MS-associated demyelination ("MS Lesion Checklist") and compared frequencies of brain lesions in the "MS Lesion Checklist" locations in a development sample of patients (nÂ =Â 82) with clinically definite MS, NMOSD, and MOGAD. Patients with MS were more likely than patients with non-MS to have lesions in 3 locations only: anterior temporal horn (pÂ <Â 0.0001), periventricular ("Dawson's finger") (pÂ <Â 0.0001), and cerebellar hemisphere (pÂ =Â 0.02). These three lesion locations were used as predictor variables in a multivariable regression model for discriminating MS from non-MS. The model had area under the curve (AUC) of 0.853 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-0.945), sensitivity of 87.1%, and specificity of 72.5%. We then used an independent validation sample with equal representation of MS and NMOSD/MOGAD cases (nÂ =Â 97) to validate our prediction model. In the validation sample, the model was 76.3% accurate in discriminating MS from non-MS. Our simple method for predicting MS versus NMOSD/MOGAD only requires a neuroradiologist or clinician to ascertain the presence of lesions in three locations on conventional MRI sequences. It can therefore be readily applied in the real-world setting for training and clinical practice.
Cell-type-specific disruption of PERK-eIF2Î± signaling in dopaminergic neurons alters motor and cognitive function
Longo, Francesco; Mancini, Maria; Ibraheem, Pierre L; Aryal, Sameer; Mesini, Caterina; Patel, Jyoti C; Penhos, Elena; Rahman, Nazia; Mamcarz, Maggie; Santini, Emanuela; Rice, Margaret E; Klann, Eric
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) has been shown to activate the eIF2Î± kinase PERK to directly regulate translation initiation. Tight control of PERK-eIF2Î± signaling has been shown to be necessary for normal long-lasting synaptic plasticity and cognitive function, including memory. In contrast, chronic activation of PERK-eIF2Î± signaling has been shown to contribute to pathophysiology, including memory impairments, associated with multiple neurological diseases, making this pathway an attractive therapeutic target. Herein, using multiple genetic approaches we show that selective deletion of the PERK in mouse midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons results in multiple cognitive and motor phenotypes. Conditional expression of phospho-mutant eIF2Î± in DA neurons recapitulated the phenotypes caused by deletion of PERK, consistent with a causal role of decreased eIF2Î± phosphorylation for these phenotypes. In addition, deletion of PERK in DA neurons resulted in altered de novo translation, as well as changes in axonal DA release and uptake in the striatum that mirror the pattern of motor changes observed. Taken together, our findings show that proper regulation of PERK-eIF2Î± signaling in DA neurons is required for normal cognitive and motor function in a non-pathological state, and also provide new insight concerning the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders that accompany UPR failure.
A novel transgenic mouse model to investigate the cell-autonomous effects of torsinA(Î”E) expression in striatal output neurons
Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro; Beauvais, Genevieve; Martin, Janine; Koch, Rick J; Walker, Ruth H; Patel, Jyoti C; Rice, Margaret E; Ehrlich, Michelle E
Dystonia is a disabling neurological syndrome characterized by abnormal movements and postures that result from intermittent or sustained involuntary muscle contractions; mutations of DYT1/TOR1A are the most common cause of childhood-onset, generalized, inherited dystonia. Patient and mouse model data strongly support dysregulation of the nigrostriatal dopamine neurotransmission circuit in the presence of the DYT1-causing mutation. To determine striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN) cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous effects relevant to dopamine transmission, we created a transgenic mouse in which expression of mutant torsinA in forebrain is restricted to MSNs. We assayed electrically evoked and cocaine-enhanced dopamine release and locomotor activity, dopamine uptake, gene expression of dopamine-associated neuropeptides and receptors, and response to the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, trihexyphenidyl. We found that over-expression of mutant torsinA in MSNs produces complex cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous alterations in nigrostriatal dopaminergic and intrastriatal cholinergic function, similar to that found in pan-cellular DYT1 mouse models. These data introduce targets for future studies to identify which are causative and which are compensatory in DYT1 dystonia, and thereby aid in defining appropriate therapies.
Interactions between insulin and diet on striatal dopamine uptake kinetics in rodent brain slices
Patel, Jyoti C; Stouffer, Melissa A; Mancini, Maria; Nicholson, Charles; Carr, Kenneth D; Rice, Margaret E
Diet influences dopamine transmission in motor- and reward-related basal ganglia circuitry. In part, this reflects diet-dependent regulation of circulating and brain insulin levels. Activation of striatal insulin receptors amplifies axonal dopamine release in brain slices, and regulates food preference in vivo. The effect of insulin on dopamine release is indirect, and requires striatal cholinergic interneurons that express insulin receptors. However, insulin also increases dopamine uptake by promoting dopamine transporter (DAT) surface expression, which counteracts enhanced dopamine release. Here we determined the functional consequences of acute insulin exposure and chronic diet-induced changes in insulin on DAT activity after evoked dopamine release in striatal slices from adult ad-libitum fed (AL) rats and mice, and food-restricted (FR) or high-fat/high-sugar obesogenic (OB) diet rats. Uptake kinetics were assessed by fitting evoked dopamine transients to the Michaelis-Menten equation and extracting Cpeak and Vmax . Insulin (30 nM) increased both parameters in the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens core of AL rats in an insulin receptor- and PI3-kinase-dependent manner. A pure effect of insulin on uptake was unmasked using mice lacking striatal acetylcholine, in which increased Vmax caused a decrease in Cpeak . Diet also influenced Vmax , which was lower in FR versus AL. The effects of insulin on Cpeak and Vmax were amplified by FR but blunted by OB, consistent with opposite consequences of these diets on insulin levels and insulin receptor sensitivity. Overall, these data reveal acute and chronic effects of insulin and diet on dopamine release and uptake that will influence brain reward pathways.
Characterization of Optically and Electrically Evoked Dopamine Release in Striatal Slices from Digenic Knock-in Mice with DAT-Driven Expression of Channelrhodopsin
O'Neill, Brian; Patel, Jyoti C; Rice, Margaret E
Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FCV) is an established method to monitor increases in extracellular dopamine (DA) concentration ([DA]o) in the striatum, which is densely innervated by DA axons. Ex vivo brain slice preparations provide an opportunity to identify endogenous modulators of DA release. For these experiments, local electrical stimulation is often used to elicit release of DA, as well as other transmitters, in the striatal microcircuitry; changes in evoked increases in [DA]o after application of a pharmacological agent (e.g., a receptor antagonist) indicate a regulatory role for the transmitter system interrogated. Optogenetic methods that allow specific stimulation of DA axons provide a complementary, bottom-up approach for elucidating factors that regulate DA release. To this end, we have characterized DA release evoked by local electrical and optical stimulation in striatal slices from mice that genetically express a variant of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). Evoked increases in [DA]o in the dorsal and ventral striatum (dStr and vStr) were examined in a cross of a Cre-dependent ChR2 line ("Ai32" mice) with a DAT::Cre mouse line. In dStr, repeated optical pulse-train stimulation at the same recording site resulted in rundown of evoked [DA]o using heterozygous mice, which contrasted with the stability seen with electrical stimulation. Similar rundown was seen in the presence of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, implicating the absence of concurrent nAChR activation in DA release instability in slices. Rundown with optical stimulation in dStr could be circumvented by recording from a population of sites, each stimulated only once. Same-site rundown was less pronounced with single-pulse stimulation, and a stable baseline could be attained. In vStr, stable optically evoked increases in [DA]o at single sites could be achieved using heterozygous mice, although with relatively low peak [DA]o. Low release could be overcome by using mice with a second copy of the Ai32 allele, which doubled ChR2 expression. The characteristics reported here should help future practitioners decide which Ai32;DAT::Cre genotype and recording protocol is optimal for the striatal subregion to be examined.
Dendritic Release of Neurotransmitters
Ludwig, Mike; Apps, David; Menzies, John; Patel, Jyoti C; Rice, Margaret E
Release of neuroactive substances by exocytosis from dendrites is surprisingly widespread and is not confined to a particular class of transmitters: it occurs in multiple brain regions, and includes a range of neuropeptides, classical neurotransmitters, and signaling molecules, such as nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, ATP, and arachidonic acid. This review is focused on hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells that release vasopressin and oxytocin and midbrain neurons that release dopamine. For these two model systems, the stimuli, mechanisms, and physiological functions of dendritic release have been explored in greater detail than is yet available for other neurons and neuroactive substances. (c) 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:235-252, 2017.
Detection of evoked acetylcholine release in mouse brain slices
Asri, R; O'Neill, B; Patel, J C; Siletti, K A; Rice, M E
The study of transmitter interactions in reward and motor pathways in the brain, including the striatum, requires methodology to detect stimulus-driven neurotransmitter release events. Such methods exist for dopamine, and have contributed to the understanding of local and behavioral factors that regulate dopamine release. However, factors that regulate release of another key transmitter in these pathways, acetylcholine (ACh), are unresolved, in part because of limited temporal and spatial resolution of current detection methods. We have optimized a voltammetric method for detection of local stimulus-evoked ACh release using enzyme-coated carbon-fiber microelectrodes and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. These electrodes are based on the detection of H2O2 generated by the actions of acetylcholine esterase and choline oxidase, and reliably respond to ACh in a concentration-dependent manner. Methods for enzyme coating were optimized for mechanical stability that allowed for their use in ex vivo brain slices. We report here the first quantitative assessment of extracellular ACh concentration after local electrical stimulation in dorsal striatum in slices from control mice. The selective detection of ACh under these conditions was confirmed by showing that the response detected in the control slices was absent in slices from mice bred to lack ACh synthesis in the forebrain. These electrodes represent a new tool to study ACh and ACh-dopamine interactions with micrometer spatial resolution.
Voltammetry : Electrochemical Detection of Neurotransmitters in the Brain
Patel, Jyoti C
Voltammetry is an electrochemical technique that capitalises on the ability of some substances to become oxidised or reduced. A variety of voltammetric methods have been developed for the detection of biogenic amines such as dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in the brain. Each method differs in selectivity for the transmitter of interest and in temporal resolution. Of these, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FCV) at carbon fibre electrodes has been used extensively for monitoring the evoked or spontaneous release of biogenic amines in various brain regions with temporal and spatial resolutions that capture extrasynaptic transmission. Studies in rodent and non-rodent brain slices containing either monoamine cell bodies or axonal projections enable the dynamics of neurotransmitter release and its regulation by monoamine transporters, autoreceptors and local neuromodulators to be examined. Furthermore, rapid detection of release in freely moving animals can reveal the role of biogenic amines in motivated behaviour