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A comprehensive review of interventional ablation techniques for the management of thyroid nodules and metastatic lymph nodes

Kuo, Jennifer H; Sinclair, Catherine F; Lang, Brian; Spiezia, Stefano; Yu, Mingan; Ha, Eun Ju; Na, Dong Gyu; Offi, Chiara; Patel, Kepal N; Baek, Jung Hwan
Thyroidectomy remains the gold standard treatment for benign, symptomatic, or enlarging thyroid nodules, malignant nodules, and metastatic lymph node disease. However, in the past 2 decades, image-guided interventional techniques have emerged as promising alternative treatments for these conditions. Percutaneous ethanol ablation is now an accepted first-line treatment for recurring cystic thyroid nodules. Thermal ablation techniques such as high-intensity focused ultrasound, laser ablation, radiofrequency ablation, and microwave ablation have shown efficacy in producing a nodular volume reduction of greater than 50% that is maintained for several years with resolution of local compressive symptoms. There is also increasing evidence that these techniques can effectively treat papillary thyroid microcarcinomas and recurrent metastatic lymph node disease. Because these interventional ablation techniques are performed safely in an outpatient setting, are well tolerated, and the risk for needing thyroid hormone supplementation is negligible, they are becoming a popular alternative treatment to surgical resection. In this comprehensive review, we discuss each of these percutaneous interventions: the devices and techniques, the advantages and disadvantages of each energy, and summarize the outcomes published in the literature.
PMID: 34776258
ISSN: 1532-7361
CID: 5048902

Predictive Value of a Genomic Classifier in Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules Based on Nodule Size

Dublin, Jared C; Papazian, Michael; Zan, Elcin; Oweity, Thaira; Sun, Wei; Jacobson, Adam; Patel, Kepal; Brandler, Tamar C; Givi, Babak
Importance/UNASSIGNED:Genomic classifiers were developed to better guide clinicians in the treatment of indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITNs). To our knowledge, whether there is variation in the diagnostic accuracy of these tests depending on ITN size has not been previously studied. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To analyze the diagnostic performance of a genomic classifier in relation to ITN size. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:A case series study with medical records review was conducted including all patients with a cytologic diagnosis of ITN managed with genomic classifier testing and surgery from January 2015 to December 2018 at NYU Langone Health. Demographics, ITN characteristics, genomic profiles, treatment, and final pathologic findings were recorded. Data analysis was conducted from March to April 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:The primary aim was to assess the positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity, and specificity of a genomic classifier test (ThyroSeq) in relation to ITN size (<2, 2-4, and >4 cm). The secondary aim was to investigate the risk of cancer associated with genetic signatures. Results/UNASSIGNED:Of the 212 patients with 218 ITNs, 158 (74.5%) were women; median (SD) age was 49 (15.6) years. Genomic classifier results were positive in 173 ITNs (79.4%) treated with surgery. In this group of 173 positive ITNs, 46 (26.6%) were malignant on final pathologic testing. Overall, the observed cancer prevalence in the population was 23.9% (52 ITNs). In 45 ITNs that underwent surgery despite a negative genomic classifier interpretation, 6 (13.3%) were malignant. The PPV of a positive test was 27% and the NPV was 87%. The PPV and NPV findings improved as the ITN size increased (<2 cm [n = 98]: PPV, 25%; NPV, 79% vs >4 cm [n = 33]: PPV, 50%; NPV, 89%). Test specificity was higher in larger ITNs (<2 cm: 15% vs >4 cm: 40%; P = .01). Isolated RAS sequence variations were the most common variant identified in malignant nodules (11 [21.1%] of all ITNs), followed by BRAF variants (7 [13.5%] of all ITNs). Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:In this case series, the performance of the ThyroSeq test improved for larger ITNs. The risk of cancer in large ITNs with negative test results was low. These data suggest that, in genomic classifier-negative ITNs larger than 4 cm, initial management of thyroid lobectomy may be sufficient.
PMID: 34734965
ISSN: 2168-619x
CID: 5038292

Prognostic Significance of Singular RAS Mutations in Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules [Meeting Abstract]

Dublin, J C; Papazian, M; Zan, E; Oweity, T; Sun, W; Hodak, S; Baldwin, C K; Patel, K N; Brandler, T C; Givi, B
Introduction: The prognostic significance of a singular RAS mutation in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITN) is unclear. This study aimed to analyze the incidence of malignancy and clinical outcomes of ITNs diagnosed on fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology with RAS mutations.
Method(s): All FNA ITNs that underwent ThyroSeq testing and thyroidectomy from 2014-2018 were reviewed. ITNs with RAS (N-, H-, or K-RAS) mutations identified on ThyroSeq testing were selected. Demographics, Bethesda classifications, genomic profiles, treatment, final pathology, and clinical outcomes were recorded.
Result(s): During the study period, 93 patients with cytologic diagnosis of ITN and RAS mutations were identified. The mean nodule size was 2.2 cm (range: 0.5-6.6 cm). Most nodules were classified as Bethesda III (77, 82.8%). NRAS mutations were the most common (53, 57%), followed by HRAS (24, 25.8%), and KRAS (16, 17.2%). The majority of patients were treated with thyroid lobectomy (67, 72%). On final pathology, 9 (10%) were diagnosed as malignant (follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma [FVPTC]) and were distributed among all 3 RAS variants (NRAS: 4 [7.5%]; HRAS: 4 [16.7%]; KRAS: 1 [6.3%]; p=0.4). Most FVPTCs were encapsulated (8, 88.9%). With a median follow up of 19 months (interquartile range = 8-35), no recurrences or progression was seen.
Conclusion(s): The risk of malignancy in ITNs with singular RAS mutations is low. All malignancies were low-risk. Our findings demonstrate a low incidence of high-risk malignancy in ITNs with RAS mutations, suggesting that initial management with conservative approaches such as thyroid lobectomy may be justified.
ISSN: 1879-1190
CID: 5024622

Concordance of Initial and Repeat Molecular Analysis in Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules [Meeting Abstract]

Papazian, M; Dublin, J C; Zan, E; Oweity, T; Baldwin, C; Jacobson, A S; Hodak, S; Patel, K N; Brandler, T C; Givi, B
Introduction: Molecular tests such as ThyroSeq are recommended in the workup of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITN). While repeat molecular testing is often performed after repeat fine needle aspiration (FNA) yields persistently indeterminate cytology, ThyroSeq's inter-test reliability is unclear. We assessed consistency of initial and repeat ThyroSeq analyses performed on samples from the same thyroid nodules.
Method(s): All thyroid nodules diagnosed as ITN on consecutive FNAs that received ThyroSeq with both biopsies from 2014-2018 at our institution, were reviewed. Initial analysis was ThyroSeq v2 while repeat was v2 or v3. Nodules with gene mutations, fusions, or copy number alterations (CNA) were considered ThyroSeq-positive.
Result(s): During the study period, 30 patients underwent ThyroSeq analysis on initial and repeat FNA samples (median interval=21 months). On initial testing, 27 (90%) nodules were ThyroSeq-negative and 3 (10%) low-risk mutations (RAS, EIF1AX, TSHR) were identified. Repeat ThyroSeq re-identified these 3 nodules and also interpreted 9 initially ThyroSeq-negative nodules as positive (kappa=0.286). All 9 molecular alterations were low-risk, most were identified on v3 (7, 77.8%), and CNA was the most common change (6, 66.7%). Of 12 patients with ThyroSeq-positive nodules, 8 underwent lobectomy. Final pathology identified low-risk malignancy in 3 nodules; the remainder were benign.
Conclusion(s): New findings on repeat ThyroSeq are possible. Whether these findings were detected by expanded panel or are the result of de-novo changes is unknown. The risk of missing high-risk changes appears to be low. More studies are needed to characterize the concordance of ThyroSeq analyses and natural evolution of ITNs.
ISSN: 1879-1190
CID: 5024612

Lymph node metastases in pediatric medullary thyroid carcinoma

Oliver, Jamie R; Patel, Kepal N; Chang, Clifford M; Baldwin, Chelsey K; Brar, Preneet C; Morris, Luc G T; Givi, Babak
BACKGROUND:Unlike medullary thyroid carcinoma in adults, the vast majority of pediatric medullary thyroid carcinoma is hereditary. Pediatric medullary thyroid carcinoma is known to have different genetic alterations driving tumorigenesis, but it is not known if pediatric medullary thyroid carcinoma has different clinicopathologic features. This study aims to identify which pediatric medullary thyroid carcinoma patients might warrant elective neck dissection. METHODS:We selected all patients ages 0 to 19 diagnosed with clinically evident medullary thyroid carcinoma in the National Cancer Database between 2004 to 2016. Clinicopathologic factors, treatments, and outcomes were analyzed and compared between this cohort and adults (ages ≥20) with medullary thyroid carcinoma. RESULTS:One hundred twenty-five pediatric medullary thyroid carcinoma (median age: 13) and 5,086 adult medullary thyroid carcinoma (median age: 57) patients were identified. Pediatric patients had smaller tumors (median diameter: 1.2 cm vs 2.0 cm; P < .001), lower rates of nodal metastases (n = 31, 36.9% vs 1,689, 50.4%; P = .02) but double the incidence of multifocal tumors (n = 70, 59.3%, vs 1,412, 29.9%; P < .001) compared with adults. Multifocal tumors conferred a significantly increased risk of nodal metastases in adult medullary thyroid carcinoma (64.4% vs 43.2%; P < .001) but not pediatric medullary thyroid carcinoma (37.7% vs 35.7%; P = .85). Nodal metastases were more frequent among older children (0-5 years: 0.0%, 6-12: 40.7%, 13-19: 41.7%; P = .04). However, rates of occult nodal metastases were similar between older children (6-19 years: n = 12, 21.4%) and adults (557, 25.8% P = .56). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Pediatric medullary thyroid carcinoma has lower rates of lymph node metastases compared with adults. The risk of nodal disease was low among the youngest children, but older children ages 6 to 19 were at considerable risk for occult metastases. These findings could guide clinicians in selecting pediatric patients considered for elective lymph node dissection.
PMID: 33838880
ISSN: 1532-7361
CID: 4842142

Stones left unturned: Missed opportunities to diagnose primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with nephrolithiasis

Lui, Michael S; Fisher, Jason C; Underwood, Hunter J; Patel, Kepal N; Ogilvie, Jennifer B
BACKGROUND:Nephrolithiasis is a sequela of primary hyperparathyroidism and an indication for parathyroidectomy. The prevalence of primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with nephrolithiasis is 3% to 5%; however, recent studies suggest that many hypercalcemic patients with nephrolithiasis never undergo workup for primary hyperparathyroidism. Our goal is to evaluate primary hyperparathyroidism screening rates at a tertiary academic health institution and identify opportunities to increase referral rates in patients presenting with nephrolithiasis. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed 15,725 patients across an academic health system who presented with nephrolithiasis between 2012 and 2020. Calcium levels measured within 6 months of presentation were identified, and those with hypercalcemia (≥10.3 mg/dL) were reviewed if parathyroid hormone levels were measured. Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were evaluated to see if they were referred to a specialist for treatment. RESULTS:Of 15,725 patients presenting with nephrolithiasis, 12,420 (79%) had calcium levels measured; 630 patients (4.0%) were hypercalcemic, and 207 (33%) had parathyroid hormone levels measured. Patients were more likely to have parathyroid hormone levels sent if they were older, had higher calcium levels, or presented to an outpatient clinic (P = .028, P = .002, P < .001). We identified 89 patients (0.6%) with primary hyperparathyroidism, of which only 35 (39%) were referred for treatment. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The proportion of patients presenting with nephrolithiasis ultimately diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism was significantly lower than others have reported. Additionally, a substantial number of patients with nephrolithiasis did not have calcium and/or parathyroid hormone levels measured. These missed opportunities for diagnosis are critical as early definitive management of primary hyperparathyroidism can prevent recurrent nephrolithiasis and other primary hyperparathyroidism-related end organ effects.
PMID: 34330541
ISSN: 1532-7361
CID: 5005882

Nodal disease burden and outcome of medullary thyroid carcinoma

Moses, Lindsey E; Oliver, Jamie R; Rotsides, Janine M; Shao, Qianhui; Patel, Kepal N; Morris, Luc G T; Givi, Babak
BACKGROUND:Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare malignancy with high incidence of cervical lymph node (CLN) metastasis. We investigated the impact of nodal disease burden on survival. METHODS:We searched the National Cancer Database for MTC patients treated surgically. Impact of nodal metastasis on survival was analyzed using Cox univariable and multivariable regression. RESULTS:We identified 2627 patients from 2004 to 2015. Positive CLNs were identified in 1433 (54.5%), and 542 (20.6%) had >10 CLN+. Overall survival was 94.5% and 89.6% at 3 and 5 years. Patients with 11 to 20 CLN+ had significantly worse survival than patients with 1 to 10 CLN+ in univariable and multivariable analyses (HR = 3.56 (2.31-5.50) vs 2.26 (1.60-3.20); P < .0001). The ratio of positive to dissected CLN was associated with overall survival. CONCLUSIONS:Higher burden of nodal disease is associated with worse survival in MTC. The number of positive nodes could be a valuable prognosticator in addition to the current staging system.
PMID: 33107153
ISSN: 1097-0347
CID: 4646462

Application and Utility of Radiofrequency Ablation in the Treatment of Benign Thyroid Nodules

Underwood, Hunter J.; Lui, Michael S.; Patel, Kepal N.
Purpose of Review: Most thyroid nodules are benign and asymptomatic; however, some will ultimately cause compressive symptoms or develop autonomous function. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has emerged as a novel treatment option in lieu of other minimally invasive ablative techniques. This article discusses the role of RFA in the management of benign thyroid nodules and reviews recent literature comparing outcomes between RFA, surgery, and medical therapy. Recent Findings: Multiple studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of RFA in the treatment of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTN) and symptomatic, cold nodules (SCN). The "moving shot" technique has proven successful in normalizing thyroid function for ATFNs and decreasing cosmetic/symptomatic concerns for SCNs after a single treatment. Summary: Radiofrequency ablation is a viable treatment option for the treatment of AFTNs and SCNs in patients who refuse or are otherwise unable to tolerate surgery. Patient selection is critical and performance at high-volume centers is necessary for best outcomes.
ISSN: 2167-583x
CID: 4797422

Completion thyroidectomy-Have we made appropriate decisions? [Editorial]

Shaha, Ashok R; Patel, Kepal N; Michael Tuttle, R
PMID: 33098667
ISSN: 1096-9098
CID: 4652102

Tracheostomy during COV-SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: Recommendations from the New York Head and Neck Society

Miles, Brett A; Schiff, Bradley; Ganly, Ian; Ow, Thomas; Cohen, Erik; Genden, Eric; Culliney, Bruce; Mehrotra, Bhoomi; Savona, Steven; Wong, Richard J; Haigentz, Missak; Caruana, Salvatore; Givi, Babak; Patel, Kepal; Hu, Kenneth
The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 in 2019 and 2020 has resulted in a worldwide pandemic characterized by severe pulmonary inflammation, effusions, and rapid respiratory compromise. The result of this pandemic is a large and increasing number of patients requiring endotracheal intubation and prolonged ventilator support. The rapid rise in endotracheal intubations coupled with prolonged ventilation requirements will certainly lead to an increase in tracheostomy procedures in the coming weeks and months. Performing tracheostomy in the setting of active COV-SARS-CoV-2, when necessary, poses a unique situation, with unique risks and benefits for both the patient and the health care providers. The New York Head and Neck Society has collaborated on this document to provide guidance on the performance of tracheostomies during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
PMID: 32304119
ISSN: 1097-0347
CID: 4396602