Molecular Profiling of 50,734 Bethesda III-VI Thyroid Nodules by ThyroSeq v3: Implications for Personalized Management
CONTEXT/BACKGROUND:Comprehensive genomic analysis of thyroid nodules for multiple classes of molecular alterations detected in a large series of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples has not been reported. OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence of clinically relevant molecular alterations in Bethesda categories III-VI (BCIII-VI) thyroid nodules. DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective analysis of FNA samples tested by ThyroSeq v3 using Genomic Classifier and Cancer Risk Classifier. SETTING/METHODS:UPMC MGP laboratory. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:A total of 50,734 BCIII-VI nodules from 48,225 patients. INTERVENTION/METHODS:None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Prevalence of diagnostic, prognostic, and targetable genetic alterations. RESULTS:Among 50,734 informative FNA samples, 65.3% were test-negative, 33.9% positive, 0.2% positive for medullary carcinoma, and 0.6% positive for parathyroid. The benign call rate in BCIII-IV nodules was 68%. Among test-positive samples, 73.3% had mutations, 11.3% gene fusions, and 10.8% isolated copy number alteration. Comparing BCIII-IV nodules with BCV-VI nodules revealed a shift from predominantly RAS-like alterations to BRAF V600E-like alterations and fusions involving receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK). Using ThyroSeq Cancer Risk Classifier, a high-risk profile, which typically included TERT or TP53 mutations, was found in 6% of samples, more frequently BCV-VI. RNA-Seq confirmed ThyroSeq detection of novel RTK fusions in 98.2% of cases. CONCLUSIONS:In this series, 68% of BCIII-IV nodules were classified as negative by ThyroSeq, potentially preventing diagnostic surgery in this subset of patients. Specific genetic alterations were detected in most BCV-VI nodules, with a higher prevalence of BRAF and TERT mutationsand targetable gene fusions compared to BCIII-IV nodules, offering prognostic and therapeutic information for patient management.
General Principles for the Safe Performance, Training, and Adoption of Ablation Techniques for Benign Thyroid Nodules: An American Thyroid Association Statement
Invited Commentary: The Path Toward Broader Validation and Adoption of Transoral Thyroidectomy
Case Report: Giant Thyroid Angiolipoma-Challenging Clinical Diagnosis and Novel Genetic Alterations
BACKGROUND:A 64-year-old man presented with a 7.8Â cm lipomatous thyroid mass discovered on magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS:After two non-diagnostic fine needle aspirations (FNAs) were performed, computed tomography (CT) revealed features concerning for malignancy including central necrosis and infiltrative borders. A third FNA was still non-diagnostic. Total thyroidectomy was performed. RESULTS:Upon pathologic examination, the final diagnosis was primary thyroid angiolipoma. The lesion contained central fat necrosis with ischemic features, attributable to the FNAs. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Ours is the third published case report of this rare entity. To date, no lipomatous thyroid tumor has undergone extensive genomic testing. Next-generation sequencing of our case revealed multiple genetic alterations, supporting the concept of angiolipomas being true neoplasms. Whereas the two previously reported cases in the literature were radiographically much smaller and appeared indolent, the large tumor in our case exhibited radiographic features concerning for liposarcoma, which belied the benign final pathologic diagnosis. Our case demonstrates that conservative surgical management (partial thyroidectomy) may be considered for lipomatous thyroid tumors, with further interventions to be determined only after final pathologic diagnosis.
Implementation of a formal sleep center-based screening protocol for primary aldosteronism in patients with obstructive sleep apnea
BACKGROUND:There is a bidirectional association between primary aldosteronism and obstructive sleep apnea, with evidence suggesting that the treatment of primary aldosteronism can reduce obstructive sleep apnea severity. Current guidelines recommend screening for primary aldosteronism in patients with comorbid hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea, identifying potential candidates for treatment. However, emerging data suggest current screening practices are unsatisfactory. Moreover, data regarding the true incidence of primary aldosteronism among this population are limited. This study aimed to assess the primary aldosteronism screening rate among patients with obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension at our institution and estimate the prevalence of primary aldosteronism among this population. METHODS:Sleep studies conducted at our institution between January and September 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Adult patients with a sleep study diagnostic of obstructive sleep apnea (respiratory disturbance index â‰¥5) and a diagnosis of hypertension were included. Patient medical records were reviewed and laboratory data of those with biochemical screening for primary aldosteronism were assessed by an experienced endocrinologist. Screening rates were compared before and after initiation of a screening protocol in accordance with the 2016 Endocrine Society guidelines. RESULTS:A total of 1,005 patients undergoing sleep studies were reviewed; 354 patients had comorbid obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension. Patients were predominantly male (67%), with a mean age of 58 years (standard deviationÂ = 12.9) and mean body mass index of 34 (standard deviationÂ = 8.1). The screening rate for primary aldosteronism among included patients was 19% (nÂ = 67). The screening rate was significantly higher after initiation of a dedicated primary aldosteronism screening protocol (23% vs 12% prior; PÂ = .01). Fourteen screens (21%) were positive for primary aldosteronism, whereas 45 (67%) were negative and 8 (12%) were indeterminate. Four had prior abdominal cross-sectional imaging, with 3 revealing an adrenal adenoma. Compared with patients without primary aldosteronism, patients with positive primary aldosteronism screens were more likely to have a history of hypokalemia (36% vs 4.4%; PÂ = .002). The frequency of hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and left ventricular hypertrophy did not differ between patients with positive versus negative screens. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Current screening practices for primary aldosteronism among patients with comorbid obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension are suboptimal. Patients evaluated at sleep centers may represent an optimal population for screening, as the prevalence of primary aldosteronism among this cohort appears high.
Recorder's Note [Editorial]
The clinical significance of the American College of Radiology (ACR) Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) category 5 thyroid nodules: Not as risky as we think?
BACKGROUND:Although the prevalence of thyroid nodules is high, few prove to be malignant. Based on sonographic features, the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System categorizes malignancy risk of thyroid nodules with associated management recommendations for each category level. Malignancy rates among nodules with a highly suspicious Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 warrant examination in the context of additional risk stratification tools, including cytopathology and molecular testing. METHODS:All patients who underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy for Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 nodules from January 2018 to September 2021 in a large integrated academic health system were reviewed. Using the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology, categories V and VI were set as malignant. Molecular testing (ThyroSeq version 3; Rye Brook, NY) yielding ≥50% risk of malignancy was deemed positive and correlated with surgical pathology. RESULTS:A total of 496 Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 nodules were identified. On fine-needle aspiration cytopathology, 61 (12.3%) were malignant. The breakdown included Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology I, 15 (3%); II, 362 (73%); III, 52 (10.5%); IV, 5 (1%); V, 6 (1.3%); and VI, 55 (11.1%). Of Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology III/IV nodules with molecular testing (n = 53), 24.5% yielded positive results. In total, 42 (8.5%) nodules underwent surgical resection, most of which were Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology VI (n = 26, 61.9%). Of excised nodules, 33 (78.6%) nodules were malignant, 6 (14.3%) benign, and 3 (7.1%) noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features. All Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 nodules with malignant cytology (Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology V/VI) that underwent surgery were malignant on histopathology. On average, the total Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System points were higher in malignant nodules compared with benign (9.3 vs 7.3; P = .015). Moreover, benign nodules more frequently received Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System points when the radiologist was unable to determine composition or echogenicity (33% vs 3% among malignant nodules; P = .01). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 designation in thyroid nodules is associated with a lower risk of malignancy than previously reported. Benign and malignant nodules with Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 designation have discrepancies in certain Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System characteristics and individual points assigned, which may offer an opportunity for quality improvement and standardization measures in ultrasound reporting practices.
The Year in Thyroidology: Surgical Science
DICER1 Mutation in Bethesda III Thyroid Nodules [Meeting Abstract]
American Thyroid Association Guidelines and National Trends in Management of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Importance/UNASSIGNED:Over time, the American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines have increasingly promoted more limited treatments for well-differentiated thyroid cancers. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To determine whether the 2009 and 2015 ATA guidelines were associated with changes in the management of low-risk papillary thyroid carcinomas on a national scale. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:This historical cohort study used the National Cancer Database. All papillary thyroid carcinomas diagnosed from 2004 to 2019 in the National Cancer Database were selected. Patients with tumors of greater than 4 cm, metastases, or clinical evidence of nodal disease were excluded. Data were analyzed from August 1, 2021, to September 1, 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:The primary aim was to tabulate changes in the rates of thyroid lobectomy (TL), total thyroidectomy (TT), and TT plus radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy after the 2009 and 2015 ATA guidelines. The secondary aim was to determine in which settings (eg, academic vs community) the practice patterns changed the most. Results/UNASSIGNED:A total of 194â€¯254 patients (155â€¯796 [80.2%] female patients; median [range] age at diagnosis, 51 [18-90] years) who underwent treatment during the study period were identified. Among patients who underwent surgery, rates of TL decreased from 15.1% to 13.7% after the 2009 guidelines but subsequently increased to 22.9% after the 2015 changes. Among patients undergoing TT, rates of adjuvant RAI decreased from 48.7% to 37.1% after 2009 and to 19.3% after the 2015 guidelines. Trends were similar for subgroups based on sex and race and ethnicity. However, academic institutions saw larger increases in TL rates (14.9% to 25.7%) than community hospitals (16.3% to 19.5%). Additionally, greater increases in TL rates were observed for tumors 1 to 2 cm (6.8% to 18.9%) and 2 to 4 cm (6.6% to 16.0%) than tumors less than 1 cm (22.8% to 29.2%). Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:In this cohort study among patients with papillary thyroid carcinomas up to 4 cm, ATA guideline changes corresponded with increased TL and reduced adjuvant RAI. These changes were primarily seen in academic institutions, suggesting an opportunity to expand guideline-based care in the community setting.