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Lead migration and fracture rate in dorsal root ganglion stimulation using anchoring and non-anchoring techniques: A multicenter pooled data analysis

Chapman, Kenneth B; Mogilner, Alon Y; Yang, Ajax H; Yadav, Abhishek; Patel, Kiran V; Lubenow, Timothy; van Helmond, Noud; Deer, Timothy; Kallewaard, Jan Willem
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Dorsal root ganglion stimulation (DRG-S) is a neuromodulation technique introduced in the last decade with evolving implant methods. Initial prospective research found low incidences of lead migration and lead fracture with DRG-S. However, several recent studies have highlighted high lead migration and lead fracture rates with DRG-S. We investigated the influence of lead anchoring on migrations and fractures. METHODS:We performed a retrospective review between 2016 and 2020 of individuals implanted with DRG-S leads by 4 experienced implanters. The implanters independently changed their standard practice regarding lead anchoring over time, with opposing trends (no anchoring > anchoring, anchoring > no anchoring). We compared lead migration and lead fracture rates between anchored and unanchored DRG-S leads in the entire study cohort. Cox regression was performed on lead migration and fracture distributions. RESULTS:We included 756 leads (n = 565 anchored and n = 191 unanchored) from 249 patients. In unanchored leads, migration occurred in 16 leads (8.4%) from 13 patients (21.0%). In anchored leads, migration occurred in 8 leads (1.4%) from 5 patients (2.7%). Fracture in unanchored leads occurred in 6 leads (3.1%) from 6 patients (9.7%). Fractures in anchored leads occurred in 11 leads (1.9%) from 9 patients (4.8%). The migration survival distributions for the anchored and unanchored leads were statistically significantly different (p < 0.01) with decreased survival for unanchored leads (hazard ratio = 5.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2-15.5). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:We found that anchoring DRG-S leads significantly reduces lead migration when compared to leads placed without an anchor. There was no significant difference in fracture rate between anchored and unanchored leads.
PMID: 34145740
ISSN: 1533-2500
CID: 4954652

A Paramedian Approach for Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation Placement Developed to Limit Lead Migration and Fracture

Chapman, Kenneth B; Spiegel, Matthew A; Dickerson, David M; Billet, Bart; Patel, Kiran V; Hunter, Corey; Antony, Ajay; van Helmond, Noud; Deer, Timothy; Kallewaard, Jan Willem; Hagedorn, Jonathan M; Yang, Ajax
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Dorsal root ganglion stimulation (DRG-S), has demonstrated superiority in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome and causalgia. Lead migration and fracture impact DRG-S therapeutic stability. Lead anchoring reduces DRG-S lead migration without increasing lead fracture. Lead fracture may be related to lead entrapment in the superficial fascial plane. A novel medialized approach for lead placement and anchoring is presented to address these issues. METHODS:We suggest an alternative technique for implanting percutaneous DRG-S leads at the T10-L5 levels. RESULTS:A novel medialized ipsilateral technique for lead placement and anchoring for single, bilateral, and adjacent segment placement is presented. The Tuohy needle puncture site is medial to the pedicle and adjacent to the spinous process, two vertebral levels caudad to the target foramen. Trajectory is maintained in the sagittal plane, to access the caudad interlaminar space near the midline. This technique allows for ipsilateral or contralateral lead placement. After epidural access, the introducer sheath is rotated toward the targeted foramen and advanced. The guidewire followed by the lead is passed, and once lead position is confirmed, tension 'S' loops are created, followed by anchoring to the deep fascia. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We describe a new paramedian technique for DRG-S lead placement. We propose it will decrease DRG-S complication rates through anchoring to reduce migration and by avoiding the fascial planes thought to be responsible for fracture. Long-term outcomes applying our proposed techniques are required for determining the true impact, however, early anecdotal results suggest that these new techniques are favorable.
PMID: 34328256
ISSN: 1533-2500
CID: 4954662

Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation Lead Fracture Within the Superficial Fascial Layers in 4 Cases

Chapman, Kenneth B; Patel, Kiran V; van Helmond, Noud; Chien, George C Chang
We present 4 cases of dorsal root ganglion stimulation lead fracture. In these cases, the surgical technique involved (1) traversing fascial layers for placement of leads via a Tuohy needle in the upper low back, (2) subcutaneous tunneling from the implantable pulse generator site to the lead puncture site without dissecting below the superficial fascial plane at the puncture site, and (3) connection of the lead/extension with the generator. All fractures occurred adjacent to the original lead puncture site. These cases suggest lead entrapment within the membranous fascial plane, with tension on a thin lead, is a mechanism underlying lead fracture.
PMID: 32935950
ISSN: 2575-3126
CID: 4614802

Lumbar Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation Lead Placement Using an Outside-In Technique in 4 Patients With Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: A Case Series

Chapman, Kenneth B; Nagrani, Sohan; Patel, Kiran V; Yousef, Tariq; van Helmond, Noud
Dorsal root ganglion stimulation (DRG-S) has shown promise as a treatment for low back pain. The traditional anterograde placement of DRG-S leads can be challenging in patients with anatomical changes from prior back surgery. We describe an "outside-in" placement technique of DRG-S leads in 4 patients with histories of multiple lumbar surgeries, which made the traditional anterograde placement not feasible. At long-term follow-up, the patients experienced substantial pain relief and improvement in quality of life, with no complications. The outside-in lead placement technique may be an efficacious alternative to the traditional techniques in patients with anomalous anatomy from prior surgery.
PMID: 32845109
ISSN: 2575-3126
CID: 4614462

T12 Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation to Treat Chronic Low Back Pain: A Case Series [Case Report]

Chapman, Kenneth B; Groenen, Pauline S; Patel, Kiran V; Vissers, Kris C; van Helmond, Noud
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Dorsal root ganglion stimulation (DRG-S) is a neuromodulation technique for treating neuropathic pain syndromes. Research has demonstrated DRG-S to be more effective than conventional SCS in treating RSD/CRPS, particularly of the lower extremities. Results from recent case series and prospective studies suggest that DRG-S may be effective in treatment of pain syndromes considered to have non-neuropathic components and characteristics (e.g. nociceptive). There have been multiple, small studies demonstrating efficacy of DRG-S for axial low back pain. There has, however, been no consensus regarding the best location for DRG lead placement in the treatment of low back pain. METHODS:Patients presenting with refractory low back pain in a private pain management practice were considered for DRG-S. Patients were provided a trial stimulator prior to potential implantation. Per standard practice, pain intensity, disability, general health status, and quality of life were followed using the visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index, EQ-5D index, and the SF-36 survey, respectively. Data were collected prior to implantation and at variable follow-ups after DRG-S initiation. RESULTS:Seventeen consecutive patients presented with predominantly axial low back pain with/without a secondary component of lower extremity pain. All were trialed and subsequently implanted for DRG-S. Leads were placed at T12 to target the low back. Stimulation levels were set very low, below that of which patients experienced paresthesias. Last follow-up times averaged 8.3 months. More than half of the patients experienced pain relief ≥80%, with an average low back pain relief of 78% at last follow-up. Additionally, substantial improvements in physical and mental functioning, disability, and quality of life were reported. CONCLUSIONS:T12 DRG-S can be an effective treatment for chronic axial low back pain. Stimulation results in reduced pain and disability, while improving quality of life. These outcomes can be achieved without paresthesias.
PMID: 31588662
ISSN: 1525-1403
CID: 4130492

Prospective observational cohort study on grading the severity of postoperative complications in global surgery research

Abbott, T E F; Greaves, K E; Patel, A; Ahmad, T; Haddow, J; Futier, E; Biais, M; Slim, K; Pearse, R M; Pearse, Rupert M; Beattie, Scott; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Demartines, Nicolas; Fleisher, Lee A; Grocott, Mike; Haddow, James; Hoeft, Andreas; Holt, Peter; Moreno, Rui; Pritchard, Naomi; Rhodes, Andrew; Wijeysundera, Duminda; Wilson, Matt; Ahmed, Tahania; Everingham, Kirsty; Hewson, Russell; Januszewska, Marta; Pearse, Rupert M; Phull, Mandeep-Kaur; Halliwell, Richard; Shulman, Mark; Myles, Paul; Schmid, Werner; Hiesmayr, Michael; Wouters, Patrick; de Hert, Stefan; Lobo, Suzana; Beattie, Scott; Wijeysundera, Duminda; Fang, Xiangming; Rasmussen, Lars; Futier, Emmanuel; Biais, Matthieu; Venara, Aurélien; Slim, Karem; Sander, Michael; Koulenti, Despoina; Arvaniti, Kostoula; Chan, Mathew; Kulkarni, Atul; Chandra, Susilo; Tantri, Aida; Geddoa, Emad; Abbas, Muntadhar; Rocca, Giorgio Della; Sivasakthi, Datin; Mansor, Marzida; Luna, Pastor; Bouwman, Arthur; Buhre, Wolfgang; Beavis, Vanessa; Campbell, Douglas; Short, Tim; Osinaike, Tunde; Matos, Ricardo; Grigoras, Ioana; Kirov, Mikhail; Protsenko, Denis; Biccard, Bruce; Aldecoa, Cesar; Chew, Michelle; Hofer, Christoph; Hubner, Martin; Ditai, James; Szakmany, Tamas; Fleisher, Lee; Ferguson, Marissa; MacMahon, Michael; Shulman, Mark; Cherian, Ritchie; Currow, Helen; Kanathiban, Kathirgamanathan; Gillespie, David; Pathmanathan, Edward; Phillips, Katherine; Reynolds, Jenifer; Rowley, Joanne; Douglas, Jeanene; Kerridge, Ross; Currow, Helen; Garg, Sameer; Bennett, Michael; Jain, Megha; Alcock, David; Terblanche, Nico; Cotter, Rochelle; Leslie, Kate; Stewart, Marcelle; Zingerle, Nicolette; Clyde, Antony; Hambidge, Oliver; Rehak, Adam; Cotterell, Sharon; Huynh, Wilson Binh Quan; McCulloch, Timothy; Ben-Menachem, Erez; Egan, Thomas; Cope, Jennifer; Halliwell, Richard; Fellinger, Paul; Haselberger, Simone; Holaubek, Caroline; Lichtenegger, Paul; Scherz, Florian; Schmid, Werner; Hoffer, Franz; Cakova, Veronika; Eichwalder, Andreas; Fischbach, Norbert; Klug, Reinhold; Schneider, Elisabeth; Vesely, Martin; Wickenhauser, Reinhart; Grubmueller, Karl Gernot; Leitgeb, Marion; Lang, Friedrich; Toro, Nancy; Bauer, Marlene; Laengle, Friedrich; Mayrhofer, Thomas; Buerkle, Christian; Forstner, Karin; Germann, Reinhard; Rinoesl, Harald; Schindler, Elke; Trampitsch, Ernst; Fritsch, Gerhard; Szabo, Christian; Bidgoli, Jawad; Verdoodt, Hans; Forget, Patrice; Kahn, David; Lois, Fernande; Momeni, Mona; Prégardien, Caroline; Pospiech, Audrey; Steyaert, Arnaud; Veevaete, Laurent; De Kegel, Dirk; De Jongh, Karen; Foubert, Luc; Smitz, Carine; Vercauteren, Marcel; Poelaert, Jan; Mossevelde, Veerle Van; Abeloos, Jacques; Bouchez, Stefaan; Coppens, Marc; De Baerdemaeker, Luc; Deblaere, Isabel; De Bruyne, Ann; De Hert, Stefan; Fonck, Kristine; Heyse, Bjorn; Jacobs, Tom; Lapage, Koen; Moerman, Anneliese; Neckebroek, Martine; Parashchanka, Aliaksandra; Roels, Nathalie; Van Den Eynde, Nancy; Vandenheuvel, Michael; Van Limmen, Jurgen; Vanluchene, Ann; Vanpeteghem, Caroline; Wouters, Patrick; Wyffels, Piet; Huygens, Christel; Vandenbempt, Punitha; Van de Velde, Marc; Dylst, Dimitri; Janssen, Bruno; Schreurs, Evelien; Aleixo, Fábia Berganton; Candido, Keulle; Batista, Hugo Dias; Guimarães, Mario; Guizeline, Jaqueline; Hoffmann, João; Lobo, Suzana M; Lobo, Francisco Ricardo; Nascimento, Vinícius; Nishiyama, Katia; Pazetto, Lucas; Souza, Daniela; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Souza; Dos Santos, Ana Maria Vilela; Jardim, Jaquelline; Silva, Joao; do Nascimento Junior, Paulo; Baio, Thalissa Hermínia; de Castro, Gabriel Isaac Pereira; Oliveira, Henri Roger Watanabe; Amendola, Cristina Prata; Cardoso, Gutemberg; Ortega, Daniela; Brotto, Ana Flavia; De Oliveira, Mirella Cristine; Réa-Neto, Álvaro; Dias, Fernando; Azambuja, Pedro; Knibel, Marcos Freitas; Martins, Antonio; Almeida, William; Neto, Calim Neder; Tardelli, Maria Angela; Caser, Eliana; Machado, Marcio; Aguzzoli, Crisitiano; Baldisserotto, Sérgio; Tabajara, Fernanda Beck; Bettega, Fernanda; Júnior, La Hore Correa Rodrigues; de Gasperi, Julia; Faina, Lais; Nolasco, Marcos Farias; da Costa Fischer, Bruna Ferreira; de Campos Ferreira, Mariana Fosch; Hartmann, Cristina; Kliemann, Marta; Ribeiro, Gustavo Luis Hubert; Fraga, Julia Merladete; Netto, Thiago Motta; Pozza, Laura Valduga; Wendling, Paulo Rafael; Azevedo, Caroline; Garcia, Juliana; Lopes, Marcel; Maia, Bernardo; Maselli, Paula; Melo, Ralph; Mendes, Weslley; Neves, Matheus; Ney, Jacqueline; Piras, Claudio; Applewhaite, Christopher; Carr, Adrienne; Chow, Lorraine; Duttchen, Kaylene; Foglia, Julena; Greene, Michael; Hinther, Ashley; Houston, Kendra; McCormick, Thomas Jared; Mikhayel, Jennifer; Montasser, Sam; Ragan, Alex; Suen, Andrew; Woolsey, Adrianna; Yu, Hai Chuan; Funk, Duane; Kowalski, Stephen; Legaspi, Regina; McDonald, Heather; Siddiqui, Faisal; Pridham, Jeremy; Rowe, Bernadette; Sampson, Sonia; Thiessen, Barton; Zbitnew, Geoff; Bernard, Andre; George, Ronald; Jones, Philip; Moor, Rita; Siddiqui, Naveed; Wolfer, Alexandra; Tran, Diem; Winch, Denyse; Dobson, Gary; Hinther, Ashley; McCormick, Thomas; Montasser, Osama; Suen, Andrew; Woolsey, Adrianna; Bernard, Andre; George, Ronald; Hall, Richard; Bernard, Andre; George, Ronald; Hall, Richard; Applewhaite, Christopher; Baghirzada, Leyla; McCormick, Thomas Jared; Suen, Andrew; Dai, Si Yuan; Hare, Gregory; Lee, Esther; Shastri, Uma; Tsui, Albert; Yagnik, Anmol; Alvares, Danielle; Choi, Stephen; Dwyer, Heather; Flores, Kathrina; McCartney, Colin; Somascanthan, Priya; Beattie, Scott; Carroll, Jo; Pazmino-Canizares, Janneth; Wijeysundera, Duminda; Wolfer, Alexandra; Ami, Noam; Chan, Vincent; Perlas, Anahi; Argue, Ruth; Lavis, Katie; Mayson, Kelly; Cao, Ying; Gao, Hong; Hu, Tingju; Lv, Jie; Yang, Jian; Yang, Yang; Zhong, Yi; Zhou, Jing; Zou, Xiaohua; He, Miao; Li, Xiaoying; Luo, Dihuan; Wang, Haiying; Yu, Tian; Chen, Liyong; Wang, Lijun; Cai, Yunfei; Cao, Zhongming; Li, Yanling; Lian, Jiaxin; Sun, Haiyun; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Zhipeng; Wang, Kenru; Zhu, Yi; Du, Xindan; Fan, Hao; Fu, Yunbin; Huang, Lixia; Huang, Yanming; Hwan, Haifang; Luo, Hong; Qu, Pi-Sheng; Tao, Fan; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Guoxiang; Wang, Shun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiaolin; Chen, Chao; Wang, Weixing; Liu, Zhengyuan; Fan, Lihua; Tang, Jing; Chen, Yijun; Chen, Yongjie; Han, Yangyang; Huang, Changshun; Liang, Guojin; Shen, Jing; Wang, Jun; Yang, Qiuhong; Zhen, Jungang; Zhou, Haidong; Chen, Junping; Chen, Zhang; Li, Xiaoyu; Meng, Bo; Ye, Haiwang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Yanbing; Cao, Jianqiao; Guo, Fengying; Lin, Hong; Liu, Yang; Lv, Meng; Shi, Pengcai; Song, Xiumei; Sun, Chuanyu; Sun, Yongtao; Wang, Yuelan; Wang, Shenhui; Zhang, Min; Chen, Rong; Hou, Jiabao; Leng, Yan; Meng, Qing-Tao; Qian, Li; Shen, Zi-Ying; Xia, Zhong-Yuan; Xue, Rui; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Bo; Zhou, Xian-Jin; Chen, Qiang; Guo, Huinan; Guo, Yongqing; Qi, Yuehong; Wang, Zhi; Wei, Jianfeng; Zhang, Weiwei; Zheng, Lina; Bao, Qi; Chen, Yaqiu; Chen, Yijiao; Fei, Yue; Hu, Nianqiang; Hu, Xuming; Lei, Min; Li, Xiaoqin; Lv, Xiaocui; Lv, Jie; Miao, Fangfang; Ouyang, Lingling; Qian, Lu; Shen, Conyu; Sun, Yu; Wang, Yuting; Wang, Dong; Wu, Chao; Xu, Liyuan; Yuan, Jiaqi; Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Yapping; Zhao, Jinning; Zhao, Chong; Zhao, Lei; Zheng, Tianzhao; Zhou, Dachun; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhou, Ce; Lu, Kaizhi; Zhao, Ting; He, Changlin; Chen, Hong; Chen, Shasha; Cheng, Baoli; He, Jie; Jin, Lin; Li, Caixia; Li, Hui; Pan, Yuanming; Shi, Yugang; Wen, Xiao Hong; Wu, Shuijing; Xie, Guohao; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Bing; Lu, Xianfu; Chen, Feifei; Liang, Qisheng; Lin, Xuewu; Ling, Yunzhi; Liu, Gang; Tao, Jing; Yang, Lu; Zhou, Jialong; Chen, Fumei; Feng, Yunlin; Hou, Benchao; Lin, Jiamei; Liu, Mei; Luo, Foquan; Shi, Xiaoyun; Xiong, Yingfen; Xu, Lin; Yang, Shuangjia; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Huaigen; Zhao, Weihong; Zhao, Weilu; Yun, Bai; Chen, Linbi; Chen, Sijia; Dai, Qinxue; Geng, Wujun; Han, Kunyuan; He, Xin; Huang, Luping; Ji, Binbin; Jia, Danyun; Jin, Shenhui; Li, Qianjun; Liang, Dongdong; Luo, Shan; Lwang, Lulu; Mo, Yunchang; Pan, Yuanyuan; Qi, Xinyu; Qian, Meizi; Qin, Jinling; Ren, Yelong; Shi, Yiyi; Wang, Junlu; Wang, Junkai; Wang, Leilei; Xie, Junjie; Yan, Yixiu; Yao, Yurui; Zhang, Mingxiao; Zhao, Jiashi; Zhuang, Xiuxiu; Ai, Yanqiu; Du, Fang; He, Long; Huang, Ledan; Li, Zhisong; Li, Huijuan; Li, Yetong; Li, Liwei; Meng, Su; Yuan, Yazhuo; Zhang, Enman; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Shuna; Ji, Zhenrong; Pei, Ling; Wang, Li; Chen, Chen; Dong, Beibei; Li, Jing; Miao, Ziqiang; Mu, Hongying; Qin, Chao; Su, Lin; Wen, Zhiting; Xie, Keliang; Yu, Yonghao; Yuan, Fang; Hu, Xianwen; Zhang, Ye; Xiao, Wangpin; Zhu, Zhipeng; Dai, Qingqing; Fu, Kaiwen; Hu, Rong; Hu, Xiaolan; Huang, Song; Li, Yaqi; Liang, Yingping; Yu, Shuchun; Guo, Zheng; Jing, Yan; Tang, Na; Wu, Jie; Yuan, Dajiang; Zhang, Ruilin; Zhao, Xiaoying; Li, Yuhong; Bai, Hui-Ping; Liu, Chun-Xiao; Liu, Fei-Fei; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xiu-Li; Xu, Guan-Jie; Hu, Na; Li, Bo; Ou, Yangwen; Tang, Yongzhong; Yao, Shanglong; Zhang, Shihai; Kong, Cui-Cui; Liu, Bei; Wang, Tianlong; Xiao, Wei; Lu, Bo; Xia, Yanfei; Zhou, Jiali; Cai, Fang; Chen, Pushan; Hu, Shuangfei; Wang, Hongfa; Wu, Jie; Xu, Qiong; Hu, Liu; Jing, Liang; Li, Jing; Li, Bin; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Yuejiang; Lu, Xinjian; Peng, Zhen Dan; Qiu, Xiaodong; Ren, Quan; Tong, Youliang; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Jin; Wen, Yazhou; Wu, Qiong; Xia, Jiangyan; Xie, Jue; Xiong, Xiapei; Xu, Shixia; Yang, Tianqin; Ye, Hui; Yin, Ning; Yuan, Jing; Zeng, Qiuting; Zhang, Baoling; Zheng, Kang; Cang, Jing; Chen, Shiyu; Du, Fang; Fan, Yu; Fu, Shuying; Ge, Xiaodong; Guo, Baolei; Huang, Wenhui; Jiang, Linghui; Jiang, Xinmei; Jin, Lin; Liu, Yi; Pan, Yan; Ren, Yun; Shan, Qi; Wang, Jiaxing; Wang, Fei; Wu, Chi; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Christiansen, Ida Cecilie; Granum, Simon Nørgaard; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen; Daugaard, Morten; Gambhir, Rajiv; Steingrímsdóttir, Guðný Erla; Jensen-Gadegaard, Peter; Olsen, Karsten Skovgaard; Siegel, Hanna; Eskildsen, Katrine Zwicky; Gätke, Mona Ring; Wibrandt, Ida; Heintzelmann, Simon Bisgaard; Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Lundsgaard, Rune Sarauw; Amstrup-Hansen, Louise; Hovendal, Claus; Larsen, Michael; Lenstrup, Mette; Kobborg, Tina; Larsen, Jens Rolighed; Pedersen, Anette Barbre; Larsen, Jens Rolighed; Smith, Søren Hübertz; Oestervig, Rebecca Monett; Rasmussen, Lars; Afshari, Arash; Andersen, Cheme; Ekelund, Kim; Secher, Erik Lilja; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Beloeil, Helene; Lasocki, Sigismond; Venara, Aurélien; Biais, Matthieu; Ouattara, Alexandre; Sineus, Marlene; Molliex, Serge; Legouge, Marie Lim; Wallet, Florent; Tesniere, Antoine; Gaudin, Christophe; Lehur, Paul; Forsans, Emma; de Rudnicki, Stéphane; Maudet, Valerie Serra; Mutter, Didier; Sojod, Ghassan; Ouaissi, Mehdi; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Futier, Emmanuel; Desbordes, Jacques; Comptaer, Nicolas; El Manser, Diae; Ethgen, Sabine; Lebuffe, Gilles; Auer, Patrick; Härtl, Christine; Deja, Maria; Legashov, Kirill; Sonnemann, Susanne; Wiegand-Loehnert, Carola; Falk, Elke; Habicher, Marit; Angermair, Stefan; Laetsch, Beatrix; Schmidt, Katrin; Sonnemann, Susanne; Von Heymann, Christian; Ramminger, Axel; Jelschen, Florian; Pabel, Svenja; Weyland, Andreas; Czeslick, Elke; Gille, Jochen; Malcharek, Michael; Sablotzki, Armin; Lueke, Katharina; Wetzel, Peter; Weimann, Joerg; Lenhart, Franz-Peter; Reichle, Florian; Schirmer, Frederike; Hüppe, Michael; Klotz, Karl; Nau, Carla; Schön, Julika; Mencke, Thomas; Wasmund, Christina; Bankewitz, Carla; Baumgarten, Georg; Fleischer, Andreas; Guttenthaler, Vera; Hack, Yvonne; Hoeft, Andreas; Kirchgaessner, Katharina; Männer, Olja; Schurig-Urbaniak, Marlen; Struck, Rafael; van Zyl, Rebekka; Wittmann, Maria; Goebel, Ulrich; Harris, Sarah; Veit, Siegfried; Andreadaki, Evangelia; Souri, Flora; Katsiadramis, Ioannis; Skoufi, Anthi; Vasileiou, Maria; Aimoniotou-Georgiou, Eleni; Katsourakis, Anastasios; Veroniki, Fotini; Vlachogianni, Glyceria; Petra, Konstantina; Chlorou, Dimitra; Oloktsidou, Eirini; Ourailoglou, Vasileios; Papapostolou, Konstantinos; Tsaousi, Georgia; Daikou, Panagoula; Dedemadi, Georgia; Kalaitzopoulos, Ioannis; Loumpias, Christos; Bristogiannis, Sotirios; Dafnios, Nikolaos; Gkiokas, Georgios; Kontis, Elissaios; Kozompoli, Dimitra; Papailia, Aspasia; Theodosopoulos, Theodosios; Bizios, Christol; Koutsikou, Anastasia; Moustaka, Aleaxandra; Plaitakis, Ioannis; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Christodoulopoulou, Theodora; Lignos, Mihail; Theodorakopoulou, Maria; Asimakos, Andreas; Ischaki, Eleni; Tsagkaraki, Angeliki; Zakynthinos, Spyros; Antoniadou, Eleni; Koutelidakis, Ioannis; Lathyris, Dimitrios; Pozidou, Irene; Voloudakis, Nikolaos; Dalamagka, Maria; Gkonezou, Elena; Chronis, Christos; Manolakaki, Dimitra; Mosxogiannidis, Dimitris; Slepova, Tatiana; Tsakiridou, Isaiasissy-; Lampiri, Claire Lampiri; Vachlioti, Anastasia Vachlioti; Panagiotakis, Christos Panagiotakis; Sfyras, Dimitrios Sfyras; Tsimpoukas, Fotios Tsimpoukas; Tsirogianni, Athanasia; Axioti, Elena; Filippopoulos, Andreas; Kalliafa, Elli; Kassavetis, George; Katralis, Petros; Komnos, Ioannis; Pilichos, Georgios; Ravani, Ifigenia; Totis, Antonis; Apagaki, Eymorfia; Efthymiadi, Andromachi; Kampagiannis, Nikolaos; Paraforou, Theoniki; Tsioka, Agoritsa; Georgiou, Georgios; Vakalos, Aristeidis; Bairaktari, Aggeliki; Charitos, Efthimios; Markou, George; Niforopoulou, Panagiota; Papakonstantinou, Nikolaos; Tsigou, Evdoxia; Xifara, Archontoula; Zoulamoglou, Menelaos; Gkioni, Panagiota; Karatzas, Stylianos; Kyparissi, Aikaterini; Mainas, Efstratios; Papapanagiotou, Ioannis; Papavasilopoulou, Theonymfi; Fragandreas, George; Georgopoulou, Eleni; Katsika, Eleni; Psarras, Kyriakos; Synekidou, Eirini; Verroiotou, Maria; Vetsiou, Evangelia; Zaimi, Donika; Anagnou, Athina; Apostolou, Konstantinos; Melissopoulou, Theodora; Rozenberg, Theophilos; Tsigris, Christos; Boutsikos, Georgios; Kalles, Vasileios; Kotsalas, Nikolaos; Lavdaiou, Christina; Paikou, Fotini; Panagou, Georgia-Laura; Spring, Anna; Arvaniti, Kostoula; Botis, Ioannis; Drimala, Maria; Georgakakis, Georgios; Kiourtzieva, Ellada; Ntouma, Panagiota; Prionas, Apostolos; Xouplidis, Kyriakos; Dalampini, Eleftheria; Giannaki, Chrysavgi; Iasonidou, Christina; Ioannidis, Orestis; Lavrentieva, Athina; Lavrentieva, Athena; Papageorgiou, George; Kokkinoy, Maria; Stafylaraki, Maria; Gaitanakis, Stylianos; Karydakis, Periclis; Paltoglou, Josef; Ponireas, Panagiotis; Chaloulis, Panagiotis; Provatidis, Athanasios; Sousana, Anisoglou; Gardikou, Varvara Vanessa; Konstantivelli, Maria; Lataniotou, Olga; Lisari, Elisavet; Margaroni, Maria; Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Nikolaidis, Edouardos; Pnevmatikos, Ioannis; Sertaridou, Eleni; Andreou, Alexandros; Arkalaki, Eleni; Athanasakis, Elias; Chaniotaki, Fotini; Chatzimichali, Aikaterini; Christofaki, Maria; Dermitzaki, Despina; Fiorentza, Klara; Frantzeskos, Georgios; Geromarkaki, Elisavet; Kafkalaki, Kalliopi; Kalogridaki, Marina; Karydi, Konstyllia; Kokkini, Sofia; Kougentakis, Georgios; Lefaki, Tatiana; Lilitsis, Emmanouhl; Makatounaki, Aikaterini; Malliotakis, Polychronis; Michelakis, Dimosthenis; Neonaki, Maria; Nyktari, Vasileia; Palikyra, Iliana; Papadakis, Eleftherios; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Sfakianakis, Konstantinos; Sgouraki, Maria; Souvatzis, Xenia; Spartinou, Anastasia; Stefanidou, Nefeli; Syrogianni, Paulina; Tsagkaraki, Georgia; Arnaoutoglou, Elena; Arnaoutoglou, Christina; Bali, Christina; Bouris, Vasilios; Doumos, Rodamanthos; Gkini, Konstantia-Paraskevi; Kapaktsi, Clio; Koulouras, Vasilios; Lena, Arian; Lepida, Dimitra; Michos, Evangelos; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios; Paschopoulos, Minas; Rompou, Vaia Aliki; Siouti, Ioanna; Tsampalas, Stavros; Ververidou, Ourania; Zilis, Georgios; Charlalampidoy, Alexandra; Christodoulidis, Gregory; Flossos, Andreas; Stamoulis, Konstantinos; Chan, Matthew; Tsang, Man Shing Caleb; Tsang, Man Shing; Lai, Man Ling; Yip, Chi Pang; Chan, Hey Man Heymans; Law, Bassanio; Li, Wing Sze; Chu, Hiu Man; Koo, Emily Gar Yee; Lam, Chi Cheong Joe; Cheng, Ka Ho; Chan, Matthew; Lam, Tracy; Chu, Susanna; Lai, Man Ling; Lam, Wing Yan; Wong, Kin Wai Kevin; Kwok, Dilys; Hung, Ching Yue Janice; Chan, Wai Kit Jacky; LamWong, Wing; Chung, Chun Kwong Eric; Lai, Man Ling; Ma, Shu Kai; Kaushik, Shuchi; Shah, Bhagyesh; Shah, Dhiren; Shah, Sanjay; Ar, Praburaj; Muthuchellappan, Radhakrishnan; Agarwal, Vandana; Divatia, Jigeeshu; Kulkarni, Atul; Mishra, Sanghamitra; Nimje, Ganesh; Pande, Swati; Savarkar, Sukhada; Shrivastava, Aditi; Thomas, Martin; Yegnaram, Shashikant; Hidayatullah, Rahmat; Chandra, Susilo; Tantri, Aida; Puar, Nasman; Niman, Sumara; Indra, Imai; Hamzah, Zulkarnain; Yuliana, Annika; Abidin, Ucu Nurhadiat; Dursin, Ade Nurkacan; Kurnia, Andri; Susanti, Ade; Handayani, Dini; Aribawa, Mahaalit Alit; Arya, Aryabiantara; Senapathi, Tjokorda Gde Agung; Utara, Utara Hartawan; Wid, Widnyana Made; Wima, Semarawima; Wir, Wiryana Made; Jehosua, Brillyan; Kaunang, Jonathan; Lantang, Eka Yudha; Najoan, Rini; Waworuntu, Neil; Awad, Hadi; Fuad, Akram; Geddoa, Emad; Geddoa, Burair; Khalaf, Abdel Razzaq; Al Hussaini, Sabah; Albaj, Safauldeensalem; Kenber, Maithem; Bettinelli, Alessandra; Spadaro, Savino; Volta, Carlo Alberto; Giancarlo, Luigi; Sottosanti, Vicari; Rocca, Giorgio Della; Spagnesi, Lorenzo; Toretti, Ilaria; Alloj, Chiara; Cardellino, Silvano; Carmino, Livio; Costanzo, Eleonora; Fanfani, Lucia Caterina; Novelli, Maria Teresa; Roasio, Agostino; Bellandi, Mattia; Beretta, Luigi; Bignami, Elena; Bocchino, Speranza; Cabrini, Luca; Corti, Daniele; Landoni, Giovanni; Meroni, Roberta; Moizo, Elena; Monti, Giacomo; Pintaudi, Margherita; Plumari, Valentina Paola; Taddeo, Daiana; Testa, Valentina; Winterton, Dario; Zangrillo, Alberto; Cloro, Luigi Maria; Colangelo, Chiara; Colangelo, Antonio; Rotunno, Giuseppe; Angel, Miguel Paludi; Maria, Cloro Paolo; Pata, Antonio; Parrini, Vieri; Gatta, Alessandro; Nastasi, Mauro; Tinti, Carla; Spagnesi, Lorenzo; Arrigo, Mario; Benevento, Angelo; Bottini, Corrado; Cannavo, Maurizio; Gastaldi, Christian; Marchesi, Alessandro; Pascazio, Angelantonio; Pata, Francesco; Pozzi, Emilio; Premoli, Alberto; Tessera, Gaetano; Boschi, Luca; D'Andrea, Rocco; Ghignone, Federico; Poggioli, Gilberto; Sibilio, Andrea; Taffurelli, Mario; Ugolini, Giampaolo; Majid, Mohd Azuan Ab; Rahman, Rusnah Ab; Joseph, James; Pathan, Furquan; Shah, Mohammad Hafizshah Sybil; Yap, Huey Ling; Cheah, Seleen; Chin, Im Im; Looi, Ji Keon; Tan, Siew Ching; Visvalingam, Sheshendrasurian; Kwok, Fan Yin; Lee, Chew Kiok; Tan, Tse Siang; Wong, Sze Meng; Abdullah, Noor Hairiza; Liew, Chiat Fong; Luxuman, Lovenia; Zin, Nor Hafizah Mohd; Norddin, Muhamad Faiz; Alias, Raja Liza Raja; Wong, Juan Yong; Yong, Johnny; Mustapha, Mohd Tarmimi Bin; Chan, Weng Ken; Dzulkipli, Norizawati; Kuan, Pei Xuan; Lee, Yew Ching; Alias, Anita; Guok, Eng Ching; Jee, Chiun Chen; Ramon, Brian Rhadamantyne; Weng, Cheng Wong; Ghafar, Fara Nur Idayu Abd; Aziz, Faizal Zuhri; Hussain, Nabilah; Lee, Hooi Sean; Sukawi, Ismawaty; Woon, Yuan Liang; Hadi, Husni Zaeem Abd; Azam, Ummi Azmira Ahmad; Alias, Abdul Hafiz; Kesut, Saiful Aizar; Lee, Jun May; Ooi, Dar Vin; Sulaiman, Hetty Ayuni; Lih, Tengku Alini Tengku; Mansor, Marzida; Veerakumaran, Jeyaganesh; Luna, Pastor; Rojas, Eder; Resendiz, Gerardo Esteban Alvarez; Zapata, Darcy Danitza Mari; López, Julio Cesar Jesús Aguilar; Flores, Armando Adolfo Alvarez; Amador, Juan Carlos Bravo; Avila, Erendira Jocelin Dominguez; Aquino, Laura Patricia González; Rodriguez, Ricardo Lopez; Landa, Mariana Torres; Urias, Emma; Hollmann, Markus; Hulst, Abraham; Kirzner, Osne; Preckel, Benedikt; Gemert, Ankie Koopman-van; Bouwman, Arthur; Buise, Marc; Tolenaar, Noortje; Weber, Eric; de Fretes, Jennifer; Houweling, Peter; Ormskerk, Patricia; Van Bommel, Jasper; Buhre, Wolfgang; Lance, Marcus; Smit-Fun, Valerie; van Zundert, Tom; Baas, Peter; de Boer, Hans Donald; Sprakel, Joost; Elferink-Vonk, Renske; Noordzij, Peter; van Zeggeren, Laura; Brand, Bastiaan; Spanjersberg, Rob; Ten Bokkel-Andela, Janneke; Numan, Sandra; van Klei, Wilton; van Zaane, Bas; Boer, Christa; van Duivenvoorde, Yoni; Hering, Jens Peter; Zonneveldt, Harry; Campbell, Doug; Hoare, Siobhan; Santa, Sahayam; Allen, Sara Jane; Beavis, Vanessa; Bell, Rachel; Choi, Hyun-Min David; Drake, Matthew; Farrell, Helen; Higgie, Kushlin; Holmes, Kerry; Jenkins, Nicole; Kim, Chang Joon; Kim, Steven; Law, Kiew Chai; McAllister, Davina; Park, Karen; Pedersen, Karen; Pfeifer, Leesa; Salmond, Timothy; Steynor, Martin; Tan, Michael; Waymouth, Ellen; Rahman, Ahmad Sufian Ab; Armstrong, John; Dudson, Rosie; Jenkins, Nia; Nilakant, Jayashree; Richard, Seigne; Virdi, Pardeep; Dixon, Liane; Donohue, Roana; Farrow, Mehreen; Kennedy, Ross; Marissa, Henderson; McKellow, Margie; Nicola, Delany; Pascoe, Rebecca; Roberts, Stephen John; Rowell, George; Sumner, Matthew; Templer, Paul; Chandrasekharan, Shardha; Fulton, Graham; Jammer, Ib; Ali, Marlynn; More, Richard; Wilson, Leona; Chang, Yuan Hsuan; Foley, Julia; Fowler, Carolyn; Panckhurst, Jonathan; Sara, Rachel; Stapelberg, Francois; Campbell, Doug; Cherrett, Veronica; Ganter, Donna Louise; McAllister, Davina; McCann, Lloyd; Foley, Julia; Gilmour, Fiona; Lumsden, Rachelle; Moores, Mark; Olliff, Sue; Sardareva, Elitza; Stapelberg, Francois; Tai, Joyce; Wikner, Matthew; Wong, Christopher; Chaddock, Mark; Czepanski, Carolyn; McKendry, Patrick; Polakovic, Daniel; Polakovich, Daniel; Robert, Axe; Belda, Margarita Tormo; Norton, Tracy; Stapelberg, Francois; Alherz, Fadhel; Barneto, Lisa; Ramirez, Alberto; Sayeed, Ahmed; Smith, Nicola; Bennett, Cambell; McQuoid, Shane; Bell, Rachel; Jansen, Tracy-Lee; Nico, Zin; Scott, John; Freschini, David; Freschini, Angela; Hopkins, Brian; Manson, Lara; Stoltz, Deon; Bates, Alexander; Davis, Simon; Freeman, Victoria; McGaughran, Lynette; Sharma, Swarna Baskar; Burrows, Tom; Byrne, Kelly; English, Duane; Johnson, Robert; Law, Kiew Chai; Manikkam, Brendon; McAllister, Davina; Naidoo, Shaun; Rumball, Margot; Whittle, Nicola; Franks, Romilla; Gibson-Lapsley, Hannah; McAllister, Davina; Salter, Ryan; Walsh, Dean; Cooper, Richard; Perry, Katherine; Obobolo, Amos; Sule, Umar Musa; Ahmad, Abdurrahman; Atiku, Mamuda; Mohammed, Alhassan Datti; Sarki, Adamu Muhammad; Adekola, Oyebola; Akanmu, Olanrewaju; Durodola, Adekunle; Olukoju, Olusegun; Raji, Victor; Olajumoke, Tokunbo; Oyebamiji, Emmanuel; Adenekan, Anthony; Adetoye, Adedapo; Faponle, Folayemi; Olateju, Simeon; Owojuyigbe, Afolabi; Talabi, Ademola; Adenike, Odewabi; Adewale, Badru; Collins, Nwokoro; Ezekiel, Emmanuel; Fatungase, Oluwabunmi Motunrayo; Grace, Anuforo; Sola, Sotannde; Stella, Ogunmuyiwa; Ademola, Adeyinka; Adeolu, Augustine A; Adigun, Tinuola; Akinwale, Mukaila; Fasina, Oluyemi; Gbolahan, Olalere; Idowu, Olusola; Olonisakin, Rotimi Peter; Osinaike, Babatunde Babasola; Asudo, Felicia; Mshelia, Danladi; Abdur-Rahman, Lukman; Agodirin, Olayide; Bello, Jibril; Bolaji, Benjamin; Oyedepo, Olanrewaju Olubukola; Ezike, Humphrey; Iloabachie, Ikechukwu; Okonkwo, Ikemefuna; Onuora, Elias; Onyeka, Tonia; Ugwu, Innocent; Umeh, Friday; Alagbe-Briggs, Olubusola; Dodiyi-Manuel, Amabra; Echem, Richard; Obasuyi, Bright; Onajin-Obembe, Bisola; Bandeira, Maria Expedito; Martins, Alda; Tomé, Miguel; Costa, Ana Cristina Miranda Martins; Krystopchuk, Andriy; Branco, Teresa; Esteves, Simao; Melo, Marco António; Monte, Júlia; Rua, Fernando; Martins, Isabel; Pinho-Oliveira, Vítor Miguel; Rodrigues, Carla Maria; Cabral, Raquel; Marques, Sofia; Rêgo, Sara; Jesus, Joana Sofia Teixeira; Marques, Maria Conceição; Romao, Cristina; Dias, Sandra; Santos, Ana Margarida; Alves, Maria Joao; Salta, Cristina; Cruz, Salome; Duarte, Célia; Paiva, António Armando Furtado; do Nascimento Cabral, Tiago; Maia, Dionisio Faria E; da Silva, Rui Freitas Mendonça Correia; Langner, Anuschka; Resendes, Hernâni Oliveira; da Conceição Soares, Maria; Abrunhosa, Alexandra; Faria, Filomena; Miranda, Lina; Pereira, Helena; Serra, Sofia; Ionescu, Daniela; Margarit, Simona; Mitre, Calin; Vasian, Horatiu; Manga, Gratiela; Stefan, Andreea; Tomescu, Dana; Filipescu, Daniela; Paunescu, Marilena-Alina; Stefan, Mihai; Stoica, Radu; Gavril, Laura; PĂtrĂșcanu, Emilia; Ristescu, Irina; Rusu, Daniel; Diaconescu, Ciresica; Iosep, Gabriel Florin; Pulbere, Dorin; Ursu, Irina; Balanescu, Andreea; Grintescu, Ioana; Mirea, Liliana; Rentea, Irina; Vartic, Mihaela; Lupu, Mary-Nicoleta; Stanescu, Dorin; Streanga, Lavinea; Antal, Oana; Hagau, Natalia; Patras, Dumitru; Petrisor, Cristina; Tosa, Flaviu; Tranca, Sebastian; Copotoiu, Sanda Maria; Ungureanu, Liviu Lucian; Harsan, Cristian Remus; Papurica, Marius; Cernea, Daniela Denisa; Dragoescu, Nicoleta Alice; Aflori, Laura; Vaida, Carmen; Ciobotaru, Oana Roxana; Aignatoaie, Mariana; Carp, Cristina Paula; Cobzaru, Isabelle; Mardare, Oana; Purcarin, Bianca; Tutunaru, Valentin; Ionita, Victor; Arustei, Mirela; Codita, Anisoara; Busuioc, Mihai; Chilinciuc, Ion; Ciobanu, Cristina; Belciu, Ioana; Tincu, Eugen; Blaj, Mihaela; Grosu, Ramona-Mihaela; Sandu, Gigel; Bruma, Dana; Corneci, Dan; Dutu, Madalina; Krepil, Adriana; Copaciu, Elena; Dumitrascu, Clementina Oana; Jemna, Ramona; Mihaescu, Florentina; Petre, Raluca; Tudor, Cristina; Ursache, Elena; Kulikov, Alexander; Lubnin, Andrey; Grigoryev, Evgeny; Pugachev, Stanislav; Protsenko, Denis; Tolmasov, Alexander; Hussain, Ayyaz; Ilyina, Yana; Kirov, Mikhail; Roshchina, Anna; Iurin, Aleksandr; Chazova, Elena; Dunay, Artem; Karelov, Alexey; Khvedelidze, Irina; Voldaeva, Olga; Belskiy, Vladislav; Dzhamullaev, Parvin; Grishkowez, Elena; Kretov, Vladimir; Levin, Valeriy; Molkov, Aleksandr; Puzanov, Sergey; Samoilenko, Aleksandr; Tchekulaev, Aleksandr; Tulupova, Valentina; Utkin, Ivan; Allorto, Nikki Leigh; Bishop, David Gray; Builu, Pierre Monji; Cairns, Carel; Dasrath, Ashish; de Wet, Jacques; den Hoedt, Marielle; Grey, Ben; Hayes, Morgan Philip; Küsel, Belinda Senta; Shangase, Nomcebo; Wise, Robert; Cacala, Sharon; Farina, Zane; Govindasamy, Vishendran; Kruse, Carl-Heinz; Lee, Carolyn; Marais, Leonard; Naidoo, Thinagrin Dhasarthun; Rajah, Chantal; Rodseth, Reitze Nils; Ryan, Lisa; von Rhaden, Richard; Adam, Suwayba; Alphonsus, Christella; Ameer, Yusuf; Anderson, Frank; Basanth, Sujith; Bechan, Sudha; Bhula, Chettan; Biccard, Bruce M; Biyase, Thuli; Buccimazza, Ines; Cardosa, Jorge; Chen, James; Daya, Bhavika; Drummond, Leanne; Elabib, Ali; Goad, Ehab Helmy Abdel; Goga, Ismail E; Goga, Riaz; Harrichandparsad, R; Hodgson, Richard E; Jordaan, J; Kalafatis, Nicky; Kampik, Christian; Landers, A T; Loots, Emil; Madansein, Rajhmum; Madaree, Anil; Madiba, Thandinkosi E; Manzini, Vukani T; Mbuyisa, Mbali; Moodley, Rajan; Msomi, Mduduzi; Mukama, Innocent; Naidoo, Desigan; Naidoo, Rubeshan; Naidu, Tesuven K; Ntloko, Sindiswa; Padayachee, Eneshia; Padayachee, Lucelle; Phaff, Martijn; Pillay, Bala; Pillay, Desigan; Pillay, Lutchmee; Ramnarain, Anupa; Ramphal, Suren R; Ryan, Paul; Saloojee, Ahmed; Sebitloane, Motshedisi; Sigcu, Noluyolo; Taylor, Jenna L; Torborg, Alexandra; Visser, Linda; Anderson, Philip; Conradie, Alae; de Swardt, Mathew; de Villiers, Martin; Eikman, Johan; Liebenberg, Riaan; Mouton, Johan; Paton, Abbey; van der Merwe, Louwrence; Wilscott-Davids, Candice; Barrett, Wendy Joan; Bester, Marlet; de Beer, Johan; Geldenhuys, Jacques; Gouws, Hanni; Potgieter, Jan-Hendrik; Strydom, Magdel; Wilberforce-Turton, Edwin; Chetty, Rubendraj R; Chirkut, Subash; Cronje, Larissa; de Vasconcellos, Kim; Dube, Nokukhanya Z; Gama, N Sibusiso; Green, Garyth M; Green-Thompson, Randolph; Kinoo, Suman Mewa; Kistnasami, Prenolin; Maharaj, Kapil; Moodley, Manogaran S; Mothae, Sibongile J; Naidoo, Ruvashni; Aslam, M; Noorbhai, F; Rughubar, Vivesh; Reddy, Jenendhiran; Singh, Avesh; Skinner, David L; Smith, Murray J; Singh, Bhagwan; Misra, Ravi; Naidoo, Maheshwar; Ramdharee, Pireshin; Selibea, Yvonne; Sewpersad, Selina; Sham, Shailendra; Wessels, Joseph D; Africander, Cucu; Bejia, Tarek; Blakemore, Stephen P; Botes, Marisa; Bunwarie, Bimalshakth; Hernandez, Carlos B; Jeeraz, Mohammud A; Legutko, Dagmara A; Lopez, Acela G; De Meyer, Jenine N; Muzenda, Tanaka; Naidoo, Noel; Patel, Maryam; Pentela, Rao; Junge, Marina; Mansoor, Naj; Rademan, Lana; Scislowski, Pawel; Seedat, Ismail; van den Berg, Bianca; van der Merwe, Doreen; van Wyk, Steyn; Govender, Komalan; Naicker, Darshan; Ramjee, Rajesh; Saley, Mueen; Kuhn, Warren Paul; Matos-Puig, Roel; Moolla, Zaheer; Lisi, Alberto; Perez, Gisela; Beltran, Anna Valle; Lozano, Angels; Navarro, Carlos Delgado; Duca, Alejandro; Martinez, Ernesto Pastor; Ferrando, Carlos; Fuentes, Isabel; García-Pérez, Maria Luisa; Gracia, Estefania; Palomares, Ana Izquierdo; Katime, Antonio; Miñana, Amanda; Incertis, Raul; Romero, Esther; Garcia, Carolina Soledad Romero; Rubio, Concepcion; Artiles, Tania Socorro; Soro, Marina; Valls, Paola; Laguarda, Gisela Alaman; Benavent, Pau; Cuenca, Vicente Chisbert; Cueva, Andreu; Lafuente, Matilde; Parra, Asuncion Marques; Rodrigo, Alejandra Romero; Sanchez-Morcillo, Silvia; Tormo, Sergi; Redondo, Francisco Javier; De Andres, Jose; Diago, Lorena Gómez; Cádiz, Maria José Hernández; Manuel, Granell Gil; Peris, Raquel; Saiz, Cristina; Tatay, Jose; Soto, Maria Teresa Tebar; Brunete, Tamara; Cancho, David; Delgado García, David R; Zamudio, Diana; Del Valle, Santiago Garcia; Serrano, M Luz; Alonso, Eduardo; Anillo, Victor; Maseda, Emilio; Salgado, Patricia; Suarez, Luis; Suarez-de-la-Rica, Alejandro; Villagrán, María José; Aldecoa, Cesar; Alonso, José Ignacio; Cabezuelo, Estefania; Garcia-Saiz, Irene; Del Moral, Olga Lopez; Martín, Silvia; Gonzalez, Alba Perez; Doncel, Sherezade Tovar; Vera, Martin Agüero; Sánchez, Francisco José Ávila; Castaño, Beatriz; Moreira, Beatriz Castaño; Risco, Sahely Flores; Martín, Daniel Paz; Martín, Fernando Pérez; Poza, Paloma; Ruiz, Adela; Martínez, Wilson Fabio Serna; Vicente, Bárbara Vázquez; Dominguez, Saul Velaz; Fernández, Salvador; Munoz-López, Alfonso; Bernat, Maria Jose; Mas, Arantxa; Planas, Kenneth; Jawad, Monir; Saeed, Yousif; Hedin, Annika; Levander, Helena; Chew, Michelle; Holmström, Sandra; Lönn, David; Zoerner, Frank; Åkring, Irene; Widmark, Carl; Zettergren, Jan; Liljequist, Victor Aspelund; Nystrom, Lena; Odeberg-Wernerman, Suzanne; Oldner, Anders; Reje, Patrik; Lyckner, Sara; Sperber, Jesper; Adolfsson, Anne; Klarin, Bengt; Hedin, Annika; Ögren, Katrin; Barras, Jean-Pierre; Bührer, Thomas; Despotidis, Vasileios; Helmy, Naeder; Holliger, Stephan; Raptis, Dimitri Aristotle; Schmid, Roger; Meyer, Antoine; Jaquet, Yves; Kessler, Ulf; Muradbegovic, Mirza; Nahum, Solange R; Rotunno, Teresa; Schiltz, Boris; Voruz, François; Worreth, Marc; Christoforidis, Dimitri; Popeskou, Sotirios Georgios; Furrer, Markus; Prevost, Gian Andrea; Stocker, Andrea; Lang, Klaus; Breitenstein, Stefan; Ganter, Michael T; Geisen, Martin; Soll, Christopher; Korkmaz, Michelle; Lubach, Iris; Schmitz, Michael; Schwabedissen, Moritz Meyer Zu; Zingg, Urs; Hillermann, Thomas; Wildi, Stefan; Hofer, Christoph; Pinto, Bernardo Bollen; Walder, Bernhard; Hübner, Martin; Mariotti, Giustina; Slankamenac, Ksenija; Namuyuga, Mirioce; Kyomugisha, Edward; Kituuka, Olivia; Shikanda, Anne Wesonga; Kakembo, Nasser; Tom, Charles Otim; Webombesa, Antonina; Bua, Emmanuel; Ditai, James; Ssettabi, Eden Michael; Epodoi, Joseph; Kabagenyi, Fiona; Kirya, Fred; Dempsey, Ged; Seasman, Colette; Khan, Raja Basit Nawaz; Kurasz, Claire; Macgregor, Mark; Shawki, Burhan; Hariharan, Vimal; Chau, Simon; Ellis, Kate; Butt, Georgina; Chicken, Dennis-Wayne; Christmas, Natasha; Allen, Samantha; Daniel, Gayatri Daniel; Dempster, Angie; Kemp, Juliette; Matthews, Lewis; Mcglone, Philip; Tambellini, Joanne; Trodd, Dawn; Freitas, Katie; Garg, Atul; Karpate, Shilpaja; Kulkarni, Aditi; O'Hara, Chloe; Troko, Jtroko; Angus, Kirsty; Bradley, Jacqueline; Brennan, Emma; Brooks, Carolyn; Brown, Janette; Brown, Gemma; Finch, Amanda; Gratrix, Karen; Hesketh, Sue; Hill, Gillian; Jeffs, Carol; Morgan, Maureen; Pemberton, Chris; Slawson, Nicola; Spickett, Helen; Swarbrick, Gemma; Thomas, Megan; Van Duyvenvoorde, Greta; Brennan, Andrew; Briscoe, Richard; Cooper, Sarah; Lawton, Tom; Northey, Martin; Senaratne, Rashmi; Stanworth, Helen; Burrows, Lorna; Cain, Helen; Craven, Rachael; Davies, Keith; Jonas, Attila; Pachucki, Marcin; Walkden, Graham; Davies, Helen; Gudaca, Mariethel; Hobrok, Maria; Arawwawala, Dilshan; Fergey, Lauren; Gardiner, Matthew; Gunn, Jacqueline; Johnson, Lyndsay; Lofting, Amanda; Lyle, Amanda; Neela, Fiona Mc; Smolen, Susan; Topliffe, Joanne; Williams, Sarah; Bland, Martin; Kaura, Vikas; Lanka, Prasad; Naylor, Chardé; Smith, Neil; Ahmed, Ahmed; Myatt, John; Shenoy, Ravikiran; Soon, Wai Cheong; Tan, Jessica; Karadia, Sunny; Self, James; Durant, Emma; Tripathi, Shiva; Bullock, Clare; Campbell, Debbie; Ghosh, Alison; Hughes, Thomas; Zsisku, Lajos; Bengeri, Sheshagiri; Cowton, Amanda; Khalid, Mohammed Shazad; Limb, James; McAdam, Colin; Porritt, Mandy; Rafi, M Amir; Shekar, Priya; Harden, Catherine; Hollands, Heidi; King, Angela; March, Linda; Minto, Gary; Patrick, Abigail; Waugh, Darren; Kumara, Paramesh; Simeson, Karen; Yarwood, Jamie; Browning, Julie; Hatton, Jonathan; Julian, Howes; Mitra, Atideb; Newton, Maria; Pernu, Pawan Kootelu; Wilson, Alison; Commey, Thelma; Foot, Helen; Glover, Lyn; Gupta, Ajay; Lancaster, Nicola; Levin, Jill; Mackenzie, Felicity; Mestanza, Claire; Nofal, Emma; Pout, Lauren; Varden, Rosanna; Wild, Jonathan; Jones, Stephanie; Moreton, Sarah; Pulletz, Mark; Davies, Charlotte; Martin, Matthew; Thomas, Sian; Burns, Karen; McArthur, Carol; Patel, Panna; Lau, Gary; Rich, Natalie; Davis, Fiona; Self, James; Lyons, Rachel; Port, Beth; Prout, Rachel; Smith, Christopher; Adelaja, Yemi; Bennett, Victoria; Bidd, Heena; Dumitrescu, Alexandra; Murphy, Jacqui Fox; Keen, Abigail; Mguni, Nhlanhla; Ong, Cheng; Adams, George; Boshier, Piers; Brown, Richard; Butryn, Izabella; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Freethy, Alexander; Lockwood, Geoffrey; Tsakok, Maria; Tsiligiannis, Sophia; Peat, William; Stephenson, Lorraine; Bradburn, Mike; Pick, Sara; Cunha, Pedro; Olagbaiye, Olufemi; Tayeh, Salim; Abernethy, Caroline; Balasubramaniam, Madhu; Bennett, Rachael; Bolton, David; Martinson, Victoria; Naylor, Charde; Smith, Neil; Bell, Stephanie; Heather, Blaylock; Kushakovsky, Vlad; Alcock, Liam; Alexander, Hazel; Anderson, Colette; Baker, Paul; Brookes, Morag; Cawthorn, Louise; Cirstea, Emanuel; Colling, Kerry; 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Lawson, Simon; Lewis, Megan; Makzal, Zaid; Scourfield, Sarah; Ahmad, Yousra; Bates, Sarah; Blackwell, Clare; Bryant, Helen; Coulter, Suzanne; Cruickshank, Ross; Daniel, Sonya; Daubeny, Thomas; Edwards, Mark; Golder, Kim; Hawkins, Lesley; Helen, Bryant; Hinxman, Honor; Levett, Denny; Skinner, Ben; Walsgrove, Joseph; Bradburn, Mike; Dickson, Jane; Constantin, Kathryn; Karen, Markwell; O'Brien, Peter; O'Donohoe, Lynn; Payne, Hannah; Sundayi, Saul; Walker, Elaine; Brooke, Jenny; Cardy, Jon; Humphreys, Sally; Kessack, Laura; Kubitzek, Christiane; Kumar, Suhas; Cotterill, Donna; Hodzovic, Emil; Hosdurga, Gurunath; Miles, Edward; Saunders, Glenn; Campbell, Marta; Chan, Peter; Jemmett, Kim; Raj, Ashok; Naik, Aditi; Ramamoorthy, Rajarajan; Shah, Nimesh; Sylvan, Axel; Blyth, Katharine; Burtenshaw, Andrew; Freeman, David; Johnson, Emily; Lo, Philip; Martin, Terry; Plunkett, Emma; Wollaston, Julie; Allison, Joanna; Carroll, Christine; Craw, Nicholas; Craw, Sarah; Pitt-Kerby, Tressy; Rowland-Axe, Rebecca; 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BACKGROUND:The Clavien-Dindo classification is perhaps the most widely used approach for reporting postoperative complications in clinical trials. This system classifies complication severity by the treatment provided. However, it is unclear whether the Clavien-Dindo system can be used internationally in studies across differing healthcare systems in high- (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS:This was a secondary analysis of the International Surgical Outcomes Study (ISOS), a prospective observational cohort study of elective surgery in adults. Data collection occurred over a 7-day period. Severity of complications was graded using Clavien-Dindo and the simpler ISOS grading (mild, moderate or severe, based on guided investigator judgement). Severity grading was compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Data are presented as frequencies and ICC values (with 95 per cent c.i.). The analysis was stratified by income status of the country, comparing HICs with LMICs. RESULTS:A total of 44 814 patients were recruited from 474 hospitals in 27 countries (19 HICs and 8 LMICs). Some 7508 patients (16·8 per cent) experienced at least one postoperative complication, equivalent to 11 664 complications in total. Using the ISOS classification, 5504 of 11 664 complications (47·2 per cent) were graded as mild, 4244 (36·4 per cent) as moderate and 1916 (16·4 per cent) as severe. Using Clavien-Dindo, 6781 of 11 664 complications (58·1 per cent) were graded as I or II, 1740 (14·9 per cent) as III, 2408 (20·6 per cent) as IV and 735 (6·3 per cent) as V. Agreement between classification systems was poor overall (ICC 0·41, 95 per cent c.i. 0·20 to 0·55), and in LMICs (ICC 0·23, 0·05 to 0·38) and HICs (ICC 0·46, 0·25 to 0·59). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Caution is recommended when using a treatment approach to grade complications in global surgery studies, as this may introduce bias unintentionally.
PMID: 30620066
ISSN: 1365-2168
CID: 5013702