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Diltiazem induces severe photodistributed hyperpigmentation: case series, histoimmunopathology, management, and review of the literature [Case Report]

Saladi, Rao N; Cohen, Steven R; Phelps, Robert G; Persaud, Andrea N; Rudikoff, Donald
BACKGROUND: Diltiazem hydrochloride is a commonly prescribed benzothiazepine calcium channel blocker for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Recently, 8 cases of diltiazem-induced photodistributed hyperpigmentation occurring predominantly in elderly African American women were reported. Here, we report occurrence for the first time in a light-skinned African American woman and a Hispanic woman. We also report this finding in an African American man. Biopsy specimens of hyperpigmented areas were obtained for histopathologic evaluation and marker studies. Photospectrometry analysis for diltiazem was performed to analyze the photoabsorption properties of this drug. OBSERVATIONS: Routine laboratory examination results were normal in all patients. Serologic test results for antinuclear antibodies, including Sjogren antibodies anti-Ro (SS-A) and anti-La (SS-B), were negative. Histopathologic analysis of the skin biopsy specimens revealed a sparse lichenoid infiltrate, prominent pigmentary incontinence, and numerous melanophages in the dermis. There was no increase in dermal mucin suggestive of lupus. The mononuclear cells in the specimens were strongly positive for CD3, weakly positive for CD68, and either weakly positive or negative for CD79a. All specimens were negative for Alcian blue staining. Photospectrometry analysis of diltiazem showed an absorption range within the UV-B spectrum. CONCLUSIONS: Photospectrometry analysis revealed diltiazem could demonstrate a photosensitizing effect within the UV-B range. Discontinuation of therapy with diltiazem is the most effective modality in resolving hyperpigmentation. Avoidance of sun exposure and consistent use of sunscreens and sun-protective clothing are indicated for patients undergoing diltiazem therapy
PMID: 16490848
ISSN: 0003-987x
CID: 71663

Mustard: a potential agent of chemical warfare and terrorism

Saladi, R N; Smith, E; Persaud, A N
As one of the most important vesicant agents, the destructive properties of mustards on the skin, eyes and respiratory system, combined with a lack of antidote, makes them effective weapons. Such weapons are inexpensive, easily obtainable and frequently stockpiled. Sulphur mustard (mustard gas) has been used as a chemical warfare agent in at least 10 conflicts. In this article, the use of mustard as a potential agent of chemical warfare and terrorism is outlined. The dose-dependent effects of acute sulphur mustard exposure on the skin, eyes, and respiratory system are described, as well as the possible extents of injuries, the mechanisms of action and the long-term complications. Prevention and management of mustard exposure are briefly discussed. The need for awareness and preparedness in the dermatological community regarding mustard exposure is emphasized
PMID: 16309468
ISSN: 0307-6938
CID: 71670

The causes of skin cancer: a comprehensive review

Saladi, Rao N; Persaud, Andrea N
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations around the world. The incidence and mortality rates of skin cancers are dramatically increasing and thus pose a threat to public health. Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of skin cancer remains a goal for healthcare systems. A clearer understanding of causative factors is an essential step in the prevention of skin cancer. This article comprehensively reviews the causative agents which play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) from sun exposure is the most important cause of skin cancer. Sunburns and excessive exposures cause cumulative damage which induces immunosuppression and skin cancers. Ozone depletion, the level of UV light, elevation, latitude, altitude and weather conditions influence the emission of UV radiation reaching the earth's surface. Organ transplant recipients and AIDS patients have an increased incidence of skin cancers. Some treatment modalities, including radiation therapy, phototherapy and psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet radiation (PUVA) can also predispose to skin cancers. Viral infections such as the human papilloma virus can cause squamous cell carcinomas. Individuals with familial genetic syndromes are susceptible to specific types of skin cancers. Ionizing radiation, environmental pollutants, chemical carcinogens and work-related exposures have been associated with skin cancers. Exposure to artificial UV radiation (tanning beds and lamps), aging, skin color, diet and smoking are attributable risks. Skin cancers have been found in dermatoses and various types of keratoses, chronically injured or nonhealing wounds, and scars. This article provides a comprehensive and thorough overview of skin cancer, with an emphasis on understanding its epidemiology, incidence, etiology and related risk factors
PMID: 15753968
ISSN: 1699-3993
CID: 71664

Scrotal calcinosis: is the cause still unknown? [Case Report]

Saladi, Rao N; Persaud, Andrea N; Phelps, Robert G; Cohen, Steven R
Scrotal calcinosis is a rare benign entity of calcified nodules within the scrotal skin. We describe a healthy 25-year-old man with multiple asymptomatic calcified nodules restricted to the scrotum. Histologic studies of multiple nodules showed calcium deposition, and basophilic material with sparse inflammation surrounded by a fibrous capsule. Because the intensive evaluation of our patient failed to reveal a cause, an analysis of all 123 cases found in the literature was conducted. Several plausible origins for scrotal calcinosis are disclosed; however, pathogenesis of this condition remains equivocal and controversial. The most common treatment option is excision of the affected nodules. Our report underscores the need for further investigation of this florid and bizarre disorder
PMID: 15280824
ISSN: 1097-6787
CID: 71665

Idiopathic splinter hemorrhages [Case Report]

Saladi, Rao N; Persaud, Andrea N; Rudikoff, Donald; Cohen, Steven R
Splinter hemorrhages are non-blanchable usually distal reddish-brown linear hemorrhages beneath the nails. Among a variety of etiologic factors reported, trauma is the most common cause. A 26-year-old Hispanic female presented with asymptomatic, extensive fingernail hemorrhages of two months duration. There was no history of physical trauma to the nails. Treatment with a topical antifungal medication for one month produced no improvement. The past medical history was noncontributory. Extensive laboratory testing revealed no underlying systemic disease. Three months after the initial presentation, 6 of 10 fingernails showed signs of resolution without treatment. We conclude that idiopathic atraumatic subungual splinter hemorrhages can occur in healthy individuals. Spontaneous resolution occurred in our patient
PMID: 14726890
ISSN: 0190-9622
CID: 71666

Clinical effect of imiquimod 5% cream in the treatment of actinic keratosis

Persaud, Andrea N; Shamuelova, Eleonora; Sherer, Daniel; Lou, Wendy; Singer, Giselle; Cervera, Christina; Lamba, Sumedha; Lebwohl, Mark G
BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is the earliest clinical manifestation of squamous cell carcinoma. Metastatic SCC causes the majority of the 1300 to 2300 deaths attributed to nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States each year. Recent studies have shown that intralesional administration of interferon can be used successfully in the treatment of AK. OBJECTIVE: Imiquimod is an immune response modifier, currently approved for the treatment of genital warts. The topically applied immune response modifier acts by up-regulating interferon and other cytokines involved in the cell-mediated immune response at the site of application. The aim of this was to determine the efficacy and safety of imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of AK. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with AK lesions were treated with imiquimod 5% cream, initially at 3 times per week for 8 weeks, or until total clearance of lesions. Patients applied imiquimod to lesions on one side of the body and vehicle cream to the other side. A total of 17 patients who completed treatment were evaluated for number of lesions and adverse reactions before treatment and at weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8 after initiation of treatment. AK lesions were also assessed 4 and 8 weeks after treatment. RESULTS: A significant reduction in the average number of lesions per patient was observed for patients treated with imiquimod. The most frequent reactions to treatment were erythema, itching, and scabbing; however, all adverse events were mild to moderate. CONCLUSION: Imiquimod 5% cream may be a promising treatment for AK
PMID: 12271300
ISSN: 0190-9622
CID: 71667

Imiquimod cream in the treatment of actinic keratoses [Case Report]

Persaud, Andrea; Lebwohl, Mark
We studied the usefulness of imiquimod cream in the treatment of 3 patients with actinic keratoses. One patient was treated 3 times per week for 4 weeks and had a marked inflammatory response with nearly complete resolution of actinic keratoses. Two subsequent patients were treated in a bilateral paired comparison study. Both patients had similar numbers of actinic keratoses on symmetric areas and treated only one side with imiquimod cream 2 to 3 times per week with frequent rest periods to avoid inflammation. Both experienced marked reductions in actinic keratoses. After 8 weeks, both patients applied imiquimod cream twice per week for 9 months with continued reduction in actinic keratoses on both sides. Treatments were well tolerated. Imiquimod cream appears to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses. The main adverse effect is local inflammation, which can be avoided by reducing the frequency of application
PMID: 12271285
ISSN: 0190-9622
CID: 71668

Successful treatment of acne vulgaris using a new method: results of a randomized vehicle-controlled trial of short-contact therapy with 0.1% tazarotene gel

Bershad, Susan; Kranjac Singer, Giselle; Parente, Janice E; Tan, Mei-Heng; Sherer, Daniel W; Persaud, Andrea N; Lebwohl, Mark
CONTEXT: Short-contact application of 0.1% tazarotene gel for acne was devised to minimize local adverse effects. Its efficacy and safety are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess acne improvement and tolerability during 12 weeks of short-contact treatment with 0.1% tazarotene gel vs a nonmedicated gel control. DESIGN: A randomized, masked, vehicle-controlled trial. SETTING: Outpatient facilities at an urban medical school and an affiliated suburban office practice. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-nine volunteers with facial acne were enrolled; 81 completed the study. INTERVENTION: Thirty-three patients were randomly assigned to each of 3 groups: T + T applied 0.1% tazarotene gel twice daily, T + V applied 0.1% tazarotene gel once daily and vehicle gel once daily, and V + V applied vehicle gel twice daily. Patients adjusted the contact period as tolerated, between 30 seconds and 5 minutes per application. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Acne efficacy by reduction in acne lesions, treatment success (50%-100% improvement in global response to treatment) and improvement in overall disease severity. Local adverse effects, scored from none to severe. RESULTS: By week 12, T + T and T + V achieved significantly greater improvement in acne than V + V based on mean percentage reduction in noninflammatory lesions (46% and 41% vs 2%; P =.002) and inflammatory lesions (38% and 34% vs 9%; P =.01), percentage of treatment successes (64% and 61% vs 15%; P<.001), and reduction in overall disease severity (30% and 29% vs 3%; P<.001). Local adverse effects did not differ significantly among the 3 groups after week 4. CONCLUSION: Short-contact 0.1% tazarotene gel therapy is a safe and effective new method of acne treatment
PMID: 11939810
ISSN: 0003-987x
CID: 71669

Bexarotene (Targretin (R)) capsules do not increase the number of circulating CD4+cells in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) [Meeting Abstract]

Hymes, KB; Persaud, A; Inghirami, G; Yocum, R; Washenik, K
ISSN: 0006-4971
CID: 55223