Including Surgical Resection in the Multimodal Management of Very Locally Advanced Sinonasal Cancer
OBJECTIVE:Sinonasal cancer often presents as locoregionally advanced disease. National guidelines recommend management of stage T4b tumors with systemic therapy and radiotherapy, but recent studies suggest that including surgical resection in the multimodal treatment of these tumors may improve local control and survival. We queried the National Cancer Database to examine patterns of care and outcomes in T4b sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Prospectively gathered data. SETTING/METHODS:National Cancer Database. METHODS:Patients with T4b N0-3 M0 sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed in 2004 to 2016 were stratified between those who received chemoradiotherapy and those who underwent surgical resection with neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. The overall survival of each cohort was assessed via Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models, with repeat analysis after reweighting of data via inverse probability of treatment weighting. RESULTS:= .004]). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Surgical treatment with neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment for stage T4b sinonasal SCC was associated with promising survival outcomes, suggesting a role for incorporating surgery in treatment of select T4b SCC, particularly when removal of all macroscopic disease is feasible.
Improving Quality and Safety of Thyroidectomy [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: Thyroidectomy is commonly performed in otolaryngology. Complications such as recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury and severe hypocalcemia have reported incidences in national studies as high as 3% and 8%, respectively. Narcotic pain medications are commonly used for postoperative pain management. Here, we present the long-term results of a thyroidectomy quality and safety improvement program, with an emphasis on reducing narcotic use.
Method(s): All surgeons who perform thyroidectomy established standards for antibiotic administration, postoperative calcium management, and narcotics use. The program was established in 2018 and data on adverse events, length of stay, antibiotic and narcotic use were recorded prospectively from June 2018 to January 2021. Data trends were analyzed throughout the course of the study.
Result(s): During the study period, 542 thyroidectomies were performed by 14 surgeons. The average length of stay was less than 24 hours. Five (0.9%) adverse events were recorded: 1 (0.2%) temporary RLN dysfunction, 3 (0.6%) hematomas, 1 (0.2%) surgical site infection, and 1 (0.2%) temporary hypocalcemia. The average number of narcotics prescribed declined from 18 doses (95%CI: 16.8-18.5) in 2019 to 9 in 2020 (95%CI: 8.5-9.6) (p<0.0001), without an increase in need for refills. No instances of permanent hypocalcemia or permanent RLN injury were identified.
Conclusion(s): By implementing a thyroidectomy quality improvement program, we achieved extremely low rates of adverse events and significantly reduced the use of narcotics without adverse effects. These data can inform practitioners and the public about expected outcomes of thyroid surgery, and establish benchmarks for quality and safety.
The usefulness of the Electronic Patient Visit Assessment (ePVA)Â© as a clinical support tool for real-time interventions in head and neck cancer
Background/UNASSIGNED:Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) experience painful, debilitating symptoms and functional limitations that can interrupt cancer treatment, and decrease their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The Electronic Patient Visit Assessment (ePVA) for head and neck is a web-based mHealth patient-reported measure that asks questions about 21 categories of symptoms and functional limitations common to HNC. This article presents the development and usefulness of the ePVA as a clinical support tool for real-time interventions for patient-reported symptoms and functional limitations in HNC. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Between January 2018 and August 2019, 75 participants were enrolled in a clinical usefulness study of the ePVA. Upon signing informed consent, participants completed the ePVA and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ) general (C30) questionnaire v3.0 (scores range from 0 to 100 with 100 representing best HRQoL). Clinical usefulness of the ePVA was defined as demonstration of reliability, convergent validity with HRQoL, and acceptability of the ePVA (i.e., >70% of eligible participants complete the ePVA at two or more visits and >70% of ePVA reports are read by providers). Formal focus group discussions with the interdisciplinary team that cared for patients with HNC guided the development of the ePVA as a clinical support tool. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used throughout the study. Descriptive statistics consisting of means and frequencies, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Student's t-tests were calculated using SAS 9.4 and STATA. Results/UNASSIGNED:The participants were primarily male (71%), White (76%), diagnosed with oropharyngeal or oral cavity cancers (53%), and undergoing treatment for HNC (69%). Data analyses supported the reliability (alpha =0.85), convergent validity with HRQoL scores, and acceptability of the ePVA. Participants with the highest number of symptoms and functional limitations reported significantly worse HRQoL (sum of symptoms: r=-0.50, P<0.0001; sum of function limitations: r=-0.56, P<0.0001). Ninety-two percent of participants (59 of 64) who had follow-up visits within the 6-month study period completed the ePVA at two or more visits and providers read 89% (169 of 189) of automated ePVA reports. The use of the ePVA as a clinical support tool for real-time interventions for symptoms and functional limitations reported by patients is described in a clinical exemplar. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:This research indicates that the ePVA may be a useful mHealth tool as a clinical support tool for real-time interventions for patient-reported symptoms and functional limitations in HNC. The study findings support future translational research to enhance the usefulness of the ePVA in real world settings for early interventions that decrease symptom burden and improve the QoL of patients with HNC.
Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma as a Complication of Treatment for Recurrent High-Grade Serous Cancer
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE:Advances in cancer treatment have increased survival for many patients, prompting a need for greater recognition of the long-term complications of treatment. Chemotherapy agents have the potential to induce carcinogenesis and can increase the risk of secondary malignancy. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) used for maintenance treatment of recurrent high-grade serous cancers has been associated with the development of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective review. METHODS:Cases of oral cavity SCC in patients with recurrent high-grade serous cancer treated with PLD between 1997 and 2017 at a single institution were reviewed. RESULTS:). Seven patients tested positive for BRCA mutations (four BRCA 1+, three BRCA 2+). No patients had a history of alcohol or tobacco use. All had early-stage oral cavity disease; five were T1N0, two were T2N0, and one had carcinoma in situ. All patients underwent surgery, and two received adjuvant radiation. Four developed locoregional recurrence requiring additional treatment. Of these, one patient died from complications of oral SCC, one developed recurrent ovarian cancer, and two had no evidence of disease of the oral cavity or ovarian cancer at the last follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:Long-term PLD therapy may be associated with the development of oral cavity SCC. A high index of suspicion and routine head and neck examination should be included in follow-up for exposed patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:4 Laryngoscope, 2019.
Prognostic potential of mid-treatment nodal response in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma
BACKGROUND:We examine the prognostic implications of mid-course nodal response in oropharyngeal cancer (OPX) to radiation therapy. METHODS:In 44 patients with node-positive OPX undergoing concurrent chemoradiation, nodal volumes were measured on cone beam CTs from days 1, 10, 20, and 35. Nodal decrease (ND) was based on percent shrinkage from day 1. RESULTS:At a median follow-up of 17â€‰months, the 2-year disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional control (LRC), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS) were 87%, 92%, 89%, and 92%, respectively. Patients with ND â‰¥43% at D20 had improved LRC (100% vs 78.4%, P = .03) compared to D20 ND <43%. On multivariate analysis, D20 â‰¥43% was independently prognostic for LRC (HR 1.17, P = .05). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients with low-risk oropharynx cancer with ND of â‰¥43% by treatment day 20 had significantly improved LRC. The prognostic benefit of ND may assist in identifying candidates for treatment de-escalation.
Adult rhabdomyoma presenting as thyroid nodule on fine-needle aspiration in patient with Birt-Hogg-DubÃ© syndrome: Case report and literature review
Extracardiac rhabdomyoma is an uncommon benign striated muscle tumor with a predilection for the head and neck region. However, it is extremely rare for extracardiac rhabdomyoma to present as a thyroid nodule. We report a case of rhabdomyoma diagnosed by thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in a patient with Birt-Hogg-DubÃ© (BHD) syndrome. A 60-year-old man with BHD syndrome presented for recurrent pneumothorax. Chest CT incidentally identified a thyroid nodule. Subsequent sonography confirmed a 4.44â€‰Ã—â€‰2.28â€‰Ã—â€‰2.82â€‰cm solid, hypoechoic nodule with smooth margins in the right upper pole. Ultrasound-guided FNA revealed many clusters and scattered isolated large polygonal cells with abundant granular cytoplasm and small peripherally located nuclei. Vague striations in the cytoplasm were focally identified. No follicular cells or colloid was present. Immunocytochemistry on one direct smear slide demonstrated diffuse positivity for desmin, supporting muscular differentiation. Subsequent surgery identified an adult rhabdomyoma originating from the inferior constrictor muscle of the neck and anteriorly displacing the thyroid. Because the mass was intimately associated with the thyroid gland, it was initially mistaken for a thyroid nodule on ultrasound. Diagnosis of rhabdomyoma on FNA is challenging, especially when rhabdomyoma mimics a thyroid nodule on imaging. The differential diagnosis includes Hurthle cell neoplasm, granular cell tumor, colloid nodule, and normal striated skeletal muscle. Adequate radiologic data and familiarity with the cytologic features of rhabdomyoma are critical for an accurate diagnosis.
The development, usability, and reliability of the Electronic Patient Visit Assessment (ePVA) for head and neck cancer
Background/UNASSIGNED:Annually, over 65,000 persons are diagnosed with head and neck cancer in the United States. During treatment, up to 50% of patients become severely symptomatic with pain, fatigue, mouth sores, and inability to eat. Long term complications are lymphedema, fibrosis, dysphagia, and musculoskeletal impairment. Patients' ability to perform daily activities and to interact socially may be impaired, resulting in poor quality of life. A pragmatic, clinically useful assessment is needed to ensure early detection and intervention for patients to report symptoms and functional limitations over time. We developed the Electronic Patient Visit Assessment (ePVA) that enables patients to report 42 symptoms related to head and neck cancer and 17 limitations of functional status. This manuscript reports (I) the development of the ePVA, (II) the content validity of the ePVA, and (III) the usability and reliability of the ePVA. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Usability was evaluated using the "Think Aloud" technique to guide the iterative process to refine the ePVA based on participants' evaluations. After signing the informed consent, 30 participants with head and neck cancer completed the ePVA using digital tablet devices while thinking aloud about ease of use. All patient conversations were recorded and professionally transcribed. Reliability of the ePVA symptom and functional limitation measures was estimated using the Kuder-Richardson test. Convergent validity of the ePVA was evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 global QoL/health scale. Transcribed qualitative data were analyzed using directed content analysis approach. Quantitative analyses consisted of descriptive statistics and correlation analyses. Results/UNASSIGNED:Among participants, 90% strongly agreed or agreed that the ePVA system was easy to use and 80% were very satisfied. Only minor usability problems were reported due to formatting and software "bugs". Reporting of usability problems decreased in frequency over the study period and no usability problems were reported by the last 3 participants who completed the ePVA. Based on participants' suggestions during the iterative process, refinement of the ePVA included increased touch sensitivity of the touch screen technology and customized error messages to improve ease of use. The ePVA also recorded patient reported symptoms (mouth symptoms: 93%, fibrosis: 60%, fatigue: 60%). The ePVA demonstrated acceptable reliability (alpha =0.82-0.85) and convergent validity (ePVA total number of reported symptoms and function limitations was negatively correlated with EORTC QLQ-C30 global QOL/health scale: r=-0.55038, P<0.01). Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:The ePVA was rigorously developed, accepted by patients with satisfaction, and demonstrated acceptable reliability and convergent validity. Future research will use data generated by the ePVA to determine the impact of symptom trajectories on functional status, treatment interruptions and terminations, and health resource use in head and neck cancer.
Acquired Vascular Tumors of the Head and Neck
Vascular neoplasms of the head and neck present with a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and is usually made after tumors are large enough to be visually apparent or cause symptoms. This article discusses the most common acquired benign and malignant vascular tumors, with an emphasis on their evaluation and treatment.
Low rates of contralateral neck failure in unilaterally treated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with prospectively defined criteria of lateralization
BACKGROUND: Unilateral radiotherapy (RT) of oropharyngeal carcinomas is accepted for patients with lateralized primary and low-volume nodal disease. Utilizing prospectively defined criteria of laterality and staging positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, we studied outcomes in patients with advanced-stage oropharyngeal cancer undergoing unilateral RT. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with oropharyngeal tumors >1 cm from midline regardless of node status underwent unilateral RT and were followed prospectively. Patient characteristics: T1 = 11; T2 = 22; T3 = 4; N0 = 3; N1 = 9; N2a = 3; N2b = 21; and Nx = 1. Dosimetry were determined and weekly National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) distress thermometer data were collected. RESULTS: At median follow-up of 32 months, 3-year locoregional control, contralateral regional failure, distant metastasis-free survival, and disease-free survival were 96%, 0%, 7%, and 93%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Low rates of contralateral neck failure are demonstrated utilizing prospectively defined criteria for unilateral RT. The tolerances of contralateral organs are respected and patients report low to moderate levels of distress throughout treatment.
Five-year outcomes of an oropharynx-directed treatment approach for unknown primary of the head and neck
PURPOSE: Squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary (SCCHNUP) is commonly treated with comprehensive radiation to the laryngopharynx and bilateral necks. In 1998, we established a departmental policy to treat SCCHNUP with radiation directed to the oropharynx and bilateral neck. METHODS: From 1998-2011, 60 patients were treated - N1: 18%, N2: 75% and N3: 7%. 82% underwent neck dissection. 55% received IMRT and 62% underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy. RESULTS: At median follow-up of 54months, 5 patients failed regionally and 4 emerged with a primary (tongue base, hypopharynx and thoracic esophagus). Five-year rates of regional control, primary emergence, distant metastasis, disease-free survival and overall survival were 90%, 10%, 20%, 72% and 79%, respectively. The 5year rate of primary emergence in a non-oropharynx site was 3%. CONCLUSION: This is the first demonstration that an oropharynx-directed approach yields low rates of primary emergence in SCCHNUP with excellent oncologic outcomes.