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Shortcomings and disparities in contraception counseling and use by hypertensive individuals at risk for unintended pregnancy: a comparative analysis of the National Survey of Family Growth

Danvers, Antoinette A; Gurney, Elizabeth G; Panushka, Katherine A; Peskin, Melissa; Evans, Thomas A
BACKGROUND:Hypertension is a leading cause of adverse pregnancy outcomes. These outcomes disproportionately affect Black individuals. Reproductive life planning that includes patient-centered contraception counseling could mitigate the impact of unintended pregnancy. OBJECTIVE:The primary objective of the study is to compare contraception counseling and use between hypertensive and nonhypertensive individuals at risk for unintended pregnancy. Our secondary objectives are the following: (1) to evaluate the effect of race on the probability of counseling and the use of contraception, and (2) to evaluate the methods used by individuals with hypertension. METHODS:Data from the 2015-2017 and 2017-2019 National Survey of Family Growth Female Respondent Files were used to analyze whether individuals who reported being informed of having high blood pressure within the previous 12 months received counseling about contraception or received a contraceptive method. Covariates considered in the analysis included age, race, parity, educational attainment, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, and experience with social determinants of health. The social determinants of health covariate was based on reported experiences within 5 social determinants of health domains: food security, housing stability, financial security, transportation access, and childcare needs. Linear probability models were used to estimate the adjusted probability of receiving counseling and the use of a contraceptive. Using difference-in-difference analyses, we compared the change in counseling and use between hypertensive and nonhypertensive respondents by race, relative to White respondents. RESULTS:Of the 8625 participants analyzed, 771 (9%) were hypertensive. Contraception counseling was received by 26.2% (95% confidence interval, 20.4-31.9) of hypertensive individuals and 20.7% (95% confidence interval, 19.3-22.2) of nonhypertensive individuals. Contraception use was reported by 39.8% (95% confidence interval, 33.2-46.5) of hypertensive and 35.3% (95% confidence interval, 33.3-37.2) of nonhypertensive individuals. The linear probability model adjusting for age, parity, education attainment, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, and social determinants of health indicated that hypertensive individuals were 8 percentage points (95% confidence interval, 3-18 percentage points) more likely to receive counseling and 9 percentage points (95% confidence interval, 3-16 percentage points) more likely to use contraception. Hypertensive Black individuals did not receive more counseling or use more contraceptives compared with nonhypertensive Black individuals. The difference in counseling when hypertension was present was 13 percentage points lower than the difference observed for White respondents when hypertension was present (P=.01). The most frequently used contraceptive method among hypertensive individuals was combined oral contraceptive pills (54.0%; 95% confidence interval, 44.3%-63.5%). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite the higher likelihood of receiving contraception counseling and using contraception among hypertensive individuals at risk for unintended pregnancy, two-thirds of this population did not receive contraception counseling, and <40% used any contraceptive method. Furthermore, unlike White individuals, Black individuals with hypertension did not receive more contraception care than nonhypertensive Black individuals. Of all those who used contraception, half relied on a method classified as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Medical Eligibility Criteria Category 3. These findings highlight a substantial unmet need for safe and accessible contraception options for hypertensive individuals at risk for unintended pregnancy, emphasizing the importance of targeted interventions to improve contraceptive care and counseling in this population.
PMID: 37871872
ISSN: 1097-6868
CID: 5669732

Editorial: Period poverty [Editorial]

Sacca, Lea; Markham, Christine Margaret; Gupta, Jhumka; Peskin, Melissa
PMID: 36825206
ISSN: 2673-3153
CID: 5488172

Reproductive health perspectives of young women with perinatally and behaviourally acquired HIV: A qualitative study

Comfort, Lizelle; Watnick, Dana; Peskin, Melissa; Gutierrez, Julie; Abadi, Jacob; Atrio, Jessica
INTRODUCTION/UNASSIGNED:The aim of this study was to describe the sexual and reproductive goals of female adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in an urban cohort and decipher if they vary depending on the mode of HIV acquisition. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 25 Black and/or Hispanic/Latinx female adolescents living with HIV (14 perinatally, 11 behaviourally acquired) aged 17-25 years who have access to care and antiretroviral therapy at an urban public hospitals (NYC, NY). Interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Interviews demonstrated that access to antiretroviral therapy and HIV disclosure to a sexual partner were critical aspects of sexual health for the majority of participants. Persons with perinatal HIV defined motherhood as a source of self-validation and were confident that antiretroviral therapy prevents HIV transmission. Persons with behaviourally acquired HIV viewed their status as an insurmountable barrier that will prevent them from attaining sexual intimacy with a partner and expressed persistent concerns about HIV transmission during pregnancy despite reassurance from medical providers. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Sexual and reproductive perspectives of adolescents/young women living with HIV are multifactorial, highly stigmatized, and likely influenced by the mode of HIV acquisition. This population may benefit from patient-centred care models, including sexual health counselling that addresses sexual agency, intimacy, parenting and transmission risk reduction.
PMID: 36387372
ISSN: 2768-7228
CID: 5488162

Commentary on "St. Paul Is Burning"

Peskin-Stolze, Melissa
PMID: 35767406
ISSN: 1938-808x
CID: 5488152

Cecal bascule - A rare cause of cecal volvulus after cesarean section

Bakshi, Chetna; Pereira, Xavier; Massad, Nicole; Lima, Diego Laurentino; Peskin-Stolze, Melissa; Malcher, Flavio
INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE/UNASSIGNED:Cecal bascule is a rare form of a cecal volvulus characterized by an anterior and superiorly displaced cecum in turn causing compression of the ascending colon that can result in a large bowel obstruction. We report a case of cecal bascule in a newly postpartum patient, with emphasis on clinical presentation, radiologic findings and treatment. CASE PRESENTATION/METHODS:A 37-year-old female who underwent an uncomplicated c-section and bilateral salpingectomy developed severe abdominal pain, vomiting, and peritonitis 12 h after surgery. A computerized tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a dilated and superiorly displaced cecum. The diagnosis of cecal bascule was confirmed intraoperatively and a right hemicolectomy was performed. The patient recovered appropriately and was discharged on postoperative day six. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Cecal bascule is the rarest form of cecal volvulus. In the context of obstetrics and gynecology, it has mostly been mentioned perioperatively after cesarean, but was also reported in an antepartum patient. It usually occurs in patients with redundant or mobile cecum, which is a result of incomplete fixation of the cecum to the retroperitoneum during embryogenesis. Other risk factors include recent surgery, previous abdominal surgery, ileus, chronic constipation, and distal colonic obstruction. An association has also been shown with pregnancy or the postpartum abdomen and is hypothesized to be due to mass effect. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Cecal bascule is a serious entity requiring a high index of suspicion and warranting greater awareness in the post-natal patient. Clinical diagnosis, prompt imaging, and surgery are important to avoid bowel ischemia and perforation.
PMID: 34247120
ISSN: 2210-2612
CID: 4996022