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I-PSI: Short- and Long-Term Efficacy of a Comprehensive Initiative to Promote Patient Safety Event Reporting by Trainees

Prabhu, Vinay; Mikhly, Mark; Chung, Ryan; Phillips, Donna P; Hochman, Katherine A
Despite benefits of safety event reporting, few are trainee initiated. A comprehensive intervention was created to increase trainee reporting, partnering a trainee safety council with high-level faculty. Data were collected for 12 months pre intervention and 30 months post intervention, including short-term (1-12 mo) and long-term (13-30 mo) follow-up. A total of 2337 trainee events were submitted over the study period, primarily communication-related (40%) and on the medicine service (39%). Monthly submissions increased from 29.3 pre intervention to 66.2, 77.7, and 58.6 events/mo at post intervention, short-term follow-up, and long-term follow-up, respectively (P < 0.001). Proportion of hospital events submitted by trainees increased from 2.3% pre intervention to 4.1%, 4.9%, and 3.6% at post intervention, short-term, and long-term follow-up, respectively (P < 0.001). Trainee monthly submissions (P = 0.015) and proportion of hospital events (P < 0.001) declined from short- to long-term follow-up. Low- and intermediate-level harm events significantly increased post intervention (P < 0.001) while high-level events did not (P = 0.15-1.0). Our comprehensive intervention increased trainee event submissions at long-term follow-up.
PMID: 34108395
ISSN: 1555-824x
CID: 5138202

Changing hats: Lessons learned integrating coaching into UME and GME [Meeting Abstract]

Zabar, S; Winkel, A; Cocks, P; Tewksbury, L; Buckvar-Keltz, L; Greene, R E; Phillips, D; Gillespie, C
BACKGROUND: The transition from medical school to residency is characterized by an abrupt transition of learning needs and goals. Coaching is a promising intervention to support individual learning and growth trajectories of learners. It is uncommon for medical school faculty to have undergone training as coaches. We explored our faculty's perceptions and skills after instituting a new coaching program.
METHOD(S): Faculty advisors (N=12) and GME (N=16) participated in a coaching development program and in community of practice meetings where challenging coaching scenarios were shared. GME faculty also participated in a Group Objective Structured Clinical Exam (GOSCE) to practice and receive feedback on their skills. Peer-faculty observers and resident raters used behaviorally grounded checklists to assess faculty performance. We conducted 2 focus groups: 1) UME advisors engaged in longitudinal coaching (n=9) and 2) GME faculty participating in the coaching development program (n=8) to better understand how faculty make sense of and put into practice these new coaching roles and skills.
RESULT(S): Simple thematic coding showed that both groups emphasized the blurring of the many roles they serve when interacting with trainees and struggled with recognizing both which hat to wear (role to adopt) and which skills to call upon in specific situations. UME advisors who have dedicated advising/coaching roles reported assuming multiple roles at different times with their same students. Many of the GME coaches serve as Associate Program Directors, and described adopting a coaching frame of reference (mentality) and requiring external reinforcement for coaching skills. Some reported realizing after the fact that coaching would have been a valuable approach. Faculty newer to their role felt more successful in engaging in coaching mindset and coaching. Faculty were curious about how trainees would feel about this approach and anticipated that some would appreciate this more than others. 12 faculty participated in a three station Coaching GOSCE. Both resident raters and faculty peer raters suggested faculty coaches were able to establish trust and engage in authentic listening. Coaches negotiated the tension between empathetic listening with supporting goal-setting. Residents provided slightly lower ratings than peer observers on coaches' ability to ask questions and assume a coachee- focused agenda.
CONCLUSION(S): Medical educators may benefit from obtaining coaching skills, but deliberate training in how these skills complement, and differ, from existing skills requires both didactic and experiential learning. Cultivating a community of practice and offering opportunities for deliberate practice, observation and feedback is essential for medical educators to achieve mastery as coaches. LEARNING OBJECTIVE #1: Identify and perform appropriate learning activities to guide personal and professional development (PBL) LEARNING OBJECTIVE #2: Understand and apply core longitudinal coaching skills (Professionalism)
ISSN: 1525-1497
CID: 4984952

Orthopaedic Faculty and Resident Racial/Ethnic Diversity is Associated With the Orthopaedic Application Rate Among Underrepresented Minority Medical Students

Okike, Kanu; Phillips, Donna P; Johnson, Wayne A; OʼConnor, Mary I
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Orthopaedic surgery is among the least diverse fields in all of medicine. To promote the recruitment of minorities, a commonly proposed strategy is to increase the exposure of minority medical students to orthopaedic surgeons and residents who are minorities themselves. This study examines the degree to which the racial/ethnic diversity of the orthopaedic faculty and residency program influences underrepresented in medicine (URM) medical students at that institution to pursue a career in orthopaedics. METHODS:Using data provided by the Association of American Medical Colleges, we identified all US medical schools that were affiliated with an orthopaedic department and an orthopaedic residency program (n = 110). For each institution, data were collected on URM representation among the orthopaedic faculty and residents (2013 to 2017), as well as the proportion of URM medical students who applied to an orthopaedic residency program (2014 to 2018). The association between institutional factors and the URM medical student orthopaedic application rate was then assessed. RESULTS:Of 11,887 URM students who graduated from medical school during the 5-year study period, 647 applied to an orthopaedic residency program (5.4%). URM students who attended medical school at institutions with high URM representation on the orthopaedic faculty were more likely to apply in orthopaedics (odds ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.55, P = 0.020), as were URM students at institutions with high URM representation in the residency program (odds ratio 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.79, P < 0.001). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:The benefits of a diverse orthopaedic workforce are widely acknowledged. In this study, we found that increased URM representation among the orthopaedic faculty and residents was associated with a greater likelihood that URM medical students at that institution would apply in orthopaedics. We also suggest a set of strategies to break the cycle and promote the recruitment of minorities into the field of orthopaedic surgery.
PMID: 31305355
ISSN: 1940-5480
CID: 3977612

Personality Predictors of Communication Skills Among Orthopedic Surgery Residents

Holmes, Kathryn S; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Maculatis, Martine C; Friedman, Alan M; Lawrence, Eleanor; Phillips, Donna P
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:This study examined the relationship between personality traits and interpersonal communication skills among first-year orthopedic surgery residents. METHOD/METHODS:This study performed a retrospective analysis on the data collected in the 2 phases among the 6 cohorts of first-year orthopedic surgery residents (n = 73) during a 6-year period at an urban academic medical hospital. Resident personality was assessed through self-report prior to entry into the program and included a total of 7 personality traits. These traits were broken down into 2 categories, day to day, or usual, tendencies, which measured personality traits when no stress was present and stress tendencies, which measured personality traits when stressed or fatigued. The "day to day" tendencies measured were Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness and Openness) and "stress" tendencies measured were Excitable, Skeptical and Imaginative. Communication skills were measured across 4 specific dimensions of patient communication (Engage, Empathy, Educate, Enlist) in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). RESULTS:Multiple regression analyses showed that the personality traits identified as "stress" tendencies predicted performance on 2 of the 4 communication skills dimensions measured by the OSCE and accounted for up to 34.8% of the total variance in the ratings of empathic communication and up to 67.2% of the total variance in education-related communication. CONCLUSIONS:Our research identifies specific personality traits that affect resident communication skills related to patient education and empathy in simulated encounters. Three stress-related personality traits (Excitable, Skeptical, Imaginative) had a strong negative influence on communication skills, while day to day personality traits (Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness) positively influenced communication skills.
PMID: 31495746
ISSN: 1878-7452
CID: 4115572

A Review of Orthopedic Resident Outpatient Notes Are Perceptions of the EMR Reflected in Current Documentation Practices?

Phillips, Donna; Fisher, Nina; Karia, Raj; Kalet, Adina
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Systems-based Practice 3 (SBP 3) in the orthopedic residency developmental milestones evaluates residents' knowledge, understanding, and utilization of the electronic medical record (EMR). In order to better assess SBP 3, we conducted a review of residents' clinical notes in order to quantify the current state of orthopedic residents' documentation in the EMR. The purpose of this study was to objectively evaluate orthopedic resident documentation in the EMR. METHODS:Orthopedic resident medical notes from a single orthopedic residency at one academic medical center were scored by faculty members who had directly observed the clinical encounter. These notes were then independently scored by one investigator (N.F.) using clinical contentspecific, objective criteria. Sixty-five medical records were reviewed. All 62 orthopedic residents anonymously completed an 84-question survey on the value of EMR utilization and documentation within the medical record. RESULTS:Many key elements necessary to diagnosing a patient's injury and developing a treatment plan were often omitted (e.g., "Mechanism of Injury" in 32.3% of records), and the majority of notes did not include "Decision Making and Patient Preference" (95.2%) or "Risks/Benefits of Surgery" (93.7%). However, 95.2% of residents agreed that their notes reflect their medical knowledge and 96.8% agreed that their notes reflect their clinical reasoning. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:The results of this objective review revealed significant deficits in orthopedic resident documentation not identified by faculty observers.
PMID: 31487485
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 4153432


Famiglietti, H S; Phillips, D; Howell, H; Goonan, M; Coble, C; Zabar, S
Background: The transition from medical student to intern presents a major patient safety concern. Our institution implemented an immersive First Night OnCall (FNOC) simulation to support transitioning trainees and cultivate a culture of safety.
Objective(s): Engage pediatric interns in a pediatric focused FNOC simulation to ensure readiness to recognize and address common safety issues in practice.
Method(s): Interns were asked to recognize patient safety hazards in a simulated patient room and participate in case based safety discussions. Interns then participated in GOSCEs (Group Observed Standardized Clinical Encounters). GOSCEs tasked trainees to obtain informed consent, evaluate a decompensating patient, recognize a mislabeled culture bottle, and give an effective patient handoff. Faculty debriefed all activities. Learners completed pre and post program assessments and a program evaluation.
Result(s): Twenty incoming interns completed FNOC. Only 11% reported any prior formal training in patient safety. Interns recognized 46% of the environmental patient safety hazards. Out of the 5 GOSCE groups, 3 called a rapid response team, 3 noted the label error for the culture bottle, and 3 obtained complete informed consent. After FNOC, 92% of interns reported increased comfort (4 or 5 on 1-5 scale) in speaking to a supervisor, escalating a situation, and reporting a medical error. All interns agreed that the case based safety discussions and the patient safety room increased readiness for internship. Almost all of the interns (85%) agreed or strongly agreed that FNOC was an effective way to learn patient safety, a good approach to improve readiness, fun, and engaging.
Conclusion(s): Incoming interns are not consistently able to demonstrate common safety practices. Engaging, immersive, simulation based experiences like FNOC may reduce this variability, while simultaneously instilling aspirational institutional norms, promoting a culture of safety, and providing a framework for effective on-boarding strategies for new trainees.
ISSN: 1876-2867
CID: 4021172

Orthopaedic Faculty and Resident Sex Diversity Are Associated with the Orthopaedic Residency Application Rate of Female Medical Students

Okike, Kanu; Phillips, Donna P; Swart, Eric; O'Connor, Mary I
BACKGROUND:The representation of women in orthopaedics in the United States remains among the lowest in all fields of medicine, and prior research has suggested that this underrepresentation may stem from lower levels of interest among female medical students. Of the many proposed reasons for this lack of interest, the male-dominated nature of the field is one of the most commonly cited. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which the representation of women among orthopaedic faculty and residents influences female medical students at that institution to apply for a residency in orthopaedics. METHODS:Using data provided by the Association of American Medical Colleges, we identified all U.S. medical schools that were affiliated with an orthopaedic surgery department and an orthopaedic surgery residency program (n = 107). For each institution, data on the representation of women among the orthopaedic faculty and residents from 2014 through 2016 were collected, as well as data on the proportion of female medical school graduates who applied to an orthopaedic residency program from 2015 through 2017. The association between institutional factors and the female medical student orthopaedic application rate was assessed. RESULTS:Of 22,707 women who graduated from medical school during the 3-year study period, 449 (1.98%) applied to an orthopaedic surgery residency program. Women who attended medical school at institutions with high orthopaedic faculty sex diversity were more likely to apply for a residency in orthopaedics (odds ratio [OR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.64; p = 0.023), as were women who attended medical school at institutions with high orthopaedic resident sex diversity (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.61; p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS:In this study, we found that increased sex diversity among orthopaedic faculty and residents was associated with a greater likelihood that female medical students at that institution would apply for an orthopaedic residency. These results suggest that at least some of the factors currently impeding female medical student interest in orthopaedics may be modifiable. These findings may have important implications for efforts to improve the sex diversity of the field of orthopaedics going forward.
PMID: 31220032
ISSN: 1535-1386
CID: 3939312

"I Cannot Take This Any More!": Preparing Interns to Identify and Help a Struggling Colleague

Zabar, Sondra; Hanley, Kathleen; Horlick, Margaret; Cocks, Patrick; Altshuler, Lisa; Watsula-Morley, Amanda; Berman, Russell; Hochberg, Mark; Phillips, Donna; Kalet, Adina; Gillespie, Colleen
BACKGROUND:Few programs train residents in recognizing and responding to distressed colleagues at risk for suicide. AIM/OBJECTIVE:To assess interns' ability to identify a struggling colleague, describe resources, and recognize that physicians can and should help colleagues in trouble. SETTING/METHODS:Residency programs at an academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:One hundred forty-five interns. PROGRAM DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:An OSCE case was designed to give interns practice and feedback on their skills in recognizing a colleague in distress and recommending the appropriate course of action. Embedded in a patient "sign-out" case, standardized health professionals (SHP) portrayed a resident with depressed mood and an underlying drinking problem. The SHP assessed intern skills in assessing symptoms and directing the resident to seek help. PROGRAM EVALUATION/RESULTS:Interns appreciated the opportunity to practice addressing this situation. Debriefing the case led to productive conversations between faculty and residents on available resources. Interns' skills require further development: while 60% of interns asked about their colleague's emotional state, only one-third screened for depression and just under half explored suicidal ideation. Only 32% directed the colleague to specific resources for his depression (higher among those that checked his emotional state, 54%, or screened for depression, 80%). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:This OSCE case identified varying intern skill levels for identifying and assessing a struggling colleague while also providing experiential learning and supporting a culture of addressing peer wellness.
PMID: 30993628
ISSN: 1525-1497
CID: 3810532

Patient Safety Room Assessing Orthopedic Surgery Interns' Abilities to Identify Patient Safety Hazards

Marte, Anthony; Strauss, Eric; Phillips, Donna P
OBJECTIVE:An important part of clinical training is learning how to identify and prevent hospital-acquired conditions or injuries. Despite this, there are few standardized methods in graduate medical education (GME) for teaching and assessing resident patient safety skills. Residents often do not report safety events, and increasing resident engagement can positively impact patient safety. In the current study, we sought to apply such a tool in gauging the capacity of orthopedic surgery interns at a large academic medical center to identify patient safety hazards and begin a discussion regarding the management of potential patient safety issues. METHODS:A total of 27 orthopedic surgery interns at a single large academic medical center participated in the current observational study divided into two distinct groups in the summers of 2016 and 2017. A patient room was simulated with a training mannequin lying supine in a hospital bed. A mock patient chart and handoff were created in the electronic medical record (EMR) on the bedside computer. Patient safety hazards and errors of care were placed around the room and in the EMR, including several derived from the Joint Commission's National Patient Safety Goals. Each intern was given a maximum of 20 minutes to identify as many of the simulated patient safety hazards as possible. A debrief was conducted at the end of the exercise to discuss their responsibility to speak up when hazards are identified in a non-simulated patient room. For analysis, the hazards were distributed into four categories: room organization, EMR, patient care, and white board. Each intern's individual score (number of complete identifications/total number of hazards) and the group's performance as a whole in each category were calculated. RESULTS:The mean individual score was 51.54% (26.67% to 70.00%) in group A and 40.41% (25.71% to 54.29%) in group B. In group A, room organization hazards were identified more than any other category (74.62%), followed by patient care errors (40.38%), EMR hazards (40.17%), and white board errors (38.46%). In group B, room organization was identified the most (57.74%), followed by EMR (50%), and patient care and white board hazards (28.57% each). Certain critical safety hazards were identified by a small number of interns. For example, the inadequate handoff was only identified by four interns in each group. CONCLUSIONS:Hazards related to room cleanliness were easier to identify than hazards related to specific errors in patient care. A wide variation in the identification of critical safety issues was observed among the trainees assessed. This type of simulated educational experience provides important opportunities for resident-specific education in the realm of patient safety and health care quality.
PMID: 31128581
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 4044412

Assessing Resident Perceptions of Electronic Medical Record Utilization What Affects the Quality of Clinical Notes?

Phillips, Donna; Fisher, Nina; Lavery, Jessica A; Karia, Raj; Kalet, Adina
BACKGROUND:Objective review of orthopedic resident medical records revealed significant variation in quality of clinical notes suggesting that the implementation of the electronic medical record (EMR) had altered resident perceptions of the purpose of clinical documentation. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to assess resident perceptions of the purpose and use of the EMR. METHODS:An 84-item survey was developed based on previously validated surveys. All 62 orthopedic residents within one academic institution completed the survey. Questions were divided into six domains and domain scores were calculated by summing responses within each domain; a more negative response on the Likert scale received a higher score. Scores were compared across postgraduate year (PGY). RESULTS:Survey results revealed that most residents agreed that they generally write good patient care notes, their notes contribute to the care of the patient, and as physicians they feel responsible for the accuracy of the information they enter into the EMR. However, residents were divided as to whether they have enough time to write a good patient care note. Domain scores did not significantly differ by PGY indicating that perceptions toward the EMR do not change even as residents increase their knowledge of orthopedics and become more skilled physicians. CONCLUSIONS:Although residents recognize that the information they enter in the EMR is valuable for patient care and safety, some feel unable to consistently utilize the EMR to its full potential due to time constraints.
PMID: 31513514
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 4085212