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Discontinuation of Postoperative Prophylactic Antibiotics for Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery

Dastagirzada, Yosef; Benjamin, Carolina; Bevilacqua, Julia; Gurewitz, Jason; Sen, Chandra; Golfinos, John G; Placantonakis, Dimitris; Jafar, Jafar J; Lieberman, Seth; Lebowitz, Rich; Lewis, Ariane; Pacione, Donato
PMID: 36895810
ISSN: 2193-6331
CID: 5509612

Traumatic brain injury: Mechanisms, manifestations, and visual sequelae

Rauchman, Steve H; Zubair, Aarij; Jacob, Benna; Rauchman, Danielle; Pinkhasov, Aaron; Placantonakis, Dimitris G; Reiss, Allison B
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results when external physical forces impact the head with sufficient intensity to cause damage to the brain. TBI can be mild, moderate, or severe and may have long-term consequences including visual difficulties, cognitive deficits, headache, pain, sleep disturbances, and post-traumatic epilepsy. Disruption of the normal functioning of the brain leads to a cascade of effects with molecular and anatomical changes, persistent neuronal hyperexcitation, neuroinflammation, and neuronal loss. Destructive processes that occur at the cellular and molecular level lead to inflammation, oxidative stress, calcium dysregulation, and apoptosis. Vascular damage, ischemia and loss of blood brain barrier integrity contribute to destruction of brain tissue. This review focuses on the cellular damage incited during TBI and the frequently life-altering lasting effects of this destruction on vision, cognition, balance, and sleep. The wide range of visual complaints associated with TBI are addressed and repair processes where there is potential for intervention and neuronal preservation are highlighted.
PMID: 36908792
ISSN: 1662-4548
CID: 5455722

Efficacy of laser interstitial thermal therapy for biopsy-proven radiation necrosis in radiographically recurrent brain metastases

Chan, Michael; Tatter, Steven; Chiang, Veronica; Fecci, Peter; Strowd, Roy; Prabhu, Sujit; Hadjipanayis, Constantinos; Kirkpatrick, John; Sun, David; Sinicrope, Kaylyn; Mohammadi, Alireza M; Sevak, Parag; Abram, Steven; Kim, Albert H; Leuthardt, Eric; Chao, Samuel; Phillips, John; Lacroix, Michel; Williams, Brian; Placantonakis, Dimitris; Silverman, Joshua; Baumgartner, James; Piccioni, David; Laxton, Adrian
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) in the setting of post-SRS radiation necrosis (RN) for patients with brain metastases has growing evidence for efficacy. However, questions remain regarding hospitalization, local control, symptom control, and concurrent use of therapies. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Demographics, intraprocedural data, safety, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), and survival data were prospectively collected and then analyzed on patients who consented between 2016-2020 and who were undergoing LITT for biopsy-proven RN at one of 14 US centers. Data were monitored for accuracy. Statistical analysis included individual variable summaries, multivariable Fine and Gray analysis, and Kaplan-Meier estimated survival. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Ninety patients met the inclusion criteria. Four patients underwent 2 ablations on the same day. Median hospitalization time was 32.5 hours. The median time to corticosteroid cessation after LITT was 13.0 days (0.0, 1229.0) and cumulative incidence of lesional progression was 19% at 1 year. Median post-procedure overall survival was 2.55 years [1.66, infinity] and 77.1% at one year as estimated by KaplanMeier. Median KPS remained at 80 through 2-year follow-up. Seizure prevalence was 12% within 1-month post-LITT and 7.9% at 3 months; down from 34.4% within 60-day prior to procedure. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:LITT for RN was not only again found to be safe with low patient morbidity but was also a highly effective treatment for RN for both local control and symptom management (including seizures). In addition to averting expected neurological death, LITT facilitates ongoing systemic therapy (in particular immunotherapy) by enabling the rapid cessation of steroids, thereby facilitating maximal possible survival for these patients.
PMID: 37114245
ISSN: 2632-2498
CID: 5465532

Clinical utility of whole-genome DNA methylation profiling as a primary molecular diagnostic assay for central nervous system tumors-A prospective study and guidelines for clinical testing

Galbraith, Kristyn; Vasudevaraja, Varshini; Serrano, Jonathan; Shen, Guomiao; Tran, Ivy; Abdallat, Nancy; Wen, Mandisa; Patel, Seema; Movahed-Ezazi, Misha; Faustin, Arline; Spino-Keeton, Marissa; Roberts, Leah Geiser; Maloku, Ekrem; Drexler, Steven A; Liechty, Benjamin L; Pisapia, David; Krasnozhen-Ratush, Olga; Rosenblum, Marc; Shroff, Seema; Boué, Daniel R; Davidson, Christian; Mao, Qinwen; Suchi, Mariko; North, Paula; Hopp, Amanda; Segura, Annette; Jarzembowski, Jason A; Parsons, Lauren; Johnson, Mahlon D; Mobley, Bret; Samore, Wesley; McGuone, Declan; Gopal, Pallavi P; Canoll, Peter D; Horbinski, Craig; Fullmer, Joseph M; Farooqui, Midhat S; Gokden, Murat; Wadhwani, Nitin R; Richardson, Timothy E; Umphlett, Melissa; Tsankova, Nadejda M; DeWitt, John C; Sen, Chandra; Placantonakis, Dimitris G; Pacione, Donato; Wisoff, Jeffrey H; Teresa Hidalgo, Eveline; Harter, David; William, Christopher M; Cordova, Christine; Kurz, Sylvia C; Barbaro, Marissa; Orringer, Daniel A; Karajannis, Matthias A; Sulman, Erik P; Gardner, Sharon L; Zagzag, David; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Allen, Jeffrey C; Golfinos, John G; Snuderl, Matija
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Central nervous system (CNS) cancer is the 10th leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for adults, but the leading cause in pediatric patients and young adults. The variety and complexity of histologic subtypes can lead to diagnostic errors. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that provides a tumor type-specific signature that can be used for diagnosis. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:We performed a prospective study using DNA methylation analysis as a primary diagnostic method for 1921 brain tumors. All tumors received a pathology diagnosis and profiling by whole genome DNA methylation, followed by next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing. Results were stratified by concordance between DNA methylation and histopathology, establishing diagnostic utility. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Of the 1602 cases with a World Health Organization histologic diagnosis, DNA methylation identified a diagnostic mismatch in 225 cases (14%), 78 cases (5%) did not classify with any class, and in an additional 110 (7%) cases DNA methylation confirmed the diagnosis and provided prognostic information. Of 319 cases carrying 195 different descriptive histologic diagnoses, DNA methylation provided a definitive diagnosis in 273 (86%) cases, separated them into 55 methylation classes, and changed the grading in 58 (18%) cases. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:DNA methylation analysis is a robust method to diagnose primary CNS tumors, improving diagnostic accuracy, decreasing diagnostic errors and inconclusive diagnoses, and providing prognostic subclassification. This study provides a framework for inclusion of DNA methylation profiling as a primary molecular diagnostic test into professional guidelines for CNS tumors. The benefits include increased diagnostic accuracy, improved patient management, and refinements in clinical trial design.
PMID: 37476329
ISSN: 2632-2498
CID: 5536102

The Cost Effectiveness of Implementation of a Postoperative Endocrinopathy Management Protocol after Resection of Pituitary Adenomas

Benjamin, Carolina G; Dastagirzada, Yosef; Bevilacqua, Julia; Kurland, David B; Fujita, Kevin; Sen, Chandra; Golfinos, John G; Placantonakis, Dimitris G; Jafar, Jafar J; Lieberman, Seth; Lebowitz, Richard; Lewis, Ariane; Agrawal, Nidhi; Pacione, Donato
PMID: 36393880
ISSN: 2193-6331
CID: 5377672

Surgical cytoreduction of deep-seated high-grade glioma through tubular retractor

Hajtovic, Sabastian; Sun, James; Multani, Jasjit S; Herrmann, Linda L; Britton, Hannah; Gautreaux, Jose; Tortolero, Lea; Harrison, Gillian; Golfinos, John G; Shepherd, Timothy M; Tanweer, Omar; Placantonakis, Dimitris G
OBJECTIVE:Maximal safe resection is the goal of surgical treatment for high-grade glioma (HGG). Deep-seated hemispheric gliomas present a surgical challenge due to safety concerns and previously were often considered inoperable. The authors hypothesized that use of tubular retractors would allow resection of deep-seated gliomas with an acceptable safety profile. The purpose of this study was to describe surgical outcomes and survival data after resection of deep-seated HGG with stereotactically placed tubular retractors, as well as to discuss the technical advances that enable such procedures. METHODS:This is a retrospective review of 20 consecutive patients who underwent 22 resections of deep-seated hemispheric HGG with the Viewsite Brain Access System by a single surgeon. Patient demographics, survival, tumor characteristics, extent of resection (EOR), and neurological outcomes were recorded. Cannulation trajectories and planned resection volumes depended on the relative location of white matter tracts extracted from diffusion tractography. The surgical plans were designed on the Brainlab system and preoperatively visualized on the Surgical Theater virtual reality SNAP platform. Volumetric assessment of EOR was obtained on the Brainlab platform and confirmed by a board-certified neuroradiologist. RESULTS:Twenty adult patients (18 with IDH-wild-type glioblastomas and 2 with IDH-mutant grade IV astrocytomas) and 22 surgeries were included in the study. The cohort included both newly diagnosed (n = 17; 77%) and recurrent (n = 5; 23%) tumors. Most tumors (64%) abutted the ventricular system. The average preoperative and postoperative tumor volumes measured 33.1 ± 5.3 cm3 and 15.2 ± 5.1 cm3, respectively. The median EOR was 93%. Surgical complications included 2 patients (10%) who developed entrapment of the temporal horn, necessitating placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt; 1 patient (5%) who suffered a wound infection and pulmonary embolus; and 1 patient (5%) who developed pneumonia. In 2 cases (9%) patients developed new permanent visual field deficits, and in 5 cases (23%) patients experienced worsening of preoperative deficits. Preoperative neurological or cognitive deficits remained the same in 9 cases (41%) and improved in 7 (32%). The median overall survival was 14.4 months in all patients (n = 20) and in the newly diagnosed IDH-wild-type glioblastoma group (n = 16). CONCLUSIONS:Deep-seated HGGs, which are surgically challenging and frequently considered inoperable, are amenable to resection through tubular retractors, with an acceptable safety profile. Such cytoreductive surgery may allow these patients to experience an overall survival comparable to those with more superficial tumors.
PMID: 36334293
ISSN: 1933-0693
CID: 5358912


De, Groot J; Kim, A; Prabhu, S; Rao, G; Laxton, A; Fecci, P; O'Brien, B; Sloan, A; Chiang, V; Tatter, S; Mohammadi, A; Placantonakis, D; Strowd, R; Chen, C; Hadjipanayis, C; Khasraw, M; Sun, D; Piccioni, D; Sinicrope, K; Campian, J; Kurz, S; Williams, B; Smith, K; Tovar-Spinoza, Z; Leuthardt, E
Treatment options for glioblastoma remain limited, particularly for those who are not eligible for traditional resection, whether due to lesion location or inability to tolerate open craniotomy. Maximal-safe resection followed by radiation with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide offers the best outcomes for patients. Unfortunately, not all tumors are amenable to conventional surgical resection at the time of diagnosis with only about 1/3 of patients able to receive a gross-total resection and 15-25% of patients receiving biopsy only, thus reducing their projected overall survival to 9 months. Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive, cytoreductive tool, that has demonstrated safety as a surgical approach to treat primary brain tumors.
METHOD(S): Data from LAANTERN prospective multicenter registry (NCT02392078) was analyzed to determine clinical outcomes for patients with new and recurrent IDH wild-type glioblastoma (N=89). Demographics, intraprocedural data, adverse events, KPS, health-economics, and survival data were prospectively collected then analyzed separately for newly diagnosed GBM (N=29) and recurrent GBM (N=60).
RESULT(S): Median overall-survival was 9.73 months (95% CI: 5.16, 15.91) for newly diagnosed patients and median post-procedure survival was 8.97 (6.94, 12.36) months for recurrent patients. Median overall-survival for newly diagnosed patients receiving post-LITT chemoradiotherapy was 16.14 months (6.11, not reached). The median length of hospital stay was 50 hours and 80% of patients were discharged to home.
CONCLUSION(S): LITT offers an effective cytoreductive approach for patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent IDH wild-type glioblastoma. Importantly, its use in newly diagnosed patients who receive post-LITT chemoradiotherapy leads to a median OS similar to that of patients treated with conventional surgical resection. LITT remains an important alternative for patients with inoperable tumors or those not amenable to resection. Enrollment in LAANTERN is ongoing and these cohorts will be revisited as data continues to mature. Benefits beyond cytoreduction are also being actively explored
ISSN: 1523-5866
CID: 5513262


Ravn-Boess, N; Bhowmick, N; Hattori, T; Prakash, V; Stephan, G; Frenster, J; Bready, D; Lawson, C; Wilcox, J; Placantonakis, D
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy. Despite multimodal therapy, disease recurrence is inevitable. To identify novel vulnerabilities of GBM, we performed an arrayed CRISPR/ Cas9 screen against select adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs), many of which we found to be de novo expressed in GBM. Knockout of CD97, previously implicated in GBM cell migration, produced the most striking proliferative disadvantage in patient-derived GBM cultures (PDGC) among aGPCRs tested. We found high CD97 surface expression in all our PDGCs, while levels remained nearly undetectable in non-neoplastic brain cells, confirming that CD97 is de novo expressed in GBM. Upon shRNAmediated knockdown of CD97 in PDGCs from all three TCGA transcriptional subtypes, we observed reduced proliferation, as measured by cell cycle analysis. Notably, CD97 knockdown also significantly reduced tumorsphere formation capacity as measured by limiting dilution assays; an effect that was partially rescued upon CD97 overexpression. To elucidate mechanisms of action of CD97, we performed RNA-sequencing and GO pathway enrichment analysis from PDGCs following CD97 knockdown. The top downregulated pathways involved glycolytic metabolism, specifically involving many genes relevant for glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and fructose- 6-phosphate (F6P) processing. Indeed, when we measured metabolite levels under both steady-state and flux conditions using mass spectrometry, we observed an accumulation of G6P and a depletion of most downstream glycolytic and Krebs cycle metabolites upon CD97 knockdown. Furthermore, Seahorse metabolic assays revealed deficits in both glycolytic metabolism and oxygen consumption. We aim to interrogate the activity of specific glycolytic enzymes involved in processing G6P and F6P, pinpointing how these are influenced by CD97 signaling pathways (MAPK or Akt). Overall; our studies suggest a novel role of CD97 in regulating GBM metabolism (Warburg effect), and provide a strong scientific rationale for developing biologics to target CD97 which appears to be universally and de novo expressed in GBM
ISSN: 1523-5866
CID: 5513282

Stepwise Stochastic Dictionary Adaptation Improves Microstructure Reconstruction with Orientation Distribution Function Fingerprinting

Filipiak, Patryk; Shepherd, Timothy; Basler, Lee; Zuccolotto, Anthony; Placantonakis, Dimitris G; Schneider, Walter; Boada, Fernando E; Baete, Steven H
Fitting of the multicompartment biophysical model of white matter is an ill-posed optimization problem. One approach to make it computationally tractable is through Orientation Distribution Function (ODF) Fingerprinting. However, the accuracy of this method relies solely on ODF dictionary generation mechanisms which either sample the microstructure parameters on a multidimensional grid or draw them randomly with a uniform distribution. In this paper, we propose a stepwise stochastic adaptation mechanism to generate ODF dictionaries tailored specifically to the diffusion-weighted images in hand. The results we obtained on a diffusion phantom and in vivo human brain images show that our reconstructed diffusivities are less noisy and the separation of a free water fraction is more pronounced than for the prior (uniform) distribution of ODF dictionaries.
PMID: 36695675
CID: 5646312

Advances and Hurdles in CAR T Cell Immune Therapy for Solid Tumors

Boccalatte, Francesco; Mina, Roberto; Aroldi, Andrea; Leone, Sarah; Suryadevara, Carter M; Placantonakis, Dimitris G; Bruno, Benedetto
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells in solid tumors have so far yielded limited results, in terms of therapeutic effects, as compared to the dramatic results observed for hematological malignancies. Many factors involve both the tumor cells and the microenvironment. The lack of specific target antigens and severe, potentially fatal, toxicities caused by on-target off-tumor toxicities constitute major hurdles. Furthermore, the tumor microenvironment is usually characterized by chronic inflammation, the presence of immunosuppressive molecules, and immune cells that can reduce CAR T cell efficacy and facilitate antigen escape. Nonetheless, solid tumors are under investigation as possible targets despite their complexity, which represents a significant challenge. In preclinical mouse models, CAR T cells are able to efficiently recognize and kill several tumor xenografts. Overall, in the next few years, there will be intensive research into optimizing novel cell therapies to improve their effector functions and keep untoward effects in check. In this review, we provide an update on the state-of-the-art CAR T cell therapies in solid tumors, focusing on the preclinical studies and preliminary clinical findings aimed at developing optimal strategies to reduce toxicity and improve efficacy.
PMID: 36291891
ISSN: 2072-6694
CID: 5359512