Strategies From 11 U.S. Medical Schools for Integrating Basic Science Into Core Clerkships
Calls for curricular reform in medical schools and enhanced integration of basic and clinical science have resulted in a shift towards preclerkship curricula that enhance the clinical relevance of foundational science instruction and provide students with earlier immersion in the clinical environment. These reforms have resulted in shortened preclerkship curricula, yet the promise of integrated basic science education into clerkships has not been sufficiently realized because of barriers such as the nature of clinical practice, time constraints, and limited faculty knowledge. As personalized medicine requires that physicians have a more nuanced understanding of basic science, this is cause for alarm. To address this problem, several schools have developed instructional and assessment strategies to better integrate basic science into the clinical curriculum. In this article, faculty and deans from 11 U.S. medical schools discuss the strategies they implemented and the lessons they learned to provide guidance to other schools seeking to enhance basic science education during clerkships. The strategies include program-level interventions (e.g., longitudinal sessions dedicated to basic science during clerkships; weeks of lessons dedicated to basic science interspersed in clerkships), clerkship-level interventions (e.g., case-based learning with online modules; multidisciplinary clerkship dedicated to applied science), bedside-level interventions (e.g., basic science teaching scripts; self-directed learning), and changes to formative and summative assessments (e.g., spaced repetition/leveraging test-enhanced learning; developing customized examinations). The authors discovered that: interventions were more successful when buy-in from faculty and students was considered; central oversight by curricular committees collaborating with faculty was key; and some integration efforts may require schools to provide significant resources. All schools administered the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 exam to students after clerkship, with positive outcomes. The authors have demonstrated that it is feasible to incorporate basic science into clinical clerkships, but certain challenges remain.
Exploring the professional identity of exemplars of medical professionalism [Meeting Abstract]
BACKGROUND: A core responsibility of medical educators is to foster a strong sense of medical professional identity (PI). Few studies specifically examine the qualities that constitute the PI of physicians recognized for exemplary professionalism. We describe those qualities based on an assessment of PI to inform educational efforts and support learners' development of PI.
METHOD(S): We used Colby and Damon's criteria for selection of moral exemplars (1992) to invite nominations of exemplary faculty physicians at NYUGSOM from faculty and trainees. Participants completed the Professional Identity Essay (PIE), a 9-question reflective writing measure based on a wellknown model of adult development that explores meaning making on PI (Bebeau & Lewis, 2004; Kegan, 1982, 1994). Two raters with extensive training and experience in adult developmental theory rated PIE responses for stage or transition phase. PI stages include independent operator, teamoriented idealist, self-defining, and self-transforming. These stages reflect increasing complexity and internalization of PI. We also gathered information on specialty, years in practice, gender, and race/ethnicity.
RESULT(S): Two hundred and twelve faculty were nominated; 35 were invited to participate (based on number of nominations, diversity of ages, backgrounds and career stage), and 21 completed scorable PIEs. They were from 13 specialties; mean career length was 21.5 years (range 6-45), and 35% were female. All but 2 were Caucasian. PIE scores ranged from 3 to 4.5 (Table 1), demonstrating differing and increasingly complex and internalized ways faculty understand their PI, and that not all nominated exemplars share a singular view of professionalism.
CONCLUSION(S): Physicians nominated as exemplars of professionalism embody a range of professional identities and professionalism world-views. Our study provides rich descriptions of multiple pathways to strengthening a physician's professionalidentities, of critical importance to faculty and physician development in a milieu of challenges to recruitment and retention of physicians. This approach can also inform educators' efforts to support PI development in learners and support the development of learning communities that foster a growth mindset. LEARNING OBJECTIVE #1: Recognize importance of strong role models for MPI. LEARNING OBJECTIVE #2: Describe the varying levels of MPI in a cohort of exemplar physicians
Describing faculty exemplars of medical professionalism [Meeting Abstract]
BACKGROUND: Internalizing a strong medical professional identity (PI) is a critical part of medical education. Recent studies of medical students have documented that students' PI, measured by the Professional Identity Essay (PIE), a reflective writing assessment of PI based on Kegan's theory of adult development and Bebeau's developmental model of PI, vary and are impacted by education. Little is known about the PI of exemplary professional physicians. We sought to: 1) describe the PI of physicians who exemplify the highest principles of the medical profession, and 2) evaluate NYU faculty identified as professional exemplars by peers to provide data and demonstrate clear role models for learners METHODS: We elicited nominations for professional exemplar physicians from NYU faculty, chief residents, and 4th-year students, using the definition of professionalism developed by Colby and Damon (1992). Participants were recruited after receiving at least 3 nominations; select participants who received 1 or 2 nominations were also recruited to diversify the participants in terms of specialty, years of practice, gender and race.We also used snowball techniques to get nominations fromstudy participants. After consenting, faculty received the 11-question PIE. We analyzed demographic data of nominated faculty and completed a content analysis of the PIE.
RESULT(S): 206 individual faculty were nominated at least one time by 70 community members. 32 individuals were recruited to the study; to date 22 have completed the PIE. The 206 nominees/22 participants represent: 34/12 specialties, average years in practice 17.6/23.8, range of years in practice 62 for nominees/44 for participants. We identified 3 primary themes through the content analysis: (1) Response to Expectations, "Everything. The profession demands everything.As much as this profession takes fromme, it is dwarfed by what I have received in return." (2) Response to Failure: "I fail to live up to expectations every day. Some days thismotivatesme, other days I disappoint myself." (3) Learning from Others: "I view teaching as integral to medical professionalism." There was a range of developmental levels in the responses with some focusing more on external rather than internal motivations: "I can say that the [malpractice] process for me was very threatening, emotionally consuming and had the potential to alter professional behavior in the wrong way."
CONCLUSION(S): Nominated faculty represented a diverse group with respect to PI. Many participants demonstrated great professionalism and a sense of internal PI in responses to the PIE questions, while others focused onmore externalmotivations to drive their professional behaviors. Further analysis is needed to define the qualities of a true exemplary professional. The range of responses of the exemplars can both serve as role models for learners and provide multiple pathways for learners and faculty to strengthen their own professional identities
On call: Psychiatry
Amsterdam, Netherlands : Elsevier, 2019
Extent: xix, 332 p.
Philadelphia PA : Mosby/Elsevier, 2007
Philadelphia PA : Mosby/Elsevier, 2007
St.Louis MO : Mosby, 2003
St.Louis MO : Mosby, 2003
Depression and stress responses in parents of burned children