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Peripheral retinoschisis and exudative retinal detachment in pars planitis [Case Report]

Pollack, Aryeh L; McDonald, H Richard; Johnson, Robert N; Ai, Everett; Irvine, Alexander R; Lahey, J Michael; Lewis, Hilel; Rodriguez, Alvaro; Ryan, Edwin H Jr; Shields, Carol L
PURPOSE: To review and describe bullous retinoschisis and exudative retinal detachment in patients with pars planitis. METHODS: Retrospective, multicenter study of patients with pars planitis who presented with retinoschisis and exudative retinal detachments. RESULTS: The authors describe 13 eyes of 9 patients with pars planitis who presented with inferior peripheral retinoschisis and/or exudative retinal detachment. Four patients were male; five were female. Patients' ages ranged from 8 years to 35 years (median, 12 years). The follow-up interval ranged from 1 month to 10 years (median, 4 years). These peripheral retinal elevations had a tendency to remain stable, although those with telangiectatic vessels or vasoproliferative tumors occasionally demonstrated an increase in accumulation of exudate. Treatment of such eyes with cryotherapy, or low-dose plaque radiotherapy, resulted in vasoproliferative tumor and telangiectatic vessel regression, absorption of the hard exudate, and resolution of the retinal elevation in four of five eyes. One patient had spontaneous regression of the retinoschisis cavity over a 4-year period. CONCLUSION: Patients with pars planitis may present with bullous retinoschisis and/or exudative retinal detachment. These findings may be related to a Coats disease-like vascular response (telangiectatic vessels and vasoproliferative tumors) secondary to chronic inflammation. Treatment of the vascular leakage tended to result in resolution of the detachment and/or schisis
PMID: 12476097
ISSN: 0275-004x
CID: 38650

Massive suprachoroidal hemorrhage during pars plana vitrectomy associated with Valsalva maneuver

Pollack AL; McDonald HR; Ai E; Johnson RN; Dugel PU; Folk J; Grand MG; Lambert HM; Schwartz S; Miller RD
PURPOSE: To report the intraoperative occurrence of massive intraocular suprachoroidal hemorrhage associated with Valsalva maneuver. METHODS: Retrospective, multicenter study of patients who developed massive choroidal hemorrhage associated with Valsalva maneuver during vitrectomy. RESULTS: Massive intraoperative suprachoroidal hemorrhage in seven patients (seven eyes) involved three men and four women with a median age of 52 years (range, 26 to 82 years). General anesthesia was used in six of seven cases. Coughing or 'bucking' on the endotracheal tube during general anesthesia or severe coughing during the one vitrectomy performed under local anesthesia was associated with massive suprachoroidal hemorrhage. In five of seven eyes, this occurred near the end of surgery, after air-fluid exchange but before sclerotomy closure. Scleral plugs were immediately placed, and sclerotomy closure was performed exigently. Immediate posterior sclerotomy was performed on five of seven eyes; an additional patient underwent posterior sclerotomy postoperatively. After median follow-up of 18 months (range, 3 to 36 months), final visual acuity was no light perception in four eyes, light perception in one eye, 20/250 in one eye, and 20/20 in one eye. Four eyes became phthisical. CONCLUSIONS: Valsalva maneuver during pars plana vitrectomy may result in massive suprachoroidal hemorrhage with disastrous visual consequences. Precautionary measures to prevent coughing or 'bucking' on the endotracheal tube during general anesthesia, or a prolonged episode of coughing during local anesthesia, may prevent this potentially devastating complication
PMID: 11530052
ISSN: 0002-9394
CID: 38651

Sympathetic ophthalmia associated with pars plana vitrectomy without antecedent penetrating trauma [Case Report]

Pollack AL; McDonald HR; Ai E; Green WR; Halpern LS; Jampol LM; Leahy JM; Johnson RN; Spencer WH; Stern WH; Weinberg DV; Werner JC; Williams GA
PURPOSE: To evaluate, describe, and categorize the clinical presentation, clinical course, histopathology, and response to therapy in patients without a history of penetrating ocular trauma who developed sympathetic ophthalmia following pars plana vitrectomy. METHODS: The records of patients without a history of trauma who underwent pars plana vitrectomy and developed sympathetic ophthalmia were retrospectively reviewed. Cases were analyzed with respect to clinical presentation, fluorescein angiographic findings, anatomic and visual outcomes, histopathology, and response to therapy. RESULTS: Eight eyes were identified. The median age at presentation was 55 years, with a range of 14 to 62 years. The time from vitrectomy to diagnosis of sympathetic ophthalmia ranged from 2 months to greater than 2 years, with a median of 7 months. Six of eight patients (75%) presented with anterior chamber reaction. All eight patients presented with a vitreous inflammatory response. The optic nerve was inflamed clinically or angiographically in four of eight cases (50%). Small yellow-white sub-retinal pigment epithelial deposits were present in four of eight cases (50%). Two eyes had lesions characterized as multifocal choroiditis. One eye had larger yellow placoid-like lesions. One eye presented with vitritis but no retinal lesions. Subretinal choroidal neovascularization was noted in the inciting eye of one patient. Vision improved in the sympathizing eye with immunosuppressive therapy in five of eight cases (62.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Sympathetic ophthalmia can be seen following pars plana vitrectomy in patients without penetrating injuries or a history of trauma. Indeed, it may be seen after successful vitrectomy for retinal detachment. Diverse clinical presentations are possible, and persistent or atypical uveitis following vitrectomy should alert the surgeon to the development of sympathetic ophthalmia
PMID: 11321141
ISSN: 0275-004x
CID: 38652

Ocular blood flow measurements in NAION [Meeting Abstract]

Rachmiel, R; Zalish, M; Harris, A; Kagemann, L; Pollack, A; Leiba, H
ISSN: 0146-0404
CID: 2217742

Diagnostic yield of the routine dilated fundus examination

Pollack AL; Brodie SE
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the risk of errors of omission inherent in the elimination of the routine dilated fundus examination in asymptomatic patients presenting for routine eye checkups, or in patients with purely refractive complaints. DESIGN: The study design was a retrospective chart review. PARTICIPANTS: The authors reviewed the records of initial visits of more than 3800 patients drawn from the practices of 3 board-certified ophthalmologists with substantial general ophthalmology components. Patients with best-corrected visual acuity in either eye of poorer than 20/25, myopia greater than -3.00 diopters, or other risk factors for disease of the fundus or optic nerve (such as ocular hypertension, glaucoma, previous ocular surgery, diabetes mellitus, and history of retinal detachment) were excluded. The authors identified 1094 such records that documented the findings of dilated fundus examination, including indirect ophthalmoscopy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The authors recorded the prevalence of all fundus abnormalities, of those deemed clinically significant, and those beyond the view of routine examination with the direct ophthalmoscope. Findings were stratified by patient age. RESULTS: Of the 1094 eligible records, 53 (4.84%) had recorded fundus abnormalities. Of these, 23 were of no adverse ophthalmologic consequences and were considered clinically insignificant. Of the 30 (2.74%) potentially significant findings, only 3 were located beyond the view of routine examination with the direct ophthalmoscope (0.274%; 95% confidence limits: 0.56%-0.80%). The prevalence of fundus findings increased strongly with increasing patient age, from 2.4% younger than age 20 to 14.8% older than age 60. Clinically significant findings increased from 0.8% younger than age 20 to 8.9% older than age 60. CONCLUSIONS: The authors estimate the rate of detection through routine dilated fundus examination of clinically significant fundus lesions in asymptomatic patients at 2.73% (95% confidence limits, 1.86%-3.80%). One tenth of these are beyond the view of the direct ophthalmoscope. The prevalence of fundus abnormalities increases tenfold with increasing patient age
PMID: 9479303
ISSN: 0161-6420
CID: 38653

Assessment of receptoral and post-receptoral changes in primary open-angle glaucoma [Meeting Abstract]

Holopigian, K; Pollack, A; Greenstein, VC; Seiple, W; Hood, DC; Ritch, R
ISSN: 0146-0404
CID: 53023