The Impact of Testosterone on the Chests and Abdomens of Transgender Men
White fibrous papulosis of the neck
White fibrous papulosis of the neck is a rare diagnosisthat typically presents with white, 2-to-3-mmpapules on the posterior aspect of the neck. Wepresent an elderly woman with diffuse involvementon her abdomen and back.
Extragenital bullous lichen sclerosus
Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic, inflammatory dermatosis that is characterized by pruritic, white, atrophic plaques that classically affect the anogenital region of postmenopausal women. Extragenital involvement also may occur with several reported morphologic variants. Extragenital bullous LS is a rare variant, which presents as flaccid bullae that favor the trunk and proximal aspects of the extremities. The treatment of extragenital bullous LS is similar to that of genital LS. However, extragenital LS is often less responsive and may present a therapeutic challenge. We describe a 65-year-old woman with a two-year history of vulvar and extragenital LS, who developed a bullous eruption within a pre-existing patch of lichen sclerosis on the breast. We review the clinical and histopathologic features of extragenital bullous LS and discuss current treatment options, which include those for recalcitrant cases.
We present a 21-year-old primigravida woman with a several-week history of pruritic, edematous, targetoid plaques that appeared initially on the abdomen, flanks, and legs and that progressed to involve the inner aspects of the upper arms and lateral aspects of the chest. The histopathologic findings showed perivascular and interstitial dermatitis with eosinophils and vacuolar changes with linear C3 deposition at the basement-membrane zone on direct immunofluorescence study. A diagnosis of pemphigoid gestationis was made. Pemphigoid gestationis is a rare, bullous dermatosis of pregnancy that may be associated with prematurity and small-for-gestational age birth weights. The diagnosis is often made with direct immunofluorescence studies of perilesional skin. Oral glucocorticoids remain the gold standard of therapy in moderate-to-severe cases. The edematous papules and plaques of pemphigoid gestationis may be particularly difficult to distinguish from polymorphic eruption of pregnancy; therefore, immunofluorescence studies are prudent. Prompt recognition and appropriate management may reduce morbidity of this disease, which often recurs with subsequent pregnancies.
Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis
The leishmaniases are a group of diseases caused by species of Leishmania and transmitted by the bite of the female sandfly. The major clinical forms include localized or disseminated cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral disease. Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis is most frequently caused by L. major and L. tropica in the Old World and by L. braziliensis, L. mexicana, and related species in the New World. L. donovani generally causes visceral disease in the Old World. We describe a case of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. donovani in a traveller returning to the United States from Italy. Dermatologists should be aware of the clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis.
Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001
Cellular reservoirs of HIV-1 in the central nervous system of infected individuals: identification by the combination of in situ polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The majority of HIV-1-infected individuals manifest a plethora of central nervous system (CNS) diseases unrelated to opportunistic infections, including AIDS dementia complex, encephalitis, and various other disorders of the CNS. The present study sought to evaluate the cellular reservoirs and expression patterns of HIV-1 in brain tissue to gain further understanding of HIV-1 neuropathogenesis. DESIGN/METHODS:CNS tissue, obtained post-mortem from 22 patients with AIDS and four HIV-1-seronegative controls, was analyzed. METHODS:CNS samples were evaluated using a combination of in situ DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcriptase (RT)-initiated in situ PCR, and immunohistochemistry. By utilizing this triple-staining methodology, HIV-1 proviral DNA and HIV-1-specific mRNA can be identified at the single cell level. RESULTS:HIV-1 was detected in all 22 AIDS brain specimens and in none of the four brains from HIV-1-seronegative individuals. The most commonly infected cells in AIDS brains were microglia cells and macrophages, but variable levels of HIV-1 infections were demonstrated in many of the major histological cell types within the CNS, including neurons, microvascular endothelial cells (MVEC) and astrocytes. The presence of HIV-1-infected cells was not uniform with infected cells unevenly distributed throughout the brain parenchyma. The degree of HIV-1 mRNA expression varied from 39-65% of the cells in the CNS harboring HIV-1 provirus. Choroid plexus and MVEC exhibited relatively high levels of productive infection. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:These findings demonstrate that several cell types in the CNS, in addition to microglia or macrophages, may become infected with HIV-1 in vivo with variable levels of HIV-1 mRNA expression. The diverse cellular reservoirs for HIV-1 in the CNS may be critically linked to the molecular mechanisms involved in HIV-1 neuropathogenesis. In addition, in vivo infection of MVEC, and possibly cells in the choroid plexus, may directly contribute to penetration of the blood-brain barrier by HIV-1.