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Interactive mobile application for Parkinson's disease deep brain stimulation (MAP DBS): An open-label, multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial

Duffley, Gordon; Szabo, Aniko; Lutz, Barbara J; Mahoney-Rafferty, Emily C; Hess, Christopher W; Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Zeilman, Pamela; Foote, Kelly D; Chiu, Shannon; Pourfar, Michael H; Goas Cnp, Clarisse; Wood, Jennifer L; Haq, Ihtsham U; Siddiqui, Mustafa S; Afshari, Mitra; Heiry, Melissa; Choi, Jennifer; Volz, Monica; Ostrem, Jill L; San Luciano, Marta; Niemann, Nicki; Billnitzer, Andrew; Savitt, Daniel; Tarakad, Arjun; Jimenez-Shahed, Joohi; Aquino, Camila C; Okun, Michael S; Butson, Christopher R
INTRODUCTION:Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), but its efficacy is tied to DBS programming, which is often time consuming and burdensome for patients, caregivers, and clinicians. Our aim is to test whether the Mobile Application for PD DBS (MAP DBS), a clinical decision support system, can improve programming. METHODS:We conducted an open-label, 1:1 randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical trial comparing six months of SOC standard of care (SOC) to six months of MAP DBS-aided programming. We enrolled patients between 30 and 80 years old who received DBS to treat idiopathic PD at six expert centers across the United States. The primary outcome was time spent DBS programming and secondary outcomes measured changes in motor symptoms, caregiver strain and medication requirements. RESULTS:We found a significant reduction in initial visit time (SOC: 43.8 ± 28.9 min n = 37, MAP DBS: 27.4 ± 13.0 min n = 35, p = 0.001). We did not find a significant difference in total programming time between the groups over the 6-month study duration. MAP DBS-aided patients experienced a significantly larger reduction in UPDRS III on-medication scores (-7.0 ± 7.9) compared to SOC (-2.7 ± 6.9, p = 0.01) at six months. CONCLUSION:MAP DBS was well tolerated and improves key aspects of DBS programming time and clinical efficacy.
PMID: 36966051
ISSN: 1873-5126
CID: 5463012

Distinct population code for movement kinematics and changes of ongoing movements in human subthalamic nucleus

London, Dennis; Fazl, Arash; Katlowitz, Kalman; Soula, Marisol; Pourfar, Michael H; Mogilner, Alon Y; Kiani, Roozbeh
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is theorized to globally suppress movement through connections with downstream basal ganglia structures. Current theories are supported by increased STN activity when subjects withhold an uninitiated action plan, but a critical test of these theories requires studying STN responses when an ongoing action is replaced with an alternative. We perform this test in subjects with Parkinson's disease using an extended reaching task where the movement trajectory changes mid-action. We show that STN activity decreases during action switches, contrary to prevalent theories. Furthermore, beta oscillations in the STN local field potential, which are associated with movement inhibition, do not show increased power or spiking entrainment during switches. We report an inhomogeneous population neural code in STN, with one sub-population encoding movement kinematics and direction and another encoding unexpected action switches. We suggest an elaborate neural code in STN that contributes to planning actions and changing the plans.
PMID: 34519273
ISSN: 2050-084x
CID: 5061332

Structural connectivity predicts clinical outcomes of deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome

Johnson, Kara A; Duffley, Gordon; Anderson, Daria Nesterovich; Ostrem, Jill L; Welter, Marie-Laure; Baldermann, Juan Carlos; Kuhn, Jens; Huys, Daniel; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Foltynie, Thomas; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Leentjens, Albert F G; Mogilner, Alon Y; Pourfar, Michael H; Almeida, Leonardo; Gunduz, Aysegul; Foote, Kelly D; Okun, Michael S; Butson, Christopher R
Deep brain stimulation may be an effective therapy for select cases of severe, treatment-refractory Tourette syndrome; however, patient responses are variable, and there are no reliable methods to predict clinical outcomes. The objectives of this retrospective study were to identify the stimulation-dependent structural networks associated with improvements in tics and comorbid obsessive-compulsive behaviour, compare the networks across surgical targets, and determine if connectivity could be used to predict clinical outcomes. Volumes of tissue activated for a large multisite cohort of patients (n = 66) implanted bilaterally in globus pallidus internus (n = 34) or centromedial thalamus (n = 32) were used to generate probabilistic tractography to form a normative structural connectome. The tractography maps were used to identify networks that were correlated with improvement in tics or comorbid obsessive-compulsive behaviour and to predict clinical outcomes across the cohort. The correlated networks were then used to generate 'reverse' tractography to parcellate the total volume of stimulation across all patients to identify local regions to target or avoid. The results showed that for globus pallidus internus, connectivity to limbic networks, associative networks, caudate, thalamus, and cerebellum was positively correlated with improvement in tics; the model predicted clinical improvement scores (P = 0.003) and was robust to cross-validation. Regions near the anteromedial pallidum exhibited higher connectivity to the positively correlated networks than posteroventral pallidum, and volume of tissue activated overlap with this map was significantly correlated with tic improvement (P < 0.017). For centromedial thalamus, connectivity to sensorimotor networks, parietal-temporal-occipital networks, putamen, and cerebellum was positively correlated with tic improvement; the model predicted clinical improvement scores (P = 0.012) and was robust to cross-validation. Regions in the anterior/lateral centromedial thalamus exhibited higher connectivity to the positively correlated networks, but volume of tissue activated overlap with this map did not predict improvement (P > 0.23). For obsessive-compulsive behaviour, both targets showed that connectivity to the prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and cingulate cortex was positively correlated with improvement; however, only the centromedial thalamus maps predicted clinical outcomes across the cohort (P = 0.034), but the model was not robust to cross-validation. Collectively, the results demonstrate that the structural connectivity of the site of stimulation are likely important for mediating symptom improvement, and the networks involved in tic improvement may differ across surgical targets. These networks provide important insight on potential mechanisms and could be used to guide lead placement and stimulation parameter selection, as well as refine targets for neuromodulation therapies for Tourette syndrome.
PMID: 32653920
ISSN: 1460-2156
CID: 4527702

Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation with a multiple independent constant current-controlled device in Parkinson's disease (INTREPID): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, sham-controlled study

Vitek, Jerrold L; Jain, Roshini; Chen, Lilly; Tröster, Alexander I; Schrock, Lauren E; House, Paul A; Giroux, Monique L; Hebb, Adam O; Farris, Sierra M; Whiting, Donald M; Leichliter, Timothy A; Ostrem, Jill L; San Luciano, Marta; Galifianakis, Nicholas; Verhagen Metman, Leo; Sani, Sepehr; Karl, Jessica A; Siddiqui, Mustafa S; Tatter, Stephen B; Ul Haq, Ihtsham; Machado, Andre G; Gostkowski, Michal; Tagliati, Michele; Mamelak, Adam N; Okun, Michael S; Foote, Kelly D; Moguel-Cobos, Guillermo; Ponce, Francisco A; Pahwa, Rajesh; Nazzaro, Jules M; Buetefisch, Cathrin M; Gross, Robert E; Luca, Corneliu C; Jagid, Jonathan R; Revuelta, Gonzalo J; Takacs, Istvan; Pourfar, Michael H; Mogilner, Alon Y; Duker, Andrew P; Mandybur, George T; Rosenow, Joshua M; Cooper, Scott E; Park, Michael C; Khandhar, Suketu M; Sedrak, Mark; Phibbs, Fenna T; Pilitsis, Julie G; Uitti, Ryan J; Starr, Philip A
BACKGROUND:Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus is an established therapeutic option for managing motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. We conducted a double-blind, sham-controlled, randomised controlled trial to assess subthalamic nucleus DBS, with a novel multiple independent contact current-controlled (MICC) device, in patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS:This trial took place at 23 implanting centres in the USA. Key inclusion criteria were age between 22 and 75 years, a diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease with over 5 years of motor symptoms, and stable use of anti-parkinsonian medications for 28 days before consent. Patients who passed screening criteria were implanted with the DBS device bilaterally in the subthalamic nucleus. Patients were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to receive either active therapeutic stimulation settings (active group) or subtherapeutic stimulation settings (control group) for the 3-month blinded period. Randomisation took place with a computer-generated data capture system using a pre-generated randomisation table, stratified by site with random permuted blocks. During the 3-month blinded period, both patients and the assessors were masked to the treatment group while the unmasked programmer was responsible for programming and optimisation of device settings. The primary outcome was the difference in mean change from baseline visit to 3 months post-randomisation between the active and control groups in the mean number of waking hours per day with good symptom control and no troublesome dyskinesias, with no increase in anti-parkinsonian medications. Upon completion of the blinded phase, all patients received active treatment in the open-label period for up to 5 years. Primary and secondary outcomes were analysed by intention to treat. All patients who provided informed consent were included in the safety analysis. The open-label phase is ongoing with no new enrolment, and current findings are based on the prespecified interim analysis of the first 160 randomly assigned patients. The study is registered with, NCT01839396. FINDINGS/RESULTS:Between May 17, 2013, and Nov 30, 2017, 313 patients were enrolled across 23 sites. Of these 313 patients, 196 (63%) received the DBS implant and 191 (61%) were randomly assigned. Of the 160 patients included in the interim analysis, 121 (76%) were randomly assigned to the active group and 39 (24%) to the control group. The difference in mean change from the baseline visit (post-implant) to 3 months post-randomisation in increased ON time without troublesome dyskinesias between the active and control groups was 3·03 h (SD 4·52, 95% CI 1·3-4·7; p<0·0001). 26 serious adverse events in 20 (13%) patients occurred during the 3-month blinded period. Of these, 18 events were reported in the active group and 8 in the control group. One death was reported among the 196 patients before randomisation, which was unrelated to the procedure, device, or stimulation. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:This double-blind, sham-controlled, randomised controlled trial provides class I evidence of the safety and clinical efficacy of subthalamic nucleus DBS with a novel MICC device for the treatment of motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Future trials are needed to investigate potential benefits of producing a more defined current field using MICC technology, and its effect on clinical outcomes. FUNDING/BACKGROUND:Boston Scientific.
PMID: 32470421
ISSN: 1474-4465
CID: 4452032

Subthalamic Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in Parkinson's Disease: A Cautionary Tale

Drummond, Patrick S; Pourfar, Michael H; Hill, Travis C; Mogilner, Alon Y; Kondziolka, Douglas S
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been shown to reliably improve several symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) in appropriately selected patients. Various factors may preclude patients from undergoing DBS and for them, non-invasive lesion-based therapies such as focused ultrasound and Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery may present a safer alternative. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Based on preliminary positive reports of STN GK for PD, we conducted a prospective, open-label, single-center, pilot study in PD patients deemed potential candidates for unilateral DBS based on their disease characteristics, but contraindicated due to age >74, an irreversible bleeding diathesis, or significant comorbid medical disease. Stereotactic MRI-guided GK radiosurgery was performed using a single 110- or 120-Gy dose targeting the STN contralateral to the more symptomatic extremity. Clinical follow-up and imaging assessed the safety and efficacy of the procedure over a 12-month period. RESULTS:Four PD patients with medication-refractory tremors and disabling dyskinesias underwent unilateral STN GK radiosurgery. Contraindications to DBS included high-risk comorbid cardiovas-cular disease in 3 patients and an irreversible bleeding diathesis in 1. There were no immediate post-procedural adverse events. One patient who underwent left STN GK radiosurgery developed right hemiparesis and dysarthria 7 months post-procedure followed by hospitalization at 9 months for bacterial endocarditis and liver failure from which he died. The remaining 3 patients were free of adverse events up to 12 months post-procedure and experienced a reduction in contralateral rigidity, bradykinesia, and tremor. Upon extended follow-up, 2 patients developed subacute worsening of gait. One died at 16 months due to complications of a fall whereas the other saw no change in gait up to 42 months post-procedure. All 3 patients with adverse events demonstrated a hyper-response in the targeted area on follow-up neuroimaging. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite the potential for clinical improvement, our results suggest that unilateral STN GK radiosurgery should be approached cautiously in medically frail PD patients who may be at higher risk of GK hyper-response and neurologic complications.
PMID: 32101861
ISSN: 1423-0372
CID: 4323472

Image-based analysis and long-term clinical outcomes of deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome: a multisite study

Johnson, Kara A; Fletcher, P Thomas; Servello, Domenico; Bona, Alberto; Porta, Mauro; Ostrem, Jill L; Bardinet, Eric; Welter, Marie-Laure; Lozano, Andres M; Baldermann, Juan Carlos; Kuhn, Jens; Huys, Daniel; Foltynie, Thomas; Hariz, Marwan; Joyce, Eileen M; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Kefalopoulou, Zinovia; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Meng, Fan-Gang; Zhang, ChenCheng; Ling, Zhipei; Xu, Xin; Yu, Xinguang; Smeets, Anouk Yjm; Ackermans, Linda; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Mogilner, Alon Y; Pourfar, Michael H; Almeida, Leonardo; Gunduz, Aysegul; Hu, Wei; Foote, Kelly D; Okun, Michael S; Butson, Christopher R
BACKGROUND:Deep brain stimulation (DBS) can be an effective therapy for tics and comorbidities in select cases of severe, treatment-refractory Tourette syndrome (TS). Clinical responses remain variable across patients, which may be attributed to differences in the location of the neuroanatomical regions being stimulated. We evaluated active contact locations and regions of stimulation across a large cohort of patients with TS in an effort to guide future targeting. METHODS:We collected retrospective clinical data and imaging from 13 international sites on 123 patients. We assessed the effects of DBS over time in 110 patients who were implanted in the centromedial (CM) thalamus (n=51), globus pallidus internus (GPi) (n=47), nucleus accumbens/anterior limb of the internal capsule (n=4) or a combination of targets (n=8). Contact locations (n=70 patients) and volumes of tissue activated (n=63 patients) were coregistered to create probabilistic stimulation atlases. RESULTS:Tics and obsessive-compulsive behaviour (OCB) significantly improved over time (p<0.01), and there were no significant differences across brain targets (p>0.05). The median time was 13 months to reach a 40% improvement in tics, and there were no significant differences across targets (p=0.84), presence of OCB (p=0.09) or age at implantation (p=0.08). Active contacts were generally clustered near the target nuclei, with some variability that may reflect differences in targeting protocols, lead models and contact configurations. There were regions within and surrounding GPi and CM thalamus that improved tics for some patients but were ineffective for others. Regions within, superior or medial to GPi were associated with a greater improvement in OCB than regions inferior to GPi. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The results collectively indicate that DBS may improve tics and OCB, the effects may develop over several months, and stimulation locations relative to structural anatomy alone may not predict response. This study was the first to visualise and evaluate the regions of stimulation across a large cohort of patients with TS to generate new hypotheses about potential targets for improving tics and comorbidities.
PMID: 31129620
ISSN: 1468-330x
CID: 3921232

Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Induces Impulsive Responses to Bursts of Sensory Evidence

London, Dennis; Pourfar, Michael H; Mogilner, Alon Y
Decisions are made through the integration of external and internal inputs until a threshold is reached, triggering a response. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been implicated in adjusting the decision bound to prevent impulsivity during difficult decisions. We combine model-based and model-free approaches to test the theory that the STN raises the decision bound, a process impaired by deep brain stimulation (DBS). Eight male and female human subjects receiving treatment for Parkinson's disease with bilateral DBS of the STN performed an auditory two-alternative forced choice task. By ending trials unpredictably, we collected reaction time (RT) trials in which subjects reached their decision bound and non-RT trials in which subjects were forced to make a decision with less evidence. A decreased decision bound would cause worse performance on RT trials, and we found this to be the case on left-sided RT trials. Drift diffusion modeling showed a negative drift rate. This implies that in the absence of new evidence, the amount of evidence accumulated tends to drift toward zero. If evidence is accumulated at a constant rate this results in the evidence accumulated reaching an asymptote, the distance of which from the bound was decreased by DBS (p = 0.0079, random shuffle test), preventing subjects from controlling impulsivity. Subjects were more impulsive to bursts of stimuli associated with conflict (p < 0.001, cluster mass test). In addition, DBS lowered the decision bound specifically after error trials, decreasing the probability of switching to a non-RT trial after an error compared to correct response (28% vs. 38%, p = 0.005, Fisher exact test). The STN appears to function in decision-making by modulating the decision bound and drift rate to allow the suppression of impulsive responses.
PMID: 30983958
ISSN: 1662-4548
CID: 3810052

Treatment of dystonia: Deep brain stimulation

Pourfar, M H
Deep brain stimulation (
ISSN: 1559-0585
CID: 3931702

Interruptions to preplanned movements cause changes in firing rate and spike-wave coupling in STN neurons [Meeting Abstract]

London, D; Fazl, A; Katlowitz, K; Pourfar, M; Mogilner, A
Objectives: STN stimulation is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease but has been implicated in increasing impulsivity in patients. We sought to identify single unit and local field potential signatures associated with the correction of preplanned movement sequences in response to external stimuli.
Method(s): 6 patients with Parkinson's disease undergoing
ISSN: 1423-0372
CID: 4034692

Patients' experience during each stage of deep brain stimulation ( [Meeting Abstract]

Delavari, N; Fazl, A; Pourfar, M; Mogilner, A
Objectives: Patient satisfaction is one determinant of quality health care (Kondziolka et al. 2013). The performance of surgical procedures on conscious patients dictates unique considerations of patient comfort, experience, and satisfaction. In this study, we sought to better understand patients' experience during each stage of deep brain stimulation (
ISSN: 1423-0372
CID: 4034702