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Anti-inflammatory medication use after cataract surgery: online survey of practice patterns

Awidi, Abdelhalim A; Chang, David F; Riaz, Kamran M; Li, Ximin; LaBorwit, Scott; Zebardast, Nazlee; Srikumaran, Divya; Prescott, Christina R; Daoud, Yassine J; Woreta, Fasika A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To determine current prescribing patterns for topical or intraocular/periocular anti-inflammatory medications (AIMs) after routine cataract surgery. SETTING/METHODS:kera-net online members. DESIGN/METHODS:Cross-sectional survey. METHODS:An online survey was distributed to subscribers of kera-net, a global online platform sponsored by the Cornea Society. Questions were asked regarding the use of topical or intraocular/periocular AIM after cataract surgery and types of medications prescribed. RESULTS:Of 217 surgeon respondents (23% response rate), 171 (79%) practiced in the United States and 171 (79%) were cornea subspecialists. Most of the respondents (n = 196, 97%) prescribed topical corticosteroids after routine cataract surgery. The most frequently prescribed were prednisolone acetate (n = 162, 83%), followed by dexamethasone (n = 26, 13%), difluprednate (n = 24, 12%), and loteprednol etabonate (n = 13, 7%). Corticosteroids comprised (n = 40, 32%) of total intraocular/periocular injections, with triamcinolone acetonide 10 or 40 mg (n = 19, 47.5%) most commonly used. 23 surgeons (58%) who utilized intraocular/periocular corticosteroids also prescribed topical corticosteroids. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were prescribed postoperatively by 148 surgeons (73%). CONCLUSIONS:Most surgeons prescribed topical AIM after routine cataract surgery. Many surgeons injected intraocular or periocular AIM while prescribing topical AIM. The diversity of practice patterns may reflect the lack of clear evidence-based guidelines.
PMID: 38381616
ISSN: 1873-4502
CID: 5634322

Accuracy of intraocular lens formulas in combined phacovitrectomy

Thanitcul, Chanon; Awidi, Abdelhalim A; Ladas, John G; Siddiqui, Aazim A; Prescott, Christina R; Bower, Kraig S; Jun, Albert S; Daoud, Yassine; Srikumaran, Divya
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To assess the refractive accuracy of eight intraocular lens (IOL) formulas in eyes that underwent combined phacovitrectomy. METHODS:A retrospective chart review of 59 eyes that underwent uncomplicated phacovitrectomy between 2017 and 2020 at the Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute. Inclusion criteria were postoperative best corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better within 6 months of surgery and IOL implantation in the capsular bag. The Barrett Universal II (BUII), Emmetropia Verifying Optical (EVOv2.0), Hill-Radial Basis Function (Hill-RBFv3.0), Hoffer Q, Holladay I, Kane, Ladas Super Formula (LSF), and SRK/T formulas were compared for accuracy in predicting postoperative spherical equivalents (SE) using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to assess correlations between biometric parameters and errors for all formulas. RESULTS:Prediction errors of SE ranged from - 1.69 to 1.43 diopters (D), mean absolute errors (MAE) ranged from 0.39 to 0.47 D, and median absolute errors (MedAE) ranged from 0.23 to 0.37 D among all formulas. The BUII had the lowest mean error (- 0.043), MAE (0.39) and MedAE (0.23). The BUII also had the highest percentage of eyes with predicted error within ± 0.25 D (51%) and ± 0.50 D (83%). Based on MedAE however, no pairwise comparisons resulted in statistically significant differences. Axial length (AL) was positively correlated with the error from the Hoffer Q and Holladay I formulas (correlation coefficients = 0.34, 0.30, p values < 0.01, 0.02 respectively). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:While all eight IOL formulas had comparable accuracy in predicting refractive outcomes in eyes undergoing combined phacovitrectomy, the BUII and Kane formulas had a tendency to greater accuracy.
PMID: 38372824
ISSN: 1573-2630
CID: 5634022

Myopia Management: Outdoor Time to Reverse the Trend

Foley, Lindsay; Prescott, Christina R
PMID: 37990440
ISSN: 1542-233x
CID: 5608432

Keratoplasty in the United States: Trends and Indications From 2015 to 2020

Xiao, Grace; Tsou, Brittany C; Soiberman, Uri S; Prescott, Christina R; Srikumaran, Divya; Woreta, Fasika A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to report trends in keratoplasty techniques and indications in the United States from 2015 to 2020. METHODS:This retrospective review of annual reports from the Eye Bank Association of America assessed domestic corneal graft distribution and surgical indication data for various types of keratoplasty. Trends in procedure volume and indications from 2015 to 2020 were analyzed using the Cochran-Armitage test. RESULTS:The total number of corneal transplants increased from 47,903 in 2015 to 49,143 in 2019, with a decline to 42,257 in 2020, most likely due to COVID-19. Penetrating keratoplasty (PK) volume decreased from 2015 to 2020 (19,160-15,402, 40% to 36.4%, P < 0.001), continuing a trend from the previous decade. Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty as a percentage of all keratoplasty procedures increased (9.8%-27.8%, P < 0.001), whereas Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (47%-33.9%, P < 0.001) and anterior lamellar keratoplasty (ALK) decreased (2.3%-1.2%, P < 0.001).From 2017 to 2020, repeat corneal transplant was the most common specific indication for PK while ectasias/thinnings decreased in prevalence (15.6%-11.5%, P < 0.001). Ectasias/thinnings and endothelial dystrophy remained the leading indications for ALK and endothelial keratoplasty, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:From 2015 to 2020, keratoplasty trends in the United States showed a continuation of the decrease in PK and increase in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty observed in the previous decade. The most common domestic indications from 2017 to 2020 have been repeat corneal graft, endothelial dystrophy, and ectasias/thinnings for PK, EK, and ALK, respectively.
PMID: 36730420
ISSN: 1536-4798
CID: 5420362

Patient Utilization of Premium Intraocular Lenses Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Cha, Eumee; Arsiwala-Scheppach, Lubaina T; Srikumaran, Divya; Prescott, Christina R
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To compare the choice of intraocular lens (IOL) and sociodemographic characteristics between patients who underwent elective cataract surgery before the COVID-19 pandemic and during the pandemic at the Wilmer Eye Institute. METHODS:A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent cataract surgery before the COVID-19 pandemic (June 1 to November 30, 2019) and during the pandemic (June 1 to November 30, 2020) was conducted. Sociodemographic information, including age, sex, race, and insurance, and choice of IOL (premium or standard) were analyzed. The association between timing of surgery and choice of IOL was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS:The study included 2,877 patients (3,946 eyes) before COVID-19 and 2,564 patients (3,605 eyes) during COVID-19. However, 9.0% (357/3,946) of surgeries before COVID-19 used premium IOLs compared with 11.1% (399/3,605) during COVID-19 (P=0.004). There was no difference in the racial characteristics of patients between before and during COVID-19. After adjusting for time of surgery and demographics, the odds of choosing premium IOLs for black patients was 0.32 times the odds for white patients (P<0.001). There was an increase in private-insured patients but a decrease in Medicare-insured patients during COVID-19. After adjusting for time of surgery and demographics, private-insured patients had higher odds of choosing premium IOLs (P<0.001), whereas Medicaid-insured patients had lower odds (P=0.007) when compared with Medicare-insured patients. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:More patients chose premium IOLs during COVID-19 than before COVID-19, concurrent with change in insurance status. White patients were more likely to choose premium IOLs than black patients, as were private-insured patients compared with Medicare-insured patients.
PMID: 37167587
ISSN: 1542-233x
CID: 5509412

How Ophthalmologists Can Decarbonize Eye Care: A Review of Existing Sustainability Strategies and Steps Ophthalmologists Can Take

Sherry, Brooke; Lee, Samuel; Ramos Cadena, Maria De Los Angeles; Laynor, Gregory; Patel, Sheel R; Simon, Maxine dellaBadia; Romanowski, Eric G; Hochman, Sarah E; Schuman, Joel S; Prescott, Christina; Thiel, Cassandra L
TOPIC/OBJECTIVE:Understanding approaches to sustainability in cataract surgery and their risks and benefits CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In the United States, healthcare is responsible for approximately 8.5% of greenhouse gas (GHG), and cataract surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. Ophthalmologists can contribute to reducing GHG emissions, which lead to a steadily increasing list of health concerns ranging from trauma to food instability. METHODS:We conducted a literature review to identify the benefits and risks of sustainability interventions. We then organized these interventions into a decision tree for use by individual surgeons. RESULTS:Identified sustainability interventions fall into the domains of advocacy and education, pharmaceuticals, process, and supplies and waste. Existing literature shows certain interventions may be safe, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly. These include dispensing medications home to patients after surgery, multi-dosing appropriate medications, training staff to properly sort medical waste, reducing the number of supplies used during surgery, and implementing immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery where clinically appropriate. The literature was lacking on the benefits or risks for some interventions, such as switching specific single use supplies to reusables or implementing a hub-and-spoke style theatre setup. Many of the advocacy and education interventions have inadequate literature specific to ophthalmology but are likely to have minimal risks. CONCLUSIONS:Ophthalmologists can engage in a variety of safe and effective approaches to reduce or eliminate dangerous GHG emissions associated with cataract surgery.
PMID: 36889466
ISSN: 1549-4713
CID: 5432802

Potential Rare Danger of Presumably Benign Artificial Tears [Comment]

Prescott, Christina R; Colby, Kathryn A
PMID: 36947074
ISSN: 2168-6173
CID: 5502512

Congenital Corneal Opacity in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Case Series

Franco, Elena; Iqbal, Naeem; Shah, Parth R; Alabek, Michelle; Tripi, Kelly S; Prescott, Christina; Scanga, Hannah L; Chu, Charleen T; Nischal, Ken K
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to describe the deep phenotype of congenital corneal opacities (CCO) in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) and to identify putative regions or genes that could explain the CCO. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify patients with 22q11.2 DS seen in the ophthalmology clinic of a tertiary referral children's hospital. Thirty patients were identified, with molecular confirmation. Twenty-six did not show structural anterior segment anomalies aside from posterior embryotoxon (n = 4), whereas 4 had bilateral CCO, of which 3 had preoperative images. We reviewed medical, operative, and pathology reports; anterior segment optical coherence tomography; high-frequency ultrasound; histopathologic slides; and genetic testing. To identify putative genes responsible for CCO, chromosomal breakpoints in patients with and without CCO were compared. RESULTS:In the 3 patients with preoperative imaging and CCO, a pattern of paracentral corneal opacification with central clearing accompanied by iridocorneal or keratolenticular adhesions was observed. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography and histopathologic images showed central stromal thinning with a residual structure consistent with Descemet membrane. One patient presented at birth with unilateral corneal perforation, suggestive of likely stromal thinning. A comparison of the breakpoints across all cases failed to reveal unique regions or genes in patients with CCO. CONCLUSIONS:22q11.2 DS can rarely be associated with CCO. We describe a consistent pattern of central clearing related to posterior stromal thinning, with or without ICA/KLA. Possible candidate genes for corneal opacification in 22q11.2 DS remain elusive.
PMID: 36455075
ISSN: 1536-4798
CID: 5374112

Predictors of Receiving Keratoplasty for Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy among Medicare Beneficiaries

Heckenlaible, Nicolas J; Dun, Chen; Prescott, Christina; Eghrari, Allen O; Woreta, Fasika; Makary, Martin A; Srikumaran, Divya
OBJECTIVE:To identify factors associated with receipt of endothelial keratoplasty (EK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in patients with Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:Medicare beneficiaries ≥65 years with a diagnosis of FECD between 2011-2019. METHODS:The 100% Medicare fee-for-service administrative claims database was queried for treatment-naive patients with a diagnosis of FECD. A multivariable logistic model including age, race and ethnicity, sex, geography, ocular comorbidities and surgeries, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), and socioeconomic status was used to identify factors associated with receipt of EK and PK. Kaplan Meier survival analyses were performed to determine the rate of EK after cataract surgery and complex/other anterior segment surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:The factors associated with receipt of a first-time EK or PK, plus the rate of EK following cataract or complex/other anterior segment surgery. RESULTS:Of 719066 beneficiaries identified, 31372 (4.4%) received a first-time EK, and 2426 (0.3%) received a first-time PK. In a multivariable analysis, female sex decreased likelihood of both PK and EK (for EK, aOR 0.83 [95% CI 0.81-0.85]; for PK, aOR 0.84 [95% CI 0.78-0.92]), while Western residence (1.33 [1.29-1.38]; 1.25 [1.11-1.42]) compared to Southern and history of complex/other anterior segment surgery (1.62 [1.54-1.70]; 5.52 [4.97-6.12]) increased likelihood of both procedures. Compared to White (non-Hispanic), likelihood of EK was decreased for Black (0.76 [0.72-0.80]), Asian/Pacific Islander (0.54 [0.48-0.61]), and Hispanic/Latino (0.62 [0.55-0.70]) race and ethnicity, while for the same groups likelihood of PK was increased (for Black 1.32 [1.14-1.53]; Asian/Pacific Islander 1.46 [1.13-1.89]; Hispanic/Latino 1.62 [1.25-2.11]). Additional factors decreasing likelihood of EK were increasing age (for >85, 0.60 [0.58-0.62]), Northeastern residence (0.81 [0.78-0.84]) compared to Southern, and Charlson comorbidity index score of 7+ (0.50 [0.44-0.57]) compared to 0. Following cataract or complex/other anterior segment surgery, rates of EK were 1.3% and 3.3% at one year, and 2.3% and 5.6% at eight years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:In a multivariable analysis, female beneficiaries are less likely to receive EK or PK for FECD compared to males, whereas non-White beneficiaries are less likely to receive EK and more likely to receive PK compared to White beneficiaries.
PMID: 35932840
ISSN: 1549-4713
CID: 5288492

Contact Lens Safety for the Correction of Refractive Error in Healthy Eyes

Rhee, Michelle K; Jacobs, Deborah S; Dhaliwal, Deepinder K; Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta; Prescott, Christina R; Jhanji, Vishal; Steinemann, Thomas L; Koffler, Bruce H; Jeng, Bennie H
ABSTRACT/UNASSIGNED:Contact lenses are a safe and effective method for correction of refractive error and worn by an estimated 45 million Americans. Because of the widespread availability and commercial popularity of contact lenses, it is not well appreciated by the public that contact lenses are U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated medical devices. Contact lenses are marketed in numerous hard and soft materials that have been improved over decades, worn in daily or extended wear, and replaced in range of schedules from daily to yearly or longer. Lens materials and wear and care regimens have impact on the risks of contact lens-related corneal inflammatory events and microbial keratitis. This article reviews contact lens safety, with specific focus on the correction of refractive error in healthy eyes.
PMID: 36282872
ISSN: 1542-233x
CID: 5357952