Using non-feature films to teach diversity, cultural competence, and the DSM-IV-TR outline for cultural formulation
OBJECTIVE: Feature films have been used for teaching in psychiatry for many years to demonstrate diagnoses, but the use of documentary and instructional films in resident and staff cultural competence training have not been extensively written about in the medical and psychological literature. This article will describe the films that have been used by the authors and suggest methods for their use in cultural competence and diversity training. METHODS: A literature search was done using MEDLINE and PsychINFO and the authors were asked to describe their teaching methods. RESULTS: One article was found detailing the use of videotapes as a stimulus but not for cultural competence education, and two articles were found documenting the use of The Color of Fear as a stimulus for the discussion of racism. However, many educators use these films all across the country for the purpose of opening discussion about racism. CONCLUSION: Documentary, instructional, and public service announcements can be useful in teaching culturally competent assessment and treatment.
Beyond misdiagnosis, misunderstanding and mistrust: relevance of the historical perspective in the medical and mental health treatment of people of color
In this article, we discuss the relationship and relevance of the historical interaction primarily between African-American culture and the medical and mental health communities, and explore the role of historical experience in contributing to mistrust and underutilization of services by people of color. We conclude that failure on the part of practitioners to go beyond clinical history gathering to recognize and acknowledge the larger historical perspectives from which they and their patients of color draw conclusions and make decisions contributes to the mistrust of the medical and mental health communities and to perpetuation of the current climate of healthcare disparities.
Reconsideration of the training of psychiatrists and mental health professionals: helping to make soup
For many years, we have known of deficits in our system of training mental health professionals, particularly in recognizing and integrating diversity. Recently, we have begun to understand that our literature must more authentically reflect the experiences of all people that we serve. The current paper suggests that a comprehensive biopsychosocial conceptualization of normal and abnormal behavior for all individuals is necessary to truly begin to reduce mental health disparities. The authors argue that factors such as racial, ethnic and cultural differences must be integrated into research before the literature will begin to change in a fashion that is beneficial to the mental health training process.
Mental health disparities, diversity, and cultural competence in medical student education: how psychiatry can play a role
OBJECTIVE: The authors review recent developments in healthcare policy, including eliminating disparities in mental healthcare, increasing diversity in the healthcare workforce, and cultural competence. Following a discussion of the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) standards, as they relate to disparity, cultural competence, and diversity, the authors discuss an action plan describing the role of psychiatry in addressing these issues. METHODS: Key policy documents are reviewed for disparities, cultural competence, and diversity in healthcare and then in mental health specifically. RESULTS: Important developments in healthcare policy regarding these areas have occurred. CONCLUSION: Psychiatry can play a vital role in addressing disparities, cultural competence, and diversity in medical student education.
Commentary: APA's Efforts to Eliminate Disparities [Comment]
Beny J. Primm, MD: pioneer physician, educator, and advocate for people with addictions and HIV/AIDS [Historical Article]
Race and ethnicity, mental health services and cultural competence in the criminal justice system: are we ready to change?
By the end of 2003, 3.2% of the U.S. adult population or 6.9 million adults were incarcerated, on probation or on parole. While non-whites constitute approximately 25% of the general U.S. population, they represent the majority of the prison (62%) and jail population (57%), a 33% increase since 1980. Approximately 15% of this prison and jail population has active symptoms of serious mental illness with two-thirds likely to have a co-occurring substance use disorder diagnosis. Meanwhile, the lack of adequate mental health and substance abuse treatment within all levels of the criminal justice system continues to exist. This is further exaggerated by the dearth of evidence showing appropriate cultural awareness and competence in delivery of these much needed services to a majority non-white population. This article will review the existing racial disparities present in the criminal justice system, the lack of appropriate psychiatric services, and the effect of cultural dissonance in service provision when services do exist. Policy implications and recommendations are included in the conclusion with a call for action to all agencies directly and indirectly affected by this multifaceted problem.
Outpatient prescriptions for atypical antipsychotics for African Americans, Hispanics, and whites in the United States
BACKGROUND: New antipsychotic medications introduced during the past decade-clozapine (1990), risperidone (1994), olanzapine (1996), and quetiapine fumarate (1997)-offer a decrease in serious adverse effects compared with traditional antipsychotic medications, but at up to 10 times the cost. We examined whether ethnic minorities achieve access to these new advanced treatments. METHODS: Using national data on physician office and hospital outpatient department visits from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 1992 through 2000, we selected all patient visits at which an antipsychotic medication (atypical or traditional) was prescribed or continued and the patient was aged between 18 and 69 years. We performed a series of cross-sectional logistic regression analyses to determine the association of ethnic group and receipt of an atypical antipsychotic prescription over time, adjusted for potential confounders such as age, diagnosis, and health insurance type. RESULTS: Antipsychotic medication was prescribed or continued in 5032 visits; 33% of overall visits involved an atypical antipsychotic prescription. During 1992 to 1994, the adjusted relative odds of receipt of an atypical antipsychotic prescription for African Americans was 0.50 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.96) and for Hispanics was 0.43 (95% CI, 0.16-1.18) compared with whites. During 1995 to 1997, the odds of receipt of a prescription for atypical antipsychotics increased for African Americans (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54-0.85) and for Hispanics (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.65-1.07) compared with whites; and during 1998 to 2000, the relative odds continued to increase for African Americans (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78-0.97) and for Hispanics (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.92-1.16) compared with whites. For visits specified for psychotic disorders, receipt of atypical antipsychotics was still lower for African Americans by 1998 to 2000 (adjusted OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61-0.89) compared with whites, while for Hispanics the relative odds was equivalent (adjusted OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.87-1.19). CONCLUSION: Early gaps between ethnic groups in receipt of atypical antipsychotic prescriptions decreased throughout the 1990s but persisted for African Americans with psychotic disorders.
The acceptability of a culturally-tailored depression education videotape to African Americans
The aim of this project was to determine the acceptability and usefulness of an educational videotape for African Americans with depression. Four focus groups were held in two community settings and at a historically black university. Subjects included 24 African Americans, aged 18-76 years, who screened positive for depression. Focus group questions addressed the usefulness of the videotape to understand depression and its treatment, the most and least effective parts of the videotape, and the cultural appropriateness of the information presented. Participants took pre- and post-tests on attitudes about depression. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and reviewed independently by two investigators to identify and group comments into specific themes. Two other investigators reviewed the themes and comments for consistency and relevance. The videotape was generally well received and was rated effective in improving knowledge about depression and its treatment. After watching the videotape, attitudes improved in several areas, including depression as a medical illness, effectiveness of treatment, negative perceptions of antidepressant medication and reliance upon spirituality to heal depression. This culturally tailored videotape about depression is deemed acceptable and effective for most African Americans with depression participating in focus groups. It also improved knowledge and several attitudes about depression.
An Integrated Approach for Dually Diagnosed Patients in a Substance Abuse Treatment Program: Case Presentation
Patients with co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders experience worse social and clinical outcomes and are in need of adequate and simultaneous treatment for both disorders. The case presented illustrates the diversity of psychosocial, health, and behavioral problems and the complexity of treatment of a dually diagnosed patient. The authors discuss the benefits of using an integrated approach in an addiction treatment setting. The authors also review the importance of an integrated treatment model for populations with inadequate health care resources who are at high risk for medical and psychiatric complications.