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Correlation between imaging findings on outpatient MR enterography (MRE) in adult patients with Crohn disease and progression to surgery within 5 years

Dane, Bari; Qian, Kun; Krieger, Rachel; Smereka, Paul; Foster, Jonathan; Huang, Chenchan; Chang, Shannon; Kim, Sooah
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To retrospectively evaluate which key imaging features described by SAR-AGA on outpatient surveillance MRE correlate with progression to surgery in adults with CD. METHODS:52 CD patients imaged with outpatient MRE from 10/2015 to 12/2016 and with available clinical information were included. Two abdominal radiologists reviewed the MRE for the presence of active inflammation, intramural edema, restricted diffusion, stricture, probable stricture, ulceration, sacculation, simple fistula, complex fistula, sinus tract, inflammatory mass, abscess, perienteric inflammation, engorged vasa recta, fibrofatty proliferation, and perianal disease. Bowel wall thickness, length of bowel involvement, and degree of upstream dilation in strictures were quantified. Subsequent bowel resection, prior bowel surgery, and available laboratory values were recorded. The association between progression to surgery and imaging features was evaluated using a logistic regression model adjusting for demographics, prior bowel surgery, medication usage, and body mass index. RESULTS:19.2% (10/52) of patients progressed to surgery. Restricted diffusion, greater degree of upstream dilation from stricture, complex fistula, perienteric inflammation, and fibrofatty proliferation were significantly more common in patients progressing to surgery (all p < 0.05). κ for these significant findings ranged 0.568-0.885. Patients progressing to surgery had longer length bowel involvement (p = 0.03). Platelet count, ESR, and fecal calprotectin were significantly higher, and serum albumin was significantly lower in patients progressing to surgery. Prior bowel surgery, sex, age, and all other parameters were similar. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Radiologists should carefully describe bowel dilation upstream from strictures, penetrating and perienteric findings on outpatient MRE in CD patients, as these findings may herald progression to surgery.
PMID: 35916941
ISSN: 2366-0058
CID: 5286132

Deep Learning Reconstruction Enables Highly Accelerated Biparametric MR Imaging of the Prostate

Johnson, Patricia M; Tong, Angela; Donthireddy, Awani; Melamud, Kira; Petrocelli, Robert; Smereka, Paul; Qian, Kun; Keerthivasan, Mahesh B; Chandarana, Hersh; Knoll, Florian
BACKGROUND:Early diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) can be curative; however, prostate-specific antigen is a suboptimal screening test for clinically significant PCa. While prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has demonstrated value for the diagnosis of PCa, the acquisition time is too long for a first-line screening modality. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To accelerate prostate MRI exams, utilizing a variational network (VN) for image reconstruction. STUDY TYPE/METHODS:Retrospective. SUBJECTS/METHODS:One hundred and thirteen subjects (train/val/test: 70/13/30) undergoing prostate MRI. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE/UNASSIGNED:3.0 T; a T2 turbo spin echo (TSE) T2-weighted image (T2WI) sequence in axial and coronal planes, and axial echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). ASSESSMENT/RESULTS:, and apparent diffusion coefficient map-according to the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS v2.1), for both VN and standard reconstructions. Accuracy of PI-RADS ≥3 for clinically significant cancer was computed. Projected scan time of the retrospectively under-sampled biparametric exam was also computed. STATISTICAL TESTS/UNASSIGNED:One-sided Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for comparison of image quality. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated for lesion detection and grading. Generalized estimating equation with cluster effect was used to compare differences between standard and VN bp-MRI. A P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:(Reader 1: 3.20 ± 0.70 (Standard), 3.40 ± 0.75 (VN) P = 0.98; Reader 2: 2.85 ± 0.81 (Standard), 3.00 ± 0.79 (VN) P = 0.93; Reader 3: 4.45 ± 0.72 (Standard), 4.05 ± 0.69 (VN) P = 0.02; Reader 4: 4.50 ± 0.69 (Standard), 4.45 ± 0.76 (VN) P = 0.50). In the lesion evaluation study, there was no significant difference in the number of PI-RADS ≥3 lesions identified on standard vs. VN bp-MRI (P = 0.92, 0.59, 0.87) with similar sensitivity and specificity for clinically significant cancer. The average scan time of the standard clinical biparametric exam was 11.8 minutes, and this was projected to be 3.2 minutes for the accelerated exam. DATA CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Diagnostic accelerated biparametric prostate MRI exams can be performed using deep learning methods in <4 minutes, potentially enabling rapid screening prostate MRI. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 5.
PMID: 34877735
ISSN: 1522-2586
CID: 5110242

Comparison of Prostate Imaging and Reporting Data System V2.0 and V2.1 for Evaluation of Transition Zone Lesions: A 5-Reader 202-Patient Analysis

Kim, Nancy; Kim, Sooah; Prabhu, Vinay; Shanbhogue, Krishna; Smereka, Paul; Tong, Angela; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Taneja, Samir S; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B
OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to compare the distribution of Prostate Imaging and Reporting Data System (PI-RADS) scores, interreader agreement, and diagnostic performance of PI-RADS v2.0 and v2.1 for transition zone (TZ) lesions. METHODS:The study included 202 lesions in 202 patients who underwent 3T prostate magnetic resonance imaging showing a TZ lesion that was later biopsied with magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion. Five abdominal imaging faculty reviewed T2-weighted imaging and high b value/apparent diffusion coefficient images in 2 sessions. Cases were randomized using a crossover design whereby half in the first session were reviewed using v2.0 and the other half using v2.1, and vice versa for the 2nd session. Readers provided T2-weighted imaging and DWI scores, from which PI-RADS scores were derived. RESULTS:Interreader agreement for all PI-RADS scores had κ of 0.37 (v2.0) and 0.26 (v2.1). For 4 readers, the percentage of lesions retrospectively scored PI-RADS 1 increased greater than 5% and PI-RADS 2 score decreased greater than 5% from v2.0 to v2.1. For 2 readers, the percentage scored PI-RADS 3 decreased greater than 5% and, for 2 readers, increased greater than 5%. The percentage of PI-RADS 4 and 5 lesions changed less than 5% for all readers. For the 4 readers with increased frequency of PI-RADS 1 using v2.1, 4% to 16% were Gleason score ≥3 + 4 tumor. Frequency of Gleason score ≥3 + 4 in PI-RADS 3 lesions increased for 2 readers and decreased for 1 reader. Sensitivity of PI-RADS of 3 or greater for Gleason score ≥3 + 4 ranged 76% to 90% (v2.0) and 69% to 96% (v2.1). Specificity ranged 32% to 64% (v2.0) and 25% to 72% (v2.1). Positive predictive value ranged 43% to 55% (v2.0) and 41% to 58% (v2.1). Negative predictive value ranged 82% to 87% (v2.0) and 81% to 91% (v2.1). CONCLUSIONS:Poor interreader agreement and lack of improvement in diagnostic performance indicate an ongoing need to refine evaluation of TZ lesions.
PMID: 35405714
ISSN: 1532-3145
CID: 5218952

Using Lung Base Covid-19 Findings to Predict Future Disease Trends and New Variant Outbreaks: Study of First New York City (NYC) Outbreak

Smereka, Paul; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Latson, Larry A; Kirsch, Polly; Dane, Bari
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers and insufficient testing make containment of the virus difficult. The purpose of this study was to determine if unexpected lung base findings on abdominopelvic CTs concerning for COVID-19 infection could serve as a surrogate for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in the community. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A database search of abdominopelvic CT reports from March 1,2020 to May 2,2020 was performed for keywords suggesting COVID-19 infection by lung base findings. COVID-19 status, respiratory symptoms, laboratory parameters and patient outcomes (hospitalization, ICU admission and/or intubation, and death) were recorded. The trend in cases of unexpected concerning lung base findings on abdominopelvic CT at our institution was compared to the total number of confirmed new cases in NYC over the same time period. RESULTS:The trend in abnormal lung base findings on abdominopelvic CT at our institution correlated with the citywide number of confirmed new cases, including rise and subsequent fall in total cases. The trend was not mediated by COVID-19 testing status or number of tests performed. Patients with respiratory symptoms had significantly higher ferritin (median = 995ng/ml vs 500ng/ml, p = 0.027) and death rate (8/24, 33% vs 4/54, 9%, p = 0.018) compared to those without. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The rise and fall of unexpected lung base findings suggestive of COVID-19 infection on abdominopelvic CT in patients without COVID-19 symptoms correlated with the number of confirmed new cases throughout NYC from the same time period. A model using abdominopelvic CT lung base findings can serve as a surrogate for future COVID-19 outbreaks.
PMID: 34740527
ISSN: 1878-4046
CID: 5038562

Retrospective Assessment of the Impact of Primary Language Video Instructions on Image Quality of Abdominal MRI

Taffel, Myles T; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Foster, Jonathan A; Karajgikar, Jay A; Smereka, Paul N; Calasso, Felicia; Qian, Kun; Chandarana, Hersh
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To assess the impact of instructional videos in patients' primary language on abdominal MR image quality for whom English is a second language (ESL). METHODS:Twenty-nine ESL patients viewed Spanish or Mandarin Chinese instructional videos (approximately 2.5 min in duration) in the preparation room before abdominal MRI (ESL-video group). Comparison groups included 50 ESL patients who underwent MRI before video implementation (ESL-no video group) and 81 English-speaking patients who were matched for age, sex, magnet strength, and history of prior MRI with patients in the first two groups. Three radiologists independently assessed respiratory motion and image quality on turbo spin-echo T2-weighted images (T2WI) and postcontrast T1-weighted images (T1WI) using 1 to 5 Likert scales. Groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis tests as well as generalized estimating equations (GEEs) to adjust for possible confounders. RESULTS:For T2WI respiratory motion and T2WI overall image quality, Likert scores of the ESL-no video group (mean score across readers of 2.6 ± 0.1 and 2.6 ± 0.1) were lower (all P < .001) compared with English-speaking (3.3 ± 0.2 and 3.3 ± 0.1) and ESL-video (3.2 ± 0.1 and 3.0 ± 0.2) groups. In the GEE model, mean T2WI respiratory motion (both adjusted P < .001) and T2WI overall quality (adjusted P = .03 and .11) were higher in English and ESL-video groups compared with ESL-no video group. For T1WI respiratory motion and T1WI overall image quality, Likert scores were not different between groups (P > .05), including in the GEE model (adjusted P > .05). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Providing ESL patients with an instructional video in their primary language before abdominal MRI is an effective intervention to improve imaging quality.
PMID: 34419478
ISSN: 1558-349x
CID: 5061062

Accelerated single-shot T2-weighted fat-suppressed (FS) MRI of the liver with deep learning-based image reconstruction: qualitative and quantitative comparison of image quality with conventional T2-weighted FS sequence

Shanbhogue, Krishna; Tong, Angela; Smereka, Paul; Nickel, Dominik; Arberet, Simon; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Chandarana, Hersh
OBJECTIVE:To compare the image quality of an accelerated single-shot T2-weighted fat-suppressed (FS) MRI of the liver with deep learning-based image reconstruction (DL HASTE-FS) with conventional T2-weighted FS sequence (conventional T2 FS) at 1.5 T. METHODS:One hundred consecutive patients who underwent clinical MRI of the liver at 1.5 T including the conventional T2-weighted fat-suppressed sequence (T2 FS) and accelerated single-shot T2-weighted MRI of the liver with deep learning-based image reconstruction (DL HASTE-FS) were included. Images were reviewed independently by three blinded observers who used a 5-point confidence scale for multiple measures regarding the artifacts and image quality. Descriptive statistics and McNemar's test were used to compare image quality scores and percentage of lesions detected by each sequence, respectively. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess consistency in reader scores. RESULTS:Acquisition time for DL HASTE-FS was 51.23 +/ 10.1 s, significantly (p < 0.001) shorter than conventional T2-FS (178.9 ± 85.3 s). DL HASTE-FS received significantly higher scores than conventional T2-FS for strength and homogeneity of fat suppression; sharpness of liver margin; sharpness of intra-hepatic vessel margin; in-plane and through-plane respiratory motion; other ghosting artefacts; liver-fat contrast; and overall image quality (all, p < 0.0001). DL HASTE-FS also received higher scores for lesion conspicuity and sharpness of lesion margin (all, p < .001), without significant difference for liver lesion contrast (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Accelerated single-shot T2-weighted MRI of the liver with deep learning-based image reconstruction showed superior image quality compared to the conventional T2-weighted fat-suppressed sequence despite a 4-fold reduction in acquisition time. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:• Conventional fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequence (conventional T2 FS) can take unacceptably long to acquire and is the most commonly repeated sequence in liver MRI due to motion. • DL HASTE-FS demonstrated superior image quality, improved respiratory motion and other ghosting artefacts, and increased lesion conspicuity with comparable liver-to-lesion contrast compared to conventional T2FS sequence. • DL HASTE- FS has the potential to replace conventional T2 FS sequence in routine clinical MRI of the liver, reducing the scan time, and improving the image quality.
PMID: 33961086
ISSN: 1432-1084
CID: 4866842

Hypercoagulability in COVID-19: Identification of Arterial and Venous Thromboembolism in the Abdomen, Pelvis, and Lower Extremities

Dane, Bari; Smereka, Paul; Wain, Reese; Kim, Danny; Katz, Douglas S
The purpose of this article is to describe arterial and venous thromboembolism in the abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities. Eight-two COVID patients with abdominal ultrasound or CT were retrospectively compared with non-COVID patients for thromboembolism and solid-organ infarction. Nine (11%) COVID-19 patients had thromboembolic findings with medium to large-sized arterial thrombi in 5/82. One non-COVID patient had known portal vein thrombus on CT. Thromboembolic findings occurred more frequently in patients with than without COVID-19 (p=0.02).
PMID: 32603220
ISSN: 1546-3141
CID: 4504082

Spectrum of imaging findings in gender-affirming genital surgery: Intraoperative photographs, normal post-operative anatomy, and common complications

Nazarian, Matthew; Bluebond-Langner, Rachel; Smereka, Paul; Zhao, Lee; Ream, Justin; Hindman, Nicole
Gender-affirming surgery is becoming more accessible, and radiologists must be familiar with both terminology and anatomy following gender-affirming surgical procedures. This essay will review the most common gender-affirming genital surgeries, their post-operative anatomy, and common complications by providing intraoperative photographs, illustrations, and cross-sectional images. Routine radiologic imaging recommendations for transgender patients will also be reviewed.
PMID: 32659682
ISSN: 1873-4499
CID: 4538582

New Arterial Phase Enhancing Nodules on MRI of Cirrhotic Liver: Risk of Progression to Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Implications for LI-RADS Classification

Smereka, Paul; Doshi, Ankur M; Lavelle, Lisa P; Shanbhogue, Krishna
OBJECTIVE. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the outcome of new arterial phase enhancing nodules at MRI of cirrhotic livers, including clinical and imaging factors that affect progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to assess the diagnostic performance of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2018 (LI-RADSv2018) versus version 2017 (LI-RADSv2017) in categorizing these nodules. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A database search identified 129 new arterial phase enhancing, round, solid, space-occupying nodules in 79 patients with cirrhosis who underwent surveillance MRI. Three readers assessed the nodules for LI-RADS findings and made assessments based on the 2017 and 2018 criteria. Clinical information and laboratory values were collected. Outcome data were assessed on the basis of follow-up imaging and pathology results. Interreader agreement was assessed. Logistic regression and ROC curve analyses were used to assess the utility of the features for prediction of progression to HCC. RESULTS. Of the 129 nodules, 71 (55%) progressed to HCC. LI-RADSv2017 score, LIRADSv2018 score, and mild-to-moderate T2 hyperintensity were significant independent predictors of progression to HCC in univariate analyses. Serum α-fetoprotein level, hepatitis B or C virus infection as the cause of liver disease, and presence of other HCCs were significant predictors of progression to HCC in multivariate analyses. The rates of progression of LI-RADS category 3 and 4 observations were 38.1% and 57.6%, respectively, for LI-RADSv2017 and 44.4% and 69.9%, respectively, for LI-RADSv2018. CONCLUSION. New arterial phase enhancing nodules in patients with cirrhosis frequently progress to HCC. Factors such as serum α-fetoprotein level and presence of other HCCs are strong predictors of progression to HCC.
PMID: 32432909
ISSN: 1546-3141
CID: 4446832

Interreader Concordance of the TI-RADS: Impact of Radiologist Experience

Chung, Ryan; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Bennett, Genevieve L; Dane, Bari; Jacobs, Jill E; Slywotzky, Chrystia; Smereka, Paul N; Tong, Angela; Sheth, Sheila
OBJECTIVE. The objective of this article is to assess radiologist concordance in characterizing thyroid nodules using the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS), focusing on the effect of radiologist experience on reader concordance. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Three experienced and three less experienced radiologists assessed 150 thyroid nodules using the TI-RADS lexicon. Percent concordance was determined for various endpoints. RESULTS. Interreader concordance for the five TI-RADS categories was 87.2% for shape, 81.2% for composition, 76.1% for echogenicity, 72.9% for margins, and 69.8% for echogenic foci. Concordance for individual features was 96.3% for rim calcifications, 90.8% for macrocalcifications, 90.1% for spongiform, 83.5% for comet tail artifact, and 77.7% for punctate echogenic foci. Concordance for the TI-RADS level and recommendation for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) were 50.4% and 78.9%, respectively. Concordance was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for less experienced readers in identifying margins (84.3% vs 67.4%), echogenic foci (76.9% vs 69.3%), comet tail artifact (89.6% vs 79.2%), and punctate echogenic foci (85.3% vs 75.5%), and lower for peripheral rim calcifications (95.0% vs 97.8 %), but was not different (p > 0.05) for the remaining categories and features. CONCLUSION. A range of TI-RADS categories, features, and recommendations for FNA had generally moderate interreader agreement among six radiologists. Our results show that concordance for numerous characteristics was significantly higher for the less experienced versus the more experienced readers. These results suggest that less experienced readers relied more on the explicit TI-RADS criteria, whereas the experienced radiologists partially relied on their accumulated experience when forming impressions. However, the overall TI-RADS level and recommendation for FNA were unaffected, supporting the robustness of the TI-RADS lexicon and its continued use in practice.
PMID: 32097031
ISSN: 1546-3141
CID: 4323312