Breast Milk and Breastfeeding of Infants Born to SARS-CoV-2 Positive Mothers: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study
OBJECTIVE:â€ƒThere are limited published data on the transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus from mothers to newborns through breastfeeding or from breast milk. The World Health Organization released guidelines encouraging mothers with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 to breastfeed as the benefits of breastfeeding outweighs the possible risk of transmission. The objective of this study was to determine if SARS-CoV-2 was present in the breast milk of lactating mothers who had a positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab test prior to delivery, and the clinical outcomes for their newborns. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:by two-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, the clinical characteristics of the maternal newborn dyad, results of nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 testing, and neonatal follow-up data were collected. RESULTS:â€ƒA total of 19 mothers were included in the study and their infants who were all fed breast milk. Breast milk samples from 18 mothers tested negative for SARS-CoV-2, and 1 was positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The infant who ingested the breast milk that tested positive had a negative nasopharyngeal test for SARS-CoV-2, and had a benign clinical course. There was no evidence of significant clinical infection during the hospital stay or from outpatient neonatal follow-up data for all the infants included in this study. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:â€ƒIn a small cohort of SARS-CoV-2 positive lactating mothers giving birth at our institution, most of their breast milk samples (95%) contained no detectable virus, and there was no evidence of COVID-19 infection in their breast milk-fed neonates. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:Â· Breast milk may rarely contain detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA and was not detected in asymptomatic mothers.. Â· Breast milk with detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA from a symptomatic mother had no clinical significance for her infant.. Â· Breast feeding with appropriate infection control instructions appears to be safe in mother with COVID infection..
Neonate Born to a Mother with a Diagnosis of Suspected Intra-Amniotic Infection versus COVID-19 or Both [Case Report]
A diagnosis of intra-amniotic infection is typically made based on clinical criteria, including maternal intrapartum fever and one or more of the following: maternal leukocytosis, purulent cervical drainage, or fetal tachycardia. The diagnosis can also be made in patients with an isolated fever of 39Â°C, or greater, without any other clinical risk factors present. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, has been noted to have varying signs and symptoms over the course of the disease including fever, cough, fatigue, anorexia, shortness of breath, sputum production, and myalgia. In this report, we detail a case of a newborn born to a mother with a clinical diagnosis of intra-amniotic infection with maternal fever and fetal tachycardia, who was then found to be SARS-CoV-2 positive on testing. Due to the varying presentation of COVID-19, this case illustrates the low threshold needed to test mothers for SARS-CoV-2 in order to prevent horizontal transmission to neonates and to healthcare providers.