Dose-Response of a Norovirus GII.2 Controlled Human Challenge Model Inoculum
BACKGROUND:Genogroup II noroviruses are the most common cause of acute infectious gastroenteritis. We evaluated the use of a new GII.2 inoculum in a human challenge. METHODS:Forty-four healthy adults (36 secretor-positive and 8 secretor-negative for histo-blood group antigens) were challenged with ascending doses of a new safety-tested Snow Mountain Virus (SMV) GII.2 norovirus inoculum (1.2x10 4 to 1.2x10 7 genomic equivalent copies [GEC]; n=38) or placebo ( n=6). Illness was defined as diarrhea and/or vomiting post challenge in subjects with evidence of infection (defined as GII.2 norovirus RNA detection in stool and/or anti-SMV IgG seroconversion). RESULTS:The highest dose was associated with SMV infection in 90%, and illness in 70% of subjects with 10 of 12 secretor-positive (83%) and 4 of 8 secretor-negative (50%) becoming ill. There was no association between pre-challenge anti-SMV serum IgG concentration, carbohydrate-binding blockade antibody, or salivary IgA and infection. The ID50 was 5.1Ã—10 5 GEC. CONCLUSIONS:High rates of infection and illness were observed in both secretor-positive and negative subjects in this challenge study. However, a high dose will be required to achieve the target of 75% illness to make this an efficient model for evaluating potential norovirus vaccines and therapeutics.
Lassa Virus Infection: a Summary for Clinicians
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:This summary on Lassa virus (LASV) infection and Lassa fever disease (LF) was developed from a clinical perspective to provide clinicians with a condensed, accessible understanding of the current literature. The information provided highlights pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnostics emphasizing therapies and vaccines that have demonstrated potential value for use in clinical or research environments. METHODS:We conducted an integrative literature review on the clinical and pathological features, vaccines, and treatments for LASV infection, focusing on recent studies and in vivo evidence from humans and/or non-human primates (NHPs), when available. RESULTS:Two antiviral medications with potential benefit for the treatment of LASV infection and 1 for post-exposure prophylaxis were identified, although a larger number of therapeutic candidates are currently being evaluated. Multiple vaccine platforms are in pre-clinical development for LASV prevention, but data from human clinical trials are not yet available. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We provide succinct summaries of medical countermeasures against LASV to give the busy clinician a rapid reference. Although there are no approved drugs or vaccines for LF, we provide condensed information from a literature review for measures that can be taken when faced with a suspected infection, including investigational treatment options and hospital engineering controls.
Pediatric Osteoarticular Infections Caused by Mycobacteria Tuberculosis Complex: A 26-year Review of Cases in San Diego, CA
BACKGROUND:Osteoarticular infections (OAIs) account for 10%-20% of extrapulmonary Mycobacteria tuberculosis (MTB) complex infections in children and 1%-2% of all pediatric tuberculosis infections. Treatment regimens and durations typically mirror recommendations for other types of extrapulmonary MTB, but there are significant variations in practice, with some experts suggesting a treatment course of 12 months or longer. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of children diagnosed with MTB complex OAI and cared for between December 31, 1992, and December 31, 2018, at a tertiary care pediatric hospital near the United States-Mexico border. RESULTS:We identified 21 children with MTB complex OAI during the study period. Concurrent pulmonary disease (9.5%), meningitis (9.5%), and intra-abdominal involvement (14.3%) were all observed. MTB complex was identified by culture from operative samples in 15/21 children (71.4%); 8/15 (53.3%) cultures were positive for Mycobacterium bovis. Open bone biopsy was the most common procedure for procurement of a tissue sample and had the highest culture yield. The median duration of antimicrobial therapy was 52 weeks (interquartile range, 46-58). Successful completion of therapy was documented in 15 children (71.4%). Nine children (42.9%) experienced long-term sequelae related to their infection. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Among the 21 children with MTB complex OAI assessed, 8 of 15 (53.3%) children with a positive tissue culture had M. bovis, representing a higher percentage than in previous reports and potentially reflecting its presence in unpasteurized dairy products in the California-Baja region. Bone biopsy produced the highest culture yield in this study. Given the rarity of this disease, multicenter collaborative studies are needed to improve our understanding of the presentation and management of pediatric MTB complex OAI.
Safety and immunogenicity of an AS03-adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 recombinant protein vaccine (CoV2 preS dTM) in healthy adults: interim findings from a phase 2, randomised, dose-finding, multicentre study
BACKGROUND:We evaluated our SARS-CoV-2 prefusion spike recombinant protein vaccine (CoV2 preS dTM) with different adjuvants, unadjuvanted, and in a one-injection and two-injection dosing schedule in a previous phase 1-2 study. Based on interim results from that study, we selected a two-injection schedule and the AS03 adjuvant for further clinical development. However, lower than expected antibody responses, particularly in older adults, and higher than expected reactogenicity after the second vaccination were observed. In the current study, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an optimised formulation of CoV2 preS dTM adjuvanted with AS03 to inform progression to phase 3 clinical trial. METHODS:This phase 2, randomised, parallel-group, dose-ranging study was done in adults (â‰¥18 years old), including those with pre-existing medical conditions, those who were immunocompromised (except those with recent organ transplant or chemotherapy) and those with a potentially increased risk for severe COVID-19, at 20 clinical research centres in the USA and Honduras. Women who were pregnant or lactating or, for those of childbearing potential, not using an effective method of contraception or abstinence, and those who had received a COVID-19 vaccine, were excluded. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) using an interactive response technology system, with stratification by age (18-59 years and â‰¥60 years), rapid serodiagnostic test result (positive or negative), and high-risk medical conditions (yes or no), to receive two injections (day 1 and day 22) of 5 7mu;g (low dose), 10 7mu;g (medium dose), or 15 7mu;g (high dose) CoV2 preS dTM antigen with fixed AS03 content. All participants and outcome assessors were masked to group assignment; unmasked study staff involved in vaccine preparation were not involved in safety outcome assessments. All laboratory staff performing the assays were masked to treatment. The primary safety objective was to describe the safety profile in all participants, for each candidate vaccine formulation. Safety endpoints were evaluated for all randomised participants who received at least one dose of the study vaccine (safety analysis set), and are presented here for the interim study period (up to day 43). The primary immunogenicity objective was to describe the neutralising antibody titres to the D614G variant 14 days after the second vaccination (day 36) in participants who were SARS-CoV-2 naive who received both injections, provided samples at day 1 and day 36, did not have protocol deviations, and did not receive an authorised COVID-19 vaccine before day 36. Neutralising antibodies were measured using a pseudovirus neutralisation assay and are presented here up to 14 days after the second dose. As a secondary immunogenicity objective, we assessed neutralising antibodies in non-naive participants. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04762680) and is closed to new participants for the cohort reported here. FINDINGS/RESULTS:Of 722 participants enrolled and randomly assigned between Feb 24, 2021, and March 8, 2021, 721 received at least one injection (low dose=240, medium dose=239, and high dose=242). The proportion of participants reporting at least one solicited adverse reaction (injection site or systemic) in the first 7 days after any vaccination was similar between treatment groups (217 [91%] of 238 in the low-dose group, 213 [90%] of 237 in the medium-dose group, and 218 [91%] of 239 in the high-dose group); these adverse reactions were transient, were mostly mild to moderate in intensity, and occurred at a higher frequency and intensity after the second vaccination. Four participants reported immediate unsolicited adverse events; two (one each in the low-dose group and medium-dose group) were considered by the investigators to be vaccine related and two (one each in the low-dose and high-dose groups) were considered unrelated. Five participants reported seven vaccine-related medically attended adverse events (two in the low-dose group, one in the medium-dose group, and four in the high-dose group). No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no adverse events of special interest were reported. Among participants naive to SARS-CoV-2 at day 36, 158 (98%) of 162 in the low-dose group, 166 (99%) of 168 in the medium-dose group, and 163 (98%) of 166 in the high-dose group had at least a two-fold increase in neutralising antibody titres to the D614G variant from baseline. Neutralising antibody geometric mean titres (GMTs) at day 36 for participants who were naive were 2189 (95% CI 1744-2746) for the low-dose group, 2269 (1792-2873) for the medium-dose group, and 2895 (2294-3654) for the high-dose group. GMT ratios (day 36: day 1) were 107 (95% CI 85-135) in the low-dose group, 110 (87-140) in the medium-dose group, and 141 (111-179) in the high-dose group. Neutralising antibody titres in non-naive adults 21 days after one injection tended to be higher than titres after two injections in adults who were naive, with GMTs 21 days after one injection for participants who were non-naive being 3143 (95% CI 836-11â€ˆ815) in the low-dose group, 2338 (593-9226) in the medium-dose group, and 7069 (1361-36â€ˆ725) in the high-dose group. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:Two injections of CoV2 preS dTM-AS03 showed acceptable safety and reactogenicity, and robust immunogenicity in adults who were SARS-CoV-2 naive and non-naive. These results supported progression to phase 3 evaluation of the 10 7mu;g antigen dose for primary vaccination and a 5 7mu;g antigen dose for booster vaccination. FUNDING/BACKGROUND:Sanofi Pasteur and Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.
SARS-CoV-2 Among Infants <90 Days of Age Admitted for Serious Bacterial Infection Evaluation
South American Hemorrhagic Fevers: A summary for clinicians
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:This article is one of a series on acute, severe diseases of humans caused by emerging viruses for which there are no or limited licensed medical countermeasures. We approached this summary on South American Hemorrhagic Fevers (SAHF) from a clinical perspective that focuses on pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnostics with an emphasis on therapies and vaccines that have demonstrated potential for use in an emergency situation through their evaluation in nonhuman primates (NHPs) and/or in humans. METHODS:A standardized literature review was conducted on the clinical, pathological, vaccine, and treatment factors for SAHF as a group and for each individual virus/disease. RESULTS:We identified 2 treatments and 1 vaccine platform that have demonstrated potential benefit for treating or preventing infection in humans and 4 other potential treatments currently under investigation. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We provide succinct summaries of these countermeasures to give the busy clinician a head start in reviewing the literature if faced with a patient with South American Hemorrhagic Fever. We also provide links to other authoritative sources of information.
Publisher Correction: Phase I/II study of COVID-19 RNA vaccine BNT162b1 in adults
Characteristics of Hospitalized Children With SARS-CoV-2 in the New York City Metropolitan Area
Safety and Immunogenicity of Two RNA-Based Covid-19 Vaccine Candidates
BACKGROUND:Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections and the resulting disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), have spread to millions of persons worldwide. Multiple vaccine candidates are under development, but no vaccine is currently available. Interim safety and immunogenicity data about the vaccine candidate BNT162b1 in younger adults have been reported previously from trials in Germany and the United States. METHODS:In an ongoing, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded, dose-escalation, phase 1 trial conducted in the United States, we randomly assigned healthy adults 18 to 55 years of age and those 65 to 85 years of age to receive either placebo or one of two lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside-modified RNA vaccine candidates: BNT162b1, which encodes a secreted trimerized SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain; or BNT162b2, which encodes a membrane-anchored SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike, stabilized in the prefusion conformation. The primary outcome was safety (e.g., local and systemic reactions and adverse events); immunogenicity was a secondary outcome. Trial groups were defined according to vaccine candidate, age of the participants, and vaccine dose level (10 Î¼g, 20 Î¼g, 30 Î¼g, and 100 Î¼g). In all groups but one, participants received two doses, with a 21-day interval between doses; in one group (100 Î¼g of BNT162b1), participants received one dose. RESULTS:A total of 195 participants underwent randomization. In each of 13 groups of 15 participants, 12 participants received vaccine and 3 received placebo. BNT162b2 was associated with a lower incidence and severity of systemic reactions than BNT162b1, particularly in older adults. In both younger and older adults, the two vaccine candidates elicited similar dose-dependent SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing geometric mean titers, which were similar to or higher than the geometric mean titer of a panel of SARS-CoV-2 convalescent serum samples. CONCLUSIONS:The safety and immunogenicity data from this U.S. phase 1 trial of two vaccine candidates in younger and older adults, added to earlier interim safety and immunogenicity data regarding BNT162b1 in younger adults from trials in Germany and the United States, support the selection of BNT162b2 for advancement to a pivotal phase 2-3 safety and efficacy evaluation. (Funded by BioNTech and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04368728.).
Importance of Pediatric Inclusion in COVID-19 Therapeutic Trials
Pediatric patients are excluded from most COVID-19 therapeutic trials. We outline a rationale for the inclusion of children in COVID-19 therapeutic trials with enabled us to include children of all ages in a therapeutic COVID-19 trial at our institution.