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Toledo School of Translators and their influence on anatomical terminology [Historical Article]

Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Bueno-López, José-L; Raio, Nicolas
Translation facilitates transmission of knowledge between cultures. The fundamental transfer of anatomic terminology from the Ancient Greek and Islamic Golden Age cultures, to medieval Latin Christendom took place in the so-called Toledo School of Translators in the 12th-13th centuries. Translations made in Toledo circulated widely across Europe. They were the foundation of scientific thinking that was born in the boards of first universities. In Toledo, Gerard of Cremona translated Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, the key work of Islamic Golden Age of medicine. Albertus Magnus, Mondino de Luzzi and Guy de Chauliac, the leading authors of anatomical Latin words in the Middle Ages, founded their books on Gerard's translations. The anatomical terms of the Canon retain auctoritas up to the Renaissance. Thus, terms coined by Gerard such as diaphragm, orbit, pupil or sagittal remain relevant in the current official anatomical terminology. The aim of the present paper is to bring new attention to the highly significant influence that the Toledo School of Translators had in anatomical terminology. For this, we shall review here the onomastic origins of a number of anatomical terms (additamentum; coracoid process; coxal; false ribs; femur; panniculus; spondylus; squamous sutures; thorax; xiphoid process, etc.) which are still used today.
PMID: 25667112
ISSN: 1618-0402
CID: 3531232

Alterations in serum neopterin correlate with thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk scores in acute coronary syndromes

Johnston, Douglas T; Gagos, Marios; Raio, Nicholas; Ragolia, Louis; Shenouda, David; Davis-Lorton, Mark A; De Leon, Joshua R
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Using serum neopterin as a marker of macrophage activation, we sought to examine the relationship between serum neopterin levels, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk scores, and how different treatments of acute coronary syndromes affect change in neopterin. METHODS:We examined serum neopterin concentrations at presentation and 72 h after treatment in 70 patients with acute coronary syndromes (35 with medical therapy, 25 with uncoated coronary stents, and 10 received rapamycin-eluting stents) using a commercially available immunoassay. Serum neopterin levels were determined for 36 patients with stable coronary artery disease. TIMI risk scores were calculated when appropriate (n=58). RESULTS:Serum neopterin had a strong correlation with the TIMI risk score on admission (P<0.0001). The mean baseline neopterin levels in patients with acute coronary syndromes stratified with TIMI scores between 1 and 7 were the following: patients with TIMI 1 scores had a level of 3.3+/-0.4 nmol/l, TIMI 2 patients 4.6+/-0.6 nmol/l, TIMI 3 patients 5.5+/-1.4 nmol/l, TIMI 4 patients 7.5+/-2.4 nmol/l, TIMI 5 patients 10.8+/-3.3 nmol/l, TIMI 6 patients 17.5+/-4.0 nmol/l, and TIMI 7 patients 23.0+/-7.1 nmol/l. Mean changes in serum neopterin were significantly higher for the uncoated stent group than for each of the other three groups (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Serum neopterin concentrations have a high correlation with TIMI risk scores and may represent a marker useful in stratifying patients with acute coronary syndromes. Our results also suggest that the use of uncoated coronary stents results in macrophage activation not found with other treatment modalities.
PMID: 16905962
ISSN: 0954-6928
CID: 4050682

Acute right coronary artery occlusion following radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial flutter [Case Report]

Raio, Nicolas; Cohen, Todd J; Daggubati, Ramesh; Marzo, Kevin
Acute right coronary artery occlusion following radiofrequency ablation. We report the first known case of acute right coronary artery occlusion following Radiofrequency (RF) ablation for atrial flutter in a patient without known prior coronary disease. Our patient developed acute chest pain and inferior ST-segment elevation immediately following the procedure. Emergent cardiac catheterization was performed, revealing an occluded distal right coronary artery, which was immediately stented. Acute coronary occlusion should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients, with or without coronary artery disease, who experience chest pain following RF ablation for atrial flutter.
PMID: 15687532
ISSN: 1042-3931
CID: 3407112

Serotonin depletion during synaptogenesis leads to decreased synaptic density and learning deficits in the adult rat: a possible model of neurodevelopmental disorders with cognitive deficits

Mazer, C; Muneyyirci, J; Taheny, K; Raio, N; Borella, A; Whitaker-Azmitia, P
Studies in the past have revealed serotonin to play a role in regulating the development and maturation of the mammalian brain, largely through the release of the astroglial protein S-100beta. S-100beta plays a role in neurite extension, microtubule and dendritic stabilization and regulation of the growth associated protein GAP-43, all of which are key elements in the production of synapses. Depletion of serotonin, and thus of S-100beta, during synaptogenesis should lead to a loss of synapses and the behaviors dependent on those synapses. The current study was undertaken to test this hypothesis. In order to assess the influence of serotonin we have looked at the synaptic density in the adult after depletion, by using immunodensitometry of synaptic markers (synaptophysin and MAP-2) and by studying behaviors thought to be highly dependent on synaptic plasticity and density. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of serotonin on postnatal days (PND) 10-20 by treating with the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA; 100 mg/kg, s.c.). On PND's 30 and 62, animals were perfused for immunodensitometry. Littermates were used for behavioral testing. At PND 55-62, the animals were tested in an interchangeable maze with olfactory cues and in an eight-arm radial maze. Our results show a loss of both synaptic markers in the hippocampus on PND 30. At PND 62, the only remaining loss was of the dendritic marker MAP-2. The animals had deficits in both behaviors tested, suggestive of spacial learning deficits and of the failure to extinguish learned behaviors or to re-learn in a new set. Our findings show the long-term consequences of interfering with the role of serotonin in brain development on the morphology and function of the adult brain. These findings may have implications for human diseases, including schizophrenia, thought to be related to neurodevelopmental insults such as malnutrition, hypoxia, viruses or in utero drug exposure. Moreover, they provide further insights into the functioning of serotonin and S-100beta in development and aging.
PMID: 9237519
ISSN: 0006-8993
CID: 4050702

Serotonin depletion in the adult rat causes loss of the dendritic marker MAP-2. A new animal model of schizophrenia?

Whitaker-Azmitia, P M; Borella, A; Raio, N
Many trophic factors are now thought to also function in maintenance of the adult brain. We hypothesized that since serotonin plays a role in synaptogenesis, it may also function in maintenance of synapses in the adult. Adult rats were depleted of serotonin with the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) for 10 days. Fourteen days after the final treatment, immunodensitometry showed a significant decrease in the synaptic marker, MAP-2. Our results are discussed in respect to the recent finding of decreased MAP-2 staining in postmortem schizophrenic brains.
PMID: 7612161
ISSN: 0893-133x
CID: 4050692