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Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine Induced Cardiomyopathy: A Concise Review

Kariyanna, Pramod Theetha; Doodnauth, Andrew; Shetty, Mrinali; Ramalanjaona, Benjamin; Hossain, Naseem; Chowdhury, Yuvraj Singh; Hossain, Nimrah; Jayarangaiah, Apoorva; Budzikowski, Adam
ISSN: 2469-8024
CID: 5327052


Ramalanjaona, Benjamin; Patwa, Karishma; Chowdhury, Yuvraj; Salciccioli, Louis
ISSN: 0735-1097
CID: 5305662


Ramalanjaona, Benjamin; Maryniak, Andrii; Hevroni, Gil
ISSN: 1553-5606
CID: 5327042

Management of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in the COVID-19 Era: The Role of Thrombosis and Anticoagulation Strategy

Al-Sadawi, Mohammed; Mohiuddin, Amena; Hossain, Naseem; Shaikh, Shakil; Feit, Alan; Ramalanjaona, Benjamin; Salifu, Moro O; McFarlane, Samy I
Cardiac manifestations of COVID-19 include myocarditis, demand ischemia, myocardial infarction and arrhythmias with prothrombotic state being a major underlying pathogenetic mechanism. In this report we present a case of a 57-year-old, otherwise healthy, woman who presented with chest pain and nausea and was found to have an inferior wall ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the setting of an active COVID-19 infection. Angiography revealed tortuous coronary arteries with a 100% right coronary artery occlusion with high thrombus burden and normal left coronary system. In light of the available literature regarding the pro-thrombotic effects of this novel corona virus, we continued full dose anticoagulation with Enoxaparin after the cardiac catheterization and transitioned to rivaroxaban and we also continued the patient on dual antiplatelet therapy prior to discharge.
PMID: 32587886
ISSN: 2374-216x
CID: 5305612

Nephrotoxicity Associated with Low-dose Methotrexate and Outpatient Parenteral Microbial Therapy: A Case Report, Review of the Literature and Pathophysiologic Insights

Ramalanjaona, Benjamin; Hevroni, Gil; Cham, Samantha; Page, Cameron; Salifu, Moro O; McFarlane, Samy I
Methotrexate (MTX) toxicity can affect multiple organ systems, manifesting as nephrotoxicity, myelosuppression, hepatotoxicity, mucositis, and gastrointestinal upset. Serious adverse events are rare in patients prescribed low-dose methotrexate. We present a case of an 86-year-old female on a weekly dose of oral MTX 12.5 mg for rheumatoid arthritis presenting with painful gingiva and oral bleeding during outpatient antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) for osteomyelitis with vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. She had acute kidney injury (AKI), elevated serum MTX levels, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and a vancomycin level three times therapeutic concentration. MTX toxicity was suspected to have been triggered by vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam causing AKI and impaired renal clearance of MTX which itself is nephrotoxic. The patient was managed with leucovorin, alkalinized intravenous fluids, and filgrastim injections over a 2-week period. Her renal function continued to be reduced at 5-week outpatient follow-up, far after other markers of toxicity normalized. This case demonstrates the importance of considering potential drug-drug interactions and the need for robust monitoring for OPAT in select groups.
PMID: 32802941
ISSN: 2374-216x
CID: 5305632

Coronary Embolism and Myocardial Infarction: A Scoping Study

Kariyanna, Pramod Theetha; Ramalanjaona, Benjamin; Al-Sadawi, Mohammed; Jayarangaiah, Apoorva; Hegde, Sudhanva; McFarlane, Isabel M
Coronary embolism is a cause of acute myocardial infarction (AMI)in which obstructive foci enter the coronary circulation, block normal blood flow and precipitate ischemia. Precise studies focusing on patient population affected, pathophysiological mechanisms, and treatment strategies are scanty, in spite of a reported prevalence estimated at 2.9%. As the understanding of myocardial infarction without evidence of coronary artery disease continues to grow, an in-depth review of this previously seldomly reported subtype of coronary ischemia was in order. Patients suffering coronary embolism are 15 to 20 years younger than traditional AMI patients with a slight predominance towards male sex, which resembles the gender data of the populations affected by non-traditional myocardial infarction in published reports. While the expected prevalence rate of cardiovascular disease risk factors such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia are present, this population also has a relatively high prevalence of atrial fibrillation and valve pathology, especially endocarditis. Initial presentation is indistinguishable from other causes of myocardial infarction however fever is commonly present, when endocarditis with valvular involvement is the primary cause of the coronary embolism. Mechanical thrombectomy is the mainstay of treatment, followed by percutaneous coronary intervention. Mortality is the highest in patients who do not receive targeted treatment for the coronary embolism, particularly if only antimicrobial agents or anticoagulation without thrombolytic agents are employed. The unique features of coronary embolism highlighted in this historical study justify further examination in contemporary patient populations.
PMID: 32775621
ISSN: 2374-216x
CID: 5305622

Snorkeling Induced Pulmonary Edema: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Yadav, Ruchi; Kariyanna, Pramod Theetha; Jayarangaiah, Dommalur; Thomas, Delroy; Yadav, Vivek; Tadayoni, Ashkan; Aurora, Lyudmila; Ramalanjaona, Benjamin; McFarlane, Isabel M
Swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE), also called immersion pulmonary edema (IPE), is a medical condition seen in various water-based activities such as scuba diving, swimming, aqua jogging, triathlete competition and snorkeling. It occurs when transcapillary filtration of low protein fluid collects in the lungs, in the absence of water aspiration during an aquatic activity, causing acute dyspnea, cough and/or hemoptysis. The hallmark of this entity is the complete resolution of symptoms within 48 hours. SIPE in snorkeling is an under-reported and understudied subject. The true prevalence of SIPE is unknown with an estimated range from 1.8-60% among combat swimmers trainee and 1.4% in triathletes. Recent developments have been done in elucidating the pathophysiology of SIPE with regards to pulmonary capillary pressure so that the predisposing factors and potential causes can be targeted. SIPE can be a potentially life-threatening condition, which needs to be recognized by the swimmers, divers, supervising physicians in order to diagnose and manage it promptly. We report a rare case of SIPE in snorkeling which presented with acute respiratory symptoms and managed with supportive measures in the hospital.
PMID: 32432160
ISSN: 2374-216x
CID: 5305602

Mitral Valve Aneurysm in Mitral Valve Endocarditis:A Case Report

Apple, Samuel J; Ramalanjaona, Benjamin; Kariyanna, Pramod Theetha; McFarlane, Isabel M
Mitral valve aneurysm (MVA) is an ominous complication of infective endocarditis (IE), with worse outcomes seen among patients with preexisting valvular disease or intravenous drug use. Valve aneurysms can perforate or lead to rupture of the chordae tendineae, with the consequent development of severe mitral regurgitation and acute pulmonary edema. We present a case of a 54-year-old woman with hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peptic ulcer disease, obstructive sleep apnea, gastroesophageal reflux disease, intravenous drug abuse and bipolar disorder who developed MVA one month after being discharged for IE. Decline in the clinical status of patients with IE is a troubling sign that may indicate an IE complication such as MVA. Physicians should diligently monitor patients with IE for changes in signs and symptoms, as early recognition and surgical intervention are key to prevent further morbidity and mortality.
PMID: 32432157
ISSN: 2374-216x
CID: 5305592

Wellens' Syndrome in a HIV-positive Patient: A Case Report

Kariyanna, Pramod Theetha; Yusupov, Denis; Ramalanjaona, Benjamin; Jayarangaia, Apoorva; Al-Sadawi, Mohammed; McFarlane, Isabel M
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at higher risk for coronary artery disease, due to accelerated atherosclerosis resulting from chronic inflammation, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the side effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The Wellens' pattern is an electrocardiographic (ECG) finding that represents critical proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery stenosis that, that when is not promptly treated, can lead to extensive anterior wall myocardial infarction and death. Very few cases of Wellens' syndrome in HIV positive patients have been reported. We present a case of Wellens' syndrome in a 38-year-old male with HIV on HAART and hyperlipidemia, as his only traditional cardiovascular risk factor. Recognition of the characteristic biphasic T-waves in V2 and V3 on ECG in the setting of typical angina and elevated troponin levels directed the clinicians to proceed with an emergent cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention with drug eluting stent placement in the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD). Physicians should recognize Wellens' syndrome as it indicates critical LAD stenosis requiring intervention. HIV positive patients can present with Wellens' sign at a younger age, indicating premature coronary artery disease (CAD) in this population.
PMID: 31552289
ISSN: 2374-216x
CID: 5305582

Attending to Resident: Gender Bias

Chapter by: Ramalanjaona, Georges; Ramalanjaona, Benjamin
in: Diversity and inclusion in quality patient care : your story/our story : a case-based compendium by Martin, Marcus L; et al [Eds]
Cham : Springer, [2019]
pp. 331-334
ISBN: 9783319927619
CID: 5327062