Evaluation and Management of Pediatric Bone Lesions
Bone abnormalities on pediatric radiographs are not uncommon findings for both the general orthopedist as well as the specialist. Although the majority of lesions encountered are benign, the treating physician should also be aware of more concerning diagnoses. General orthopedists and pediatric orthopedists should exhibit a basic level of comfort with working up and diagnosing these benign lesions. When evaluating the pediatric patient with a bone lesion it is crucial to keep in mind important aspects of the clinical history, physical exam, and radiographic findings. Here we provide a review of important findings for the orthopedic surgeon in each of these areas. Many times diagnoses can be made with these alone. With better understanding of clinical and radiographic features of these lesions the orthopedist should be comfortable knowing which lesions he or she can reasonably treat and which should be referred to an oncologic specialist.
Bone Grafts, Substitutes, and Augments in Benign Orthopaedic Conditions Current Concepts
Musculoskeletal tumors are relatively rare diagnoses made by orthopaedic surgeons. While approximately 2,500 primary bone sarcomas are diagnosed annually in the USA, the number of benign orthopaedic tumors encountered annually is far more difficult to quantify. Some studies have documented between 3% and 10% of the general population having benign bony lesions. Many of these conditions can be simply observed, while others will require surgical intervention. Surgical treatments for benign conditions range from a one-step curettage to extensive resection and reconstruction. With treatment of larger lesions, significant bony defects may need to be addressed surgically. Treatment options have evolved over time with the use of various bone graft and bone void fillers, including methyl methacrylate cement, autograft, allograft bone chips, struts and osteoarticular segments, synthetic bone graft substitutes, and metal augments. This review provides an overview of the present status of bone graft, substitutes, and augment options for the orthopaedic surgeon treating benign musculoskeletal conditions.
Synovial Hemangioma Presenting as a Painful Locked Knee A Case Report
A 39-year-old man presented to orthopaedic care with a painful, fully locked knee. Workup revealed free intraarticular nodules, which were subsequently arthroscopically removed and identified to be synovial hemangioma. To the investigators' knowledge, this is the second reported case of synovial hemangioma presenting as a painful, definitively locked knee. Synovial hemangioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of knee pain, particularly after more common diagnoses have been ruled out. Efficient and appropriate diagnosis and treatment may result in favorable patient outcomes and avoid long-term disability and dysfunction.
Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation for Soft Tissue Sarcoma: A Single-Institution Experience [Meeting Abstract]
Is Prophylactic Intervention More Cost-effective Than the Treatment of Pathologic Fractures in Metastatic Bone Disease?
BACKGROUND: Metastatic bone disease is a substantial burden to patients and the healthcare system as a whole. Metastatic disease can be painful, is associated with decreased survival, and is emotionally traumatic to patients when they discover their disease has progressed. In the United States, more than 250,000 patients have metastatic bone disease, with an estimated annual cost of USD 12 billion. Prior studies suggest that patients who receive prophylactic fixation for impending pathologic fractures, compared with those treated for realized pathologic fractures, have decreased pain levels, faster postoperative rehabilitation, and less in-hospital morbidity. However, to our knowledge, the relative economic utility of these treatment options has not been examined. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We asked: (1) Is there a cost difference between a cohort of patients treated surgically for pathologic fractures compared with a cohort of patients treated prophylactically for impending pathologic lesions? (2) Do these cohorts differ in other ways regarding their utilization of healthcare resources? METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 40 patients treated our institution. Between 2011 and 2014, we treated 46 patients surgically for metastatic lesions of long bones. Of those, 19 (48%) presented with pathologic fractures; the other 21 patients (53%) underwent surgery for impending fractures. Risk of impending fracture was determined by one surgeon based on appearance of the lesion, subjective symptoms of the patient, cortical involvement, and location of the lesion. At 1 year postoperative, four patients in each group had died. Six patients (13%) were treated for metastatic disease but were excluded from the retrospective data because of a change in medical record system and inability to obtain financial records. Variables of interest included total and direct costs per episode of care, days of hospitalization, discharge disposition, 1-year postoperative mortality, and descriptive demographic data. All costs were expressed as a cost ratio between the two cohorts, and total differences between the groups, as required per medical center regulations. All data were collected by one author and the medical center's financial office. RESULTS: Mean total cost was higher in patients with pathologic fractures (cost unit [CU], 642 +/- 519) than those treated prophylactically without fractures (CU, 370 +/- 171; mean difference, 272; 95% CI, 19-525; p = 0.036). In USD, this translates to a mean of nearly USD 21,000 less for prophylactic surgery. Mean direct cost was 41% higher (nearly USD 12,000) in patients with a pathologic fracture (CU, 382 +/- 300 versus 227 +/- 93; mean difference, 155; 95% CI, 9-300; p = 0.038). Mean length of stay was longer in patients with pathologic fractures compared with the group treated prophylactically (8 +/- 6 versus 4 +/- 3 days; mean difference, 4; 95% CI, 1-7; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These findings show economic and clinical value of prophylactic stabilization of metastatic lesions when performed for patients with painful lesions compromising the structural integrity of long bones. Patients sustaining a pathologic fracture may represent a more severe, sicker demographic than patients treated for impending pathologic lesions. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, economic and decision analysis.
Management of Lower Extremity and Pelvic Tumors Using Computer Assisted Modeling (CAM) A Case Series
Computer assisted modeling (CAM) has become an important tool in surgical oncology and reconstructive surgery. The preservation of the limb is an important consideration when approaching the treatment of lower extremity and pelvic tumors. The use of cutting guides allows for optimal conservation of disease-free bone and maintenance of function. We present a small case series that illustrates the use of CAM in patients with lower extremity and pelvic bone tumors.
Vascular control for a forequarter amputation of a massive fungating humeral osteosarcoma [Case Report]
Forequarter amputation is a radical operation performed for treatment of malignant neoplasms of the shoulder girdle not amenable to limb salvage. Traditional approaches involve bone and soft tissue resection, followed by ligation of the axillary vessels. We describe a technique to minimize blood loss whereby control of the subclavian vessels is performed before amputation of a large tumor associated with extensive venous congestion. A 34-year-old man presented with proximal humeral osteosarcoma. Surgery involved claviculectomy to facilitate vascular control of the subclavian vessels, followed by guillotine amputation at the proximal upper arm level and completion of the amputation as conventionally described.
Identification of Risk Factors for Acute Surgical Site Infections in Musculoskeletal Tumor Patients Using CDC/NHSN Criteria
BACKGROUND: Acute surgical site infections (SSI) are well-recognized postoperative complications, represent - ing a significant source of patient morbidity and cost to the healthcare system. This study is among the first to use standardized criteria for the diagnosis of acute SSI in or - thopaedic oncology. METHODS: The medical records of 165 patients were retro - spectively reviewed for the occurrence of superficial or deep SSI as defined by the Center for Disease Control's National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) criteria. Patient, disease, and procedure-specific variables were evaluated as potential risk factors for infection. RESULTS: The overall rate of acute SSI was 10.3%. Uni - variate analysis demonstrated the significance of malignant pathology (p < 0.001), ASA classification (p = 0.009), opera - tive duration (p < 0.001), intraoperative RBC transfusions (p = 0.03), the performance of an amputation (p = 0.016), and race (p = 0.008) on the incidence of SSI. Prolonged operative duration (p = 0.014) and race (p = 0.005) were found to be independent risk factors with odds ratios of 1.89 (95%, CI: 1.14 to 3.14) and 0.047 (95%, CI: 0.006 to 0.387), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: By using the CDC/NHSN guidelines for the diagnosis of acute SSI, we identified prolonged operative time and non-Caucasian race as independent risk factors for infection in musculoskeletal tumor patients.
Maffucci Syndrome An Interesting Case and a Review of the Literature
Maffucci syndrome, a rare sporadic form of enchondro - matosis, is characterized by hemangiomas and multiple enchondromas, benign cartilaginous tumors that arise near growth plates. Previous studies demonstrate that individu - als diagnosed with Maffucci syndrome have approximately 100% lifetime risk of malignant transformation. Identi - fication of Maffucci syndrome by surgical excision and pathological diagnosis can be life-saving due to its high malignant potential relative to other subtypes of enchon - dromatosis such as Ollier's disease. We report a case of a 58-year-old man with enchondromatosis who experienced malignant transformation of the enchondroma in his distal femur into a chondrosarcoma. He underwent a right distal femoral replacement without complications. Two years later, new masses were identified in his left hand and excised fol - lowing progressive growth, pain, and functional limitation. Pathology confirmed these to be hemangiomas, and he was diagnosed with Maffucci syndrome. At last follow-up, patient reported additional nodular tumor growths occur - ring unilaterally on the left side. For patients with Maffucci syndrome, continual follow-up and careful surveillance of these masses is crucial as these lesions can cause fractures, deformities, pain, and undergo malignant transformation. Our report reviews the literature and outlines the treatment and management plans for patients with this rare and po - tentially dangerous disorder.
Minimizing Blood Loss in Orthopaedic Surgery The Role of Antifibrinolytics
Many common orthopaedic procedures are associatedwith a large volume of blood loss. Antifibrinolytics havea well-elucidated mechanism of action and a long historyof clinical use. By inhibiting the enzymatic breakdown offibrin, there has been a demonstrated ability to decreasetotal blood loss and reduce postoperative transfusionrequirements. Despite substantial use in cardiac surgery,antifibrinolytic use in orthopaedic surgery has been limiteddue to concerns over the potential for venous thromboembolism.A growing body of evidence demonstratesthe medications' efficacy and safety in arthroplasty andspine surgery. Due to the risks associated with allogenicblood transfusions and the limitations of alternative bloodconservation strategies, antifibrinolytics are a reasonablestrategy in blood conservation programs for patients undergoingmajor orthopaedic procedures.