The Interaction Between Rosuvastatin and Ticagrelor Leading to Rhabdomyolysis: A Case Report and Narrative Review
Objective/UNASSIGNED:Drug interactions are a common cause of morbidity and mortality and may require prompt discontinuation of therapeutic regimens due to harmful side effects. Patients with acute coronary syndromes are likely to be prescribed multiple medications that are metabolized through the cytochrome P450 system, increasing the probability for drug interaction. Atorvastatin and simvastatin are both well known to interact with the oral P2Y12 agent ticagrelor. The purpose of this paper is to describe the interaction of ticagrelor with rosuvastatin leading to rhabdomyolysis, which is less clearly defined in the literature. Method/UNASSIGNED:We report a case of a 74-year-old male who presented with bilateral lower extremity weakness and difficulty ambulating for one month after being prescribed ticagrelor for a drug eluting stent, in the setting of already being on rosuvastatin. His clinical picture and laboratory findings were consistent with a diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. His medications were adjusted to a regimen of clopidogrel and alirocumab. One month later, he returned to his baseline status. Results/UNASSIGNED:The mechanism of interaction between rosuvastatin and ticagrelor appears to be multifactorial. It may be caused by CYP450-mediated metabolism from a small amount of crossover between isoenzymes. Ticagrelor may also cause acute kidney injury, increasing the concentration of rosuvastatin. Other mechanisms of interaction include genetic differences in the organic anion transporter polypeptides and transportation through p-glycoprotein. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Future pharmacokinetic studies are warranted to better understand the interaction.
Aspirin, Statins, and Primary Prevention: Opportunities for Shared Decision Making in the Face of Uncertainty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The utility of aspirin and statins for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains ambiguous in older adults. Current guidelines and recent data are vague and inconclusive. This review seeks to summarize the landscape of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in older adults and explore the role of shared decision making. RECENT FINDINGS:Observational data suggest potential benefit of statin therapy in older adults. Aspirin is presently not recommended for primary prevention based on evidence from recent clinical trials. The implementation of shared decision making and decision aids in routine clinical practice remains challenging but may rise in coming years. Clinical trial data on the horizon may aid in solidifying guideline therapy for statin use. However, in the face of uncertainty, shared decision making between provider and patient should be utilized to determine whether pharmacotherapy may benefit older adults. Decision aids are an effective tool to guide this process.
Right ventricular stroke distance predicts death and clinical deterioration in patients with pulmonary embolism
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) velocity time integral (VTI), an echocardiographic measure of stroke distance, correlates with cardiac index. We sought to determine the prognostic significance of low RVOT VTI on clinical outcomes among patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of echocardiograms on Pulmonary Embolism Response Team (PERT) activations at our institution. The main outcome was a composite of death, cardiac arrest, or hemodynamic deterioration. RESULTS:Of 188 patients, 30 met the combined outcome (16%) and had significantly lower RVOT VTI measurements (9.0Â cm v 13.4Â cm, pÂ <Â 0.0001). The AUC for RVOT VTI at a cutoff of 10Â cm was 0.78 (95% CI 0.67-0.90) with a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of 0.72, 0.81, 0.94, and 0.42, respectively. Fifty-two patients of the cohort were classified as intermediate-high-risk PE and 21% of those met the combined outcome. RVOT VTI was lower among outcome positive patients (7.3Â cm v 10.7Â cm, pÂ =Â 0.02). CONCLUSIONS:Low RVOT VTI is associated with poor clinical outcomes among patients with acute PE.
DEVELOPMENT OF A DECISION AID FOR OLDER ADULTS WITH NON ST ELEVATION MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION [Meeting Abstract]
Low left ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral is associated with poor outcomes in acute pulmonary embolism
The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) velocity time integral (VTI) is an easily measured echocardiographic stroke volume index analog. Low values predict adverse outcomes in left ventricular failure. We postulate the left ventricular VTI may be a signal of right ventricular dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism, and therefore a predictor of poor outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed echocardiograms on all Pulmonary Embolism Response Team activations at our institution at the time of pulmonary embolism diagnosis. Low LVOT VTI was defined as â©½ 15 cm. We examined two composite outcomes: (1) in-hospital death or cardiac arrest; and (2) shock or need for primary reperfusion therapies. Sixty-one of 188 patients (32%) had a LVOT VTI of â©½ 15 cm. Low VTI was associated with in-hospital death or cardiac arrest (odds ratio (OR) 6, 95% CI 2, 17.9; p = 0.0014) and shock or need for reperfusion (OR 23.3, 95% CI 6.6, 82.1; p < 0.0001). In a multivariable model, LVOT VTI â©½ 15 remained significant for death or cardiac arrest (OR 3.48, 95% CI 1.02, 11.9; p = 0.047) and for shock or need for reperfusion (OR 8.12, 95% CI 1.62, 40.66; p = 0.011). Among intermediate-high-risk patients, low VTI was the only variable associated with the composite outcome of death, cardiac arrest, shock, or need for reperfusion (OR 14, 95% CI 1.7, 118.4; p = 0.015). LVOT VTI is associated with adverse short-term outcomes in acute pulmonary embolism. The VTI may help risk stratify patients with intermediate-high-risk pulmonary embolism.
The Cost Effectiveness of Birth-Cohort Hepatitis C Screening During Pre-Admission Testing for Elective Procedures at a Single Specialty Orthopedic Hospital
In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a recommendation for hepatitis C screening of adults born between 1945-1965. Our institution incorporated birthcohort screening into its pre-admission testing program for elective orthopedic procedures on February 3, 2015. The goal of this study was to report the results and costs of pre-admission birth-cohort hepatitis C screening at our institution from February 3, 2015, to January 27, 2017. A total of 11,659 elective inpatient procedures were scheduled during this time and 97.8% of eligible patients were screened. Nine patients with active infection were identified, and four were successfully treated. Costs were calculated using time-driven activity-based costing. The total screening cost per successfully treated patient was $36,930.02. Since patients were not routinely screened at our institution before this intervention, our 97.8% screening capture rate demonstrates that pre-admission testing for elective procedures is a novel, yet effective and underutilized way, to engage "baby boomers" in screening.
Native valve escherichia coli endocarditis in a patient with newly diagnosed systemic lupus erythematous [Meeting Abstract]
Learning Objective #1: Identify non-HACEK gram-negative endocarditis early in its clinical course. Learning Objective #2: Recognize the morbidity and mortality of Escherichia coli endocarditis. CASE: A 54 year-old Hispanic man with no known past medical history presented with one month of constitutional symptoms: unintentional weight loss, anorexia, fatigue, and arthralgias. On admission, he was febrile, tachycardic, and breathing comfortably on room air. The exam was otherwise significant for a thin stature with temporal wasting, thrush, a lateral tongue ulcer, a raised non-blanching erythematous macular rash on sun-exposed areas of the extremities, and erythematous papules on the hands. There were no murmurs detected on cardiac auscultation. Initial labs were significant for anemia and leukopenia. A broad differential diagnosis initially included malignancy, rheumatologic disease, and systemic infection. Work-up revealed positive anti-Smith and anti ds-DNA antibodies, C3/C4 hypocomplementemia, and a pericardial effusion on transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE). He was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), and started on hydroxychloroquine and steroids with improvement. On hospital day three, blood cultures grew Escherichia coli (E. coli) in four bottles, with an unclear source with aseptic urine and no localizing symptoms. CT scans of the head, chest, abdomen, and pelvis were notable for multiple peripherally located pulmonary airspace opacities concerning for septic emboli. A TTE was negative for vegetation, but given the high clinical suspicion for endocarditis, notwithstanding the rarity of E. coli as a pathologic organism, transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) was pursued. TEE revealed a mobile echodensity on the aortic valve consistent with vegetation. The patient completed four weeks of ceftriaxone to treat E. coli endocarditis. IMPACT/DISCUSSION: E. coli bacteremia is common; however, due to decreased adherence of the organism to the endocardium, infective endocarditis from E. coli is rare, accounting for 0.51% of cases. Risk factors include immunocompromised states. Our patient was leukopenic from SLE. Sources of infection are often gastrointestinal and urinary. However, as in our patient, initial source is unclear in approximately half of cases. Murmur is often absent, and the disease is more common in native valves than prosthetic or degenerative valves. For these reasons, diagnosis is difficult. One study reported at least one month from onset to clinical diagnosis in 90% of patients with non-HACEK gram-negative endocarditis. However, given its high surgical intervention rate (42%), high complication rate (including heart failure and abscess), and high mortality rate of 21% (drastically higher than the 4% from HACEK gram-negative endocarditis), clinicians should maintain a high degree of suspicion to make this diagnosis early.
Conclusion(s): E. coli endocarditis is rare, occurs in immunocompro-mised patients, and is difficult to diagnose. However, given its high morbidity and mortality, timely recognition is critical
ADHERENCE TO GUIDELINE-RECOMMENDED VENTILATION RATE DURING CARDIAC ARREST: A QUALITY IMPROVEMENT STUDY [Meeting Abstract]
IMPACT OF HEMOGLOBIN CONCENTRATION ON RETURN OF SPONTANEOUS CIRCULATION IN CARDIAC ARREST [Meeting Abstract]
Advances in Upper Extremity Scleroderma Wound Care
GENERAL PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:To provide information about the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment options for systemic sclerosis. TARGET AUDIENCE/BACKGROUND:This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES/UNASSIGNED:After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Describe the pathophysiology, signs, symptoms, and diagnosis of systemic sclerosis.2. Outline the evidence-based medical and surgical management of systemic sclerosis. ABSTRACT/UNASSIGNED:OBJECTIVE:: To perform a targeted review of systemic sclerosis, including epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, signs and symptoms, and medical and surgical management of upper extremity manifestations. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION/METHODS:An electronic literature review was conducted using PubMed for all publication dates through October 2017. Searches were performed using combinations of terms including "systemic sclerosis," "scleroderma," "management," "upper extremity," "hypercalcinosis," "Raynaud's phenomenon," "sympathectomy," and "digital ulcers." Only full-length articles written in English that discussed the management of upper extremity scleroderma were used. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS/METHODS:The epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, upper extremity manifestations, and medical and surgical management of systemic sclerosis were reviewed. The case described in this article reports the utility of microsurgical interventions in the treatment of medically refractory upper extremity systemic sclerosis. CONCLUSIONS:Systemic sclerosis is a rare rheumatologic disease that greatly impacts quality of life. Medical management is the mainstay of treatment, propelling an improvement in the dismal 10-year cumulative survival rate from 54% in the 1970s to 66% in the 1990s. However, the pathophysiology of this disease is still poorly understood, and when medical management fails and the disease inevitably progresses, surgical approaches are critical.