person:ratnea01 or peller04 or shustg01 or lightj03
Clinical progress note: Poliomyelitis
The impact of COVID-19 monoclonal antibodies on clinical outcomes: A retrospective cohort study
DISCLAIMER/CONCLUSIONS:In an effort to expedite the publication of articles, AJHP is posting manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Despite progress in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including the development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), more clinical data to support the use of mAbs in outpatients with COVID-19 is needed. This study is designed to determine the impact of bamlanivimab, bamlanivimab/etesevimab, or casirivimab/imdevimab on clinical outcomes within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS:A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a single academic medical center with 3 campuses in Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Long Island, NY. Patients 12 years of age or older who tested positive for COVID-19 or were treated with a COVID-19-specific therapy, including COVID-19 mAb therapies, at the study site between November 24, 2020, and May 15, 2021, were included. The primary outcomes included rates of emergency department (ED) visit, inpatient admission, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or death within 30 days from the date of COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS:A total of 1,344 mAb-treated patients were propensity matched to 1,344 patients with COVID-19 patients who were not treated with mAb therapy. Within 30 days of diagnosis, among the patients who received mAb therapy, 101 (7.5%) presented to the ED and 79 (5.9%) were admitted. Among the patients who did not receive mAb therapy, 165 (12.3%) presented to the ED and 156 (11.6%) were admitted (relative risk [RR], 0.61 [95% CI, 0.50-0.75] and 0.51 [95% CI, 0.40-0.64], respectively). Four mAb patients (0.3%) and 2.64 control patients (0.2%) were admitted to the ICU (RR, 01.51; 95% CI, 0.45-5.09). Six mAb-treated patients (0.4%) and 3.37 controls (0.3%) died and/or were admitted to hospice (RR, 1.61; 95% CI, 0.54-4.83). mAb therapy in ambulatory patients with COVID-19 decreases the risk of ED presentation and hospital admission within 30 days of diagnosis.
Addressing the climate impacts of healthcare
Poor Uptake of MMR Vaccine 1-year Post-Measles Outbreak: New York City and Israel
BACKGROUND:In 2018-2019, large outbreaks of measles occurred in Israel and in New York City, driven in part by travel of unimmunized children between the 2 communities. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was conducted for children tested for measles (March 2018-September 2019) at NYU Langone Health in New York, NY, and in Ramla subdistrict, Israel. Vaccination records were reviewed to determine vaccination status for measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) at the time of measles testing and 1-year post-testing. RESULTS:A total of 264 children were tested for measles, and 102 (38.6%) had confirmed measles. Only 20 (19.6%) of measles-positive cases received a full 2-dose course of vitamin A. 82.4% of children with measles were â‰¥1 year at the time of diagnosis and fully eligible for MMR vaccine. Of the 100 measles-positive cases with available vaccine records, 63 were unvaccinated at testing, and 27 remained unimmunized against MMR 1 year later. At testing, measles-negative children were significantly more likely to have received MMR than measles-positive children (65.4% vs 37%, Pâ€…<â€….01). One year later, 70.4% of measles-negative cases and only 57.1% of measles-positive cases had received MMR vaccine (Pâ€…=â€….18). CONCLUSIONS:The majority of measles cases occurred in unimmunized children eligible for vaccination, and >25% of children in both measles-positive and -negative groups remained unimmunized for MMR 1-year post-outbreak. Our results suggest the need for novel, longitudinal vaccination strategies and increased awareness of the role of vitamin A.
Clinical and genomic signatures of SARS-CoV-2 Delta breakthrough infections in New York
BACKGROUND:In 2021, Delta became the predominant SARS-CoV-2 variant worldwide. While vaccines have effectively prevented COVID-19 hospitalization and death, vaccine breakthrough infections increasingly occurred. The precise role of clinical and genomic determinants in Delta infections is not known, and whether they contributed to increased rates of breakthrough infections compared to unvaccinated controls. METHODS:We studied SARS-CoV-2 variant distribution, dynamics, and adaptive selection over time in relation to vaccine status, phylogenetic relatedness of viruses, full genome mutation profiles, and associated clinical and demographic parameters. FINDINGS/RESULTS:We show a steep and near-complete replacement of circulating variants with Delta between May and August 2021 in metropolitan New York. We observed an increase of the Delta sublineage AY.25 (14% in vaccinated, 7% in unvaccinated), its spike mutation S112L, and AY.44 (8% in vaccinated, 2% in unvaccinated) with its nsp12 mutation F192V in breakthroughs. Delta infections were associated with younger age and lower hospitalization rates than Alpha. Delta breakthrough infections increased significantly with time since vaccination, and, after adjusting for confounders, they rose at similar rates as in unvaccinated individuals. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:We observed a modest adaptation of Delta genomes in breakthrough infections in New York, suggesting an improved genomic framework to support Delta's epidemic growth in times of waning vaccine protection despite limited impact on vaccine escape. FUNDING/BACKGROUND:The study was supported by NYU institutional funds. The NYULH Genome Technology Center is partially supported by the Cancer Center Support Grant P30CA016087 at theÂ Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center.
Do Not Forget About the Ticks: An Unusual Cause of Fever, GI Distress, and Cytopenias in a Child With ALL
We report the case of a 5-year-old male with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission, receiving maintenance chemotherapy, who presented with fever, emesis, diarrhea, headache, and lethargy. He developed rapidly progressive cytopenias and was found to have acute human granulocytic anaplasmosis as well as evidence of past infection with Babesia microti. The case highlights the need to maintain a broad differential for infection in children undergoing chemotherapy or other immunosuppressive therapies with possible or known tick exposure.
Group B Streptococcus capsular serotype alters vaginal colonization fitness
BACKGROUND:Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. A candidate vaccine targets six GBS serotypes, offering a potential alternative to intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis to reduce disease burden. However, our understanding of the contributions of specific capsule types to GBS colonization and disease remains limited. METHODS:Using allelic exchange, we generated isogenic GBS strains differing only in the serotype-determining region in two genetic backgrounds, including the hypervirulent clonal complex (CC) 17. Using a murine model of vaginal co-colonization, we evaluated the roles of the presence of capsule and of expression of specific capsular types in GBS vaginal colonization fitness independent of other genetic factors. RESULTS:Encapsulated wild-type strains COH1 (CC17, serotype III) and A909 (non-CC17, serotype Ia), outcompeted isogenic acapsular mutants in murine vaginal co-colonization. COH1 wild-type outcompeted A909. Notably, expression of type Ia capsule conferred an advantage over type III capsule in both genetic backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS:Specific capsule types may provide an advantage in GBS vaginal colonization in vivo. However, success of certain GBS lineages, including CC17, likely involves both capsule and non-capsule genetic elements. Capsule switching in GBS, a potential outcome of conjugate vaccine programs, may alter colonization fitness or pathogenesis.
Updated Guidance on Use and Prioritization of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Treatment of COVID-19 in Adolescents
BACKGROUND:Starting in November 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) for multiple novel virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapies, including bamlanivimab monotherapy (now revoked), bamlanivimab and etesivimab, casirivimab and imdevimab (REGEN-COV), and sotrovimab, for treatment or postexposure prophylaxis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adolescents (â‰¥12 years of age) and adults with certain high-risk conditions. Previous guidance is now updated based on new evidence and clinical experience. METHODS:A panel of experts in pediatric infectious diseases, pediatric infectious diseases pharmacotherapy, and pediatric critical care medicine from 18 geographically diverse US institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a guidance statement was developed and refined based on a review of the best available evidence and expert opinion. RESULTS:The course of COVID-19 in children and adolescents is typically mild, though more severe disease is occasionally observed. Evidence supporting risk stratification is incomplete. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the benefit of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific monoclonal antibody therapies in adults, but data on safety and efficacy in children or adolescents are limited. Potential harms associated with infusion reactions or anaphylaxis are reportedly low in adults. CONCLUSIONS:Based on evidence available as of August 31, 2021, the panel suggests a risk-based approach to administration of SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody therapy. Therapy is suggested for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in adolescents (â‰¥12 years of age) at the highest risk of progression to hospitalization or severe disease. Therapeutic decision-making about those at moderate risk of severe disease should be individualized. Use as postexposure prophylaxis could be considered for those at the highest risk who have a high-risk exposure but are not yet diagnosed with COVID-19. Clinicians and health systems should ensure safe and timely implementation of these therapeutics that does not exacerbate existing healthcare disparities.
"The Sombre Aspect of the Entire Landscape" - Epidemiology and the Faroe Islands
Maternal and Infant Mortality in Physicians' Families in 1922