Mentoring Underrepresented Minority Physician-Scientists to Success
As the nation seeks to recruit and retain physician-scientists, gaps remain in understanding and addressing mitigatable challenges to the success of faculty from underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds. The Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Fund to Retain Clinical Scientists program, implemented in 2015 at 10 academic medical centers in the United States, seeks to retain physician-scientists at risk of leaving science because of periods of extraordinary family caregiving needs, hardships that URM faculty-especially those who identify as female-are more likely to experience. At the annual Fund to Retain Clinical Scientists program directors conference in 2018, program directors-21% of whom identify as URM individuals and 13% as male-addressed issues that affect URM physician-scientists in particular. Key issues that threaten the retention of URM physician-scientists were identified through focused literature reviews; institutional environmental scans; and structured small- and large-group discussions with program directors, staff, and participants. These issues include bias and discrimination, personal wealth differential, the minority tax (i.e., service burdens placed on URM faculty who represent URM perspectives on committees and at conferences), lack of mentorship training, intersectionality and isolation, concerns about confirming stereotypes, and institutional-level factors. The authors present recommendations for how to create an environment in which URM physician-scientists can expect equitable opportunities to thrive, as institutions demonstrate proactive allyship and remove structural barriers to success. Recommendations include providing universal training to reduce interpersonal bias and discrimination, addressing the consequences of the personal wealth gap through financial counseling and benefits, measuring the service faculty members provide to the institution as advocates for URM faculty issues and compensating them appropriately, supporting URM faculty who wish to engage in national leadership programs, and sustaining institutional policies that address structural and interpersonal barriers to inclusive excellence.
Representation in Online Prostate Cancer Content Lacks Racial and Ethnic Diversity: Implications for Black and Latinx Men
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Black men have the highest incidence and mortality from prostate cancer (PCa) and lower quality of life compared to other U.S. racial groups. Additionally, more Latinx men are diagnosed with advanced disease and fewer receive guideline-concordant care. As many men seek medical information online, high-quality information targeting diverse populations may mitigate disparities. We examined racial/ethnic representation and information quality in online PCa content. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We retrieved 150 websites and 150 videos about "prostate cancer" using the most widely used search engine (Google) and social network (YouTube). We assessed quality of health information, reading level, perceived race/ethnicity of people featured in the content and discussion of racial/ethnic disparities. RESULTS:Among 81 websites and 127 videos featuring people, 37% and 24% had perceived Black representation, and racial/ethnic disparities were discussed in 27% and 17%, respectively. Among 1,526 people featured, 9% and 1% were perceived as Black and Latinx, respectively. No content with Black or Latinx representation was high quality, understandable, actionable and at the recommended reading level. CONCLUSIONS:Black and Latinx adults are underrepresented in online PCa content. Online media have significant potential for public education and combating health disparities. However, most PCa content lacks diversity and is not readily understandable.
Targeting versus Tailoring Educational Videos for Encouraging Deceased Organ Donor Registration in Black-Owned Barbershops
In the U.S., black men are at highest risk for requiring kidney transplants but are among those least likely to register for organ donation. Prior outreach used videos culturally targeted for Black communities, yet registration rates remain insufficient to meet demand. Therefore, we assessed whether generic versus videos culturally targeted or personally tailored based on prior organ donation beliefs differentially increase organ donor registration. In a randomized controlled trial, 1,353 participants in Black-owned barbershops viewed generic, targeted, or tailored videos about organ donation. Logistic regression models assessed the relative impact of videos on: 1) immediate organ donor registration, 2) taking brochures, and 3) change in organ donation willingness stage of change from baseline. Randomization yielded approximately equal groups related to demographics and baseline willingness and beliefs. Neither targeted nor tailored videos differentially affected registration compared with the generic video, but participants in targeted and tailored groups were more likely to take brochures. Targeted (ORÂ =Â 1.74) and tailored (ORÂ =Â 1.57) videos were associated with incremental increases in organ donation willingness stage of change compared to the generic video. Distributing culturally targeted and individually tailored videos increased organ donor willingness stage of change among Black men in Black-owned barbershops but was insufficient for encouraging registration.Abbreviations: CI - confidence interval; DMV - Department of Motor Vehicles; BOBs - Black-owned barbershops; ODBI - organ donation belief index; ODWS - organ donation willingness stage of change; OR - odds ratio.
Racial and weight discrimination associations with pain intensity and pain interference in an ethnically diverse sample of adults with obesity: a baseline analysis of the clustered randomized-controlled clinical trial the goals for eating and moving (GEM) study
BACKGROUND:Everyday experiences with racial (RD) and weight discrimination (WD) are risk factors for chronic pain in ethnically diverse adults with obesity. However, the individual or combined effects of RD and WD on pain in adults with obesity is not well understood. There are gender differences and sexual dimorphisms in nociception and pain, but the effect of gender on relationships between RD, WD, and pain outcomes in ethnically diverse adults with obesity is unclear. Thus, the purposes of this study were to: 1) examine whether RD and WD are associated with pain intensity and interference, and 2) explore gender as a moderator of the associations between RD, WD, and pain. METHODS:with weight-related comorbidity. RD and WD were measured using questions derived from the Experiences of Discrimination questionnaire (EOD). Pain interference and intensity were measured using the PROMIS 29 adult profile V2.1. Linear regression models were performed to determine the associations between WD, RD, gender, and pain outcomes. RESULTS:Participants (nâ€‰=Â 483) reported mild pain interference (T-score: 52.65â€‰Â±â€‰10.29) and moderate pain intensity (4.23â€‰Â±â€‰3.15). RD was more strongly associated with pain interference in women (bâ€‰=â€‰.47, SEâ€‰=â€‰.08, pâ€‰<â€‰001), compared to men (bâ€‰=â€‰.14, SEâ€‰=â€‰.07, pâ€‰=â€‰.06). Also, there were no significant interaction effects between RD and gender on pain intensity, or between WD and gender on pain interference or pain intensity. CONCLUSIONS:Pain is highly prevalent in adults with obesity, and is impacted by the frequencies of experiences with RD and WD. Further, discrimination against adults with obesity and chronic pain could exacerbate existing racial disparities in pain and weight management. Asking ethnically diverse adults with obesity about their pain and their experiences of RD and WD could help clinicians make culturally informed assessment and intervention decisions that address barriers to pain relief and weight loss. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT03006328.
Prescreening to Increase Therapeutic Oncology Trial Enrollment at the Largest Public Hospital in the United States
PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:The recruitment of underserved patients into therapeutic oncology trials is imperative. The National Institutes of Health mandates the inclusion of minorities in clinical research, although their participation remains under-represented. Institutions have used data mining to match patients to clinical trials. In a public health care system, such expensive tools are unavailable. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:The NYU Clinical Trials Office implemented a quality improvement program at Bellevue Hospital Cancer Center to increase therapeutic trial enrollment. Patients are screened through the electronic medical record, tumor board conferences, and the cancer registry. Our analysis evaluated two variables: number of patients identified and those enrolled into clinical trials. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Two years before the program, there were 31 patients enrolled. For a period of 24 months (July 2017 to July 2019), we identified 255 patients, of whom 143 (56.1%) were enrolled. Of those enrolled, 121 (84.6%) received treatment, and 22 (15%) were screen failures. Fifty-five (38.5%) were referred to NYU Perlmutter Cancer Center for therapy. Of the total enrollees, 64% were female, 56% were non-White, and overall median age was 55 years (range: 33-88 years). Our participants spoke 16 different languages, and 57% were non-English-speaking. We enrolled patients into eight different disease categories, with 38% recruited to breast cancer trials. Eighty-three percent of our patients reside in low-income areas, with 62% in both low-income and Health Professional Shortage Areas. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Prescreening at Bellevue has led to a 4.6-fold increase in patient enrollment to clinical trials. Future research into using prescreening programs at public institutions may improve access to clinical trials for underserved populations.
Interaction between race and prostate cancer treatment benefit in the Veterans Health Administration
BACKGROUND:Studies have demonstrated that Black men may undergo definitive prostate cancer (CaP) treatment less often than men of other races, but it is unclear whether they are avoiding overtreatment of low-risk disease or experiencing a reduction in appropriate care. The authors' aim was to assess the role of race as it relates to treatment benefit in access to CaP treatment in a single-payer population. METHODS:The authors used the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Corporate Data Warehouse to perform a retrospective cohort study of veterans diagnosed with low- or intermediate-risk CaP between 2011 and 2017. RESULTS:The authors identified 35,427 men with incident low- or intermediate-risk CaP. When they controlled for covariates, Black men had 1.05 times the odds of receiving treatment in comparison with non-Black men (P < .001), and high-treatment-benefit men had 1.4 times the odds of receiving treatment in comparison with those in the low-treatment-benefit group (P < .001). The interaction of race and treatment benefit was significant, with Black men in the high-treatment-benefit category less likely to receive treatment than non-Black men in the same treatment category (odds ratio, 0.89; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:Although race does appear to influence the receipt of definitive treatment in the VHA, this relationship varies in the context of the patient's treatment benefit, with Black men receiving less definitive treatment in high-benefit situations. The influence of patient race at high treatment benefit levels invites further investigation into the driving forces behind this persistent disparity in this consequential group.
Clinical Trial Protocol for a Randomized Trial of Community Health Worker-led Decision Coaching to Promote Shared Decision-making on Prostate Cancer Screening Among Black Male Patients and Their Providers
We propose a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a community health worker-led decision-coaching program to facilitate shared decision-making for prostate cancer screening decisions by Black men at a primary care federally qualified health center.
A Population Health Equity Approach Reveals Persisting Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening in New York City South Asian Communities
To assess colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among South Asians (SAs) and explore the challenges and facilitators to CRC screening among SA subgroups in New York City (NYC). Fifty-one semi-structured in-depth interviews and surveys were conducted among SA immigrants in NYC. Qualitative results suggested challenges to CRC screening were related to socio-cultural factors, such as a lack of knowledge on CRC and CRC screening, and structural factors, such as cost and language. A physician referral was the most cited facilitator to CRC screening. Participants reported culturally and linguistically adapted education and information on CRC and CRC screening would help to overcome noted challenges. Our findings support the development of targeted, linguistically and culturally adapted campaigns for this population that facilitate access to health systems and leverage natural community assets and social support systems.
Including Medical Footage and Emotional Content in Organ Donation Educational Videos for Latinx Viewers
We assessed whether videos with medical footage of organ preservation and transplantation plus sad, unresolved, or uplifting stories differentially affect deceased organ donor registration among clients in Latinx-owned barbershops and beauty salons. In a 2 Ã— 3 randomized controlled trial, participants (N = 1,696, mean age 33 years, 67% female) viewed one of six videos. The control portrayed a mother who received a kidney (uplifting), excluding medical footage. Experimental videos included medical footage and/or showed a mother waiting (unresolved) or sisters mourning their brother's death (sad). Regression models assessed relative impact of medical footage and storylines on: (1) registry enrollment, (2) donation willingness stage of change, and (3) emotions. Randomization yielded approximately equal groups relative to age, sex, education, religion, nativity, baseline organ donation willingness, beliefs, and emotions. Overall, 14.8% of participants registered. Neither medical footage, sad, nor unresolved stories differentially affected registration and changes in organ donation willingness. Sad and unresolved stories increased sadness and decreased positive affect by ~0.1 logits compared with the uplifting story. Educational videos about organ donation which excluded or included medical footage and varying emotional valence of stories induced emotions marginally but did not affect viewers' registration decisions differently. Heterogeneity of responses within video groups might explain the attenuated impact of including medical footage and varying emotional content. In future work, we will report qualitative reasons for participants' registration decisions by analyzing the free text responses from the randomized trial and data from semistructured interviews that were conducted with a subset of participants.
The Association of Veterans' PSA Screening Rates with Changes in USPSTF Recommendations
BACKGROUND:In 2012, the United States Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF) formally recommended against all Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer. Our goal was to characterize PSA screening trends in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) before and after the USPSTF recommendation, and to determine if PSA screening was more likely to be ordered based on a Veteran's race or age. METHODS:Using the VA Corporate Data Warehouse, we created 10 annual groups of PSA-eligible men covering 2009-2018. We identified all PSA tests performed in the VA to determine yearly rates of PSA screening. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS:The overall rate of PSA testing in the VA decreased from 63.3% in 2009 to 51.2% in 2018 (p<.001). PSA screening rates varied markedly by age group during our study period, with men aged 70-80 having the highest initial rate and greatest decline (70.6% in 2009 to 48.4% in 2018, p<.001). Men aged 55-69 saw a smaller decline (65.2% in 2009 to 58.9% in 2018, p<.001) while the youngest men, aged 40-54, had an increase in PSA screening (26.2% in 2009 to 37.8 in 2018, p<.001). CONCLUSIONS:In this analysis of PSA screening rates among veterans before and after the 2012 USPSTF recommendation against screening, we found that overall PSA screening decreased only modestly, continuing for more than half of the men in our study. Veterans of different races had similar screening rates, suggesting that VA care may minimize racial disparities. Veterans of varying age experienced significantly different trends in PSA screening.