Central Retinal Artery Visualization with Cone-Beam CT Angiography
Background There are multiple tools available to visualize the retinal and choroidal vasculature of the posterior globe. However, there are currently no reliable in vivo imaging techniques that can visualize the entire retrobulbar course of the retinal and ciliary vessels. Purpose To identify and characterize the central retinal artery (CRA) using cone-beam CT (CBCT) images obtained as part of diagnostic cerebral angiography. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, patients with catheter DSA performed between October 2019 and October 2020 were included if CBCT angiography included the orbit in the field of view. The CBCT angiography data sets were postprocessed with a small field-of-view volume centered in the posterior globe to a maximum resolution of 0.2 mm. The following were evaluated: CRA origin, CRA course, CRA point of penetration into the optic nerve sheath, bifurcation of the CRA at the papilla, visualization of anatomic variants, and visualization of the central retinal vein. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results Twenty-one patients with 24 visualized orbits were included in the analysis (mean age, 55 years Â± 15; 14 women). Indications for angiography were as follows: diagnostic angiography (n = 8), aneurysm treatment (n = 6), or other (n = 7). The CRA was identified in all orbits; the origin, course, point of penetration of the CRA into the optic nerve sheath, and termination in the papilla were visualized in all orbits. The average length of the intraneural segment was 10.6 mm (range, 7-18 mm). The central retinal vein was identified in six of 24 orbits. Conclusion Cone-beam CT, performed during diagnostic angiography, consistently demonstrated the in vivo central retinal artery, demonstrating excellent potential for multiple diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Â© RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
Neuroanatomy of the middle cerebral artery: implications for thrombectomy
Our perspective on anatomy frequently depends on how this anatomy is utilized in clinical practice, and by which methods knowledge is acquired. The thrombectomy revolution, of which the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most common target, is an example of a clinical paradigm shift with a unique perspective on cerebrovascular anatomy. This article reviews important features of MCA anatomy in the context of thrombectomy. Recognizing that variation, frequently explained by evolutionary concepts, is the rule when it comes to branching pattern, vessel morphology, territory, or collateral potential is key to successful thrombectomy strategy.
Arterial and Venous 3D Fusion AV-3D-DSA: A Novel Approach to Cerebrovascular Neuroimaging
DSA is the standard imaging technique for evaluation of cerebrovascular conditions. However, One drawback is its limitation in depicting a single angiographic phase at a time. We describe a new 3D-DSA algorithm, which we call arterial and venous-3D-DSA, which allows the concurrent yet distinct display of the arterial and venous structures, which may be useful for different clinical and educational purposes.
Thrombectomy for secondary distal, medium vessel occlusions of the posterior circulation: seeking complete reperfusion
BACKGROUND:Whether to approach distal occlusions endovascularly or not in medium-sized vessels secondary to proximal large vessel occlusion stroke remains unanswered. OBJECTIVE:To investigates the technical feasibility and safety of thrombectomy for secondary posterior circulation distal, medium vessel occlusions (DMVO). METHODS:TOPMOST (Treatment fOr Primary Medium vessel Occlusion STroke) is an international, retrospective, multicenter, observational registry of patients treated for distal cerebral artery occlusions. This study subanalysis endovascularly treated occlusions of the posterior cerebral artery in the P2 and P3 segment secondary preprocedural or periprocedural thrombus migration between January 2014 and June 2020. Technical feasibility was evaluated with the modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) scale. Procedural safety was assessed by the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) and intervention-related serious adverse events. RESULTS:Among 71 patients with secondary posterior circulation DMVO who met the inclusion criteria, occlusions were present in 80.3% (57/71) located in the P2 segment and in 19.7% (14/71) in the P3 segment. Periprocedural migration occurred in 54.9% (39/71) and preprocedural migration in 45.1% (32/71) of cases. The first reperfusion attempt led in 38% (27/71) of all cases to mTICI 3. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, increased numbers of reperfusion attempts (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=0.39, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.88, p=0.009) and preprocedural migration (aOR=4.70, 95%â€‰CI,1.35 to 16.35, p=0.015) were significantly associated with mTICI 3. sICH occurred in 2.8% (2/71). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Thrombectomy for secondary posterior circulation DMVO seems to be safe and technically feasible. Even though thrombi that have migrated preprocedurally may be easier to retract, successful reperfusion can be achieved in the majority of patients with secondary DMVO of the P2 and P3 segment.
Characteristics of a COVID-19 Cohort With Large Vessel Occlusion: A Multicenter International Study
BACKGROUND:The mechanisms and outcomes in coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-associated stroke are unique from those of non-COVID-19 stroke. OBJECTIVE:To describe the efficacy and outcomes of acute revascularization of large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the setting of COVID-19 in an international cohort. METHODS:We conducted an international multicenter retrospective study of consecutively admitted patients with COVID-19 with concomitant acute LVO across 50 comprehensive stroke centers. Our control group constituted historical controls of patients presenting with LVO and receiving a mechanical thrombectomy between January 2018 and December 2020. RESULTS:The total cohort was 575 patients with acute LVO; 194 patients had COVID-19 while 381 patients did not. Patients in the COVID-19 group were younger (62.5 vs 71.2; P < .001) and lacked vascular risk factors (49, 25.3% vs 54, 14.2%; P = .001). Modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3 revascularization was less common in the COVID-19 group (74, 39.2% vs 252, 67.2%; P < .001). Poor functional outcome at discharge (defined as modified Ranklin Scale 3-6) was more common in the COVID-19 group (150, 79.8% vs 132, 66.7%; P = .004). COVID-19 was independently associated with a lower likelihood of achieving modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.7; P < .001) and unfavorable outcomes (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.5; P = .002). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:COVID-19 was an independent predictor of incomplete revascularization and poor outcomes in patients with stroke due to LVO. Patients with COVID-19 with LVO were younger, had fewer cerebrovascular risk factors, and suffered from higher morbidity/mortality rates.
Aspiration Versus Stent Retriever Thrombectomy for Distal, Medium Vessel Occlusion Stroke in the Posterior Circulation: A Subanalysis of the TOPMOST Study
BACKGROUND:The optimal endovascular strategy for reperfusing distal medium-vessel occlusions (DMVO) remains unknown. This study evaluates angiographic and clinical outcomes of thrombectomy strategies in DMVO stroke of the posterior circulation. METHODS:TOPMOST (Treatment for Primary Medium Vessel Occlusion Stroke) is an international, retrospective, multicenter, observational registry of patients treated for DMVO between January 2014 and June 2020. This study analyzed endovascularly treated isolated primary DMVO of the posterior cerebral artery in the P2 and P3 segment. Technical feasibility was evaluated with the first-pass effect defined as a modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction Scale score of 3. Rates of early neurological improvement and functional modified Rankin Scale scores at 90 days were compared. Safety was assessed by the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and intervention-related serious adverse events. RESULTS:<0.025). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 2.8% (4) of all cases. CONCLUSIONS:Both first-pass aspiration and stent retriever thrombectomy for primary isolated posterior circulation DMVO seem to be safe and technically feasible leading to similar favorable rates of angiographic and clinical outcome.
Salvage Superficial Temporal Artery to Middle Cerebral Artery Direct Bypass Using an Interposition Graft for Failed Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis in Moyamoya Disease
BACKGROUND:Moyamoya disease may present with either hemorrhagic or ischemic strokes. Surgical bypass has previously demonstrated superiority when compared to natural history and medical treatment alone. The best bypass option (direct vs. indirect), however, remains controversial in regard to adult ischemic symptomatic moyamoya disease. Multiple studies have demonstrated clinical as well as angiographic effectiveness of direct bypass in adult hemorrhagic moyamoya disease. In particular, there are limited data regarding strategies in the setting of failed indirect bypass with recurrent hemorrhagic strokes. Here, we describe a salvage procedure. METHODS:We describe a case of a 52-year-old man who presented with hemorrhagic moyamoya disease and failed previous bilateral encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) procedures at an outside institution. On a 3-year follow-up diagnostic cerebral angiogram, no synangiosis was noted on the right side and only minimal synangiosis was present on the left. The left hemisphere was significant for a left parietal hypoperfusion state. We performed a salvage left proximal superficial temporal artery to distal parietal M4 middle cerebral artery bypass using the descending branch of the lateral circumflex artery as an interposition graft with preservation of the existing EDAS sites. RESULTS:The patient underwent the procedure successfully and recovered well with resolution of headaches and no further strokes or hemorrhages on the 1-year follow-up magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. CONCLUSIONS:This case presents the use of a salvage direct bypass technique for recurrent symptomatic hemorrhagic moyamoya disease after failed EDAS. The strategy, approach, and technical nuances of this unique case have implications for revascularization options.
Microsurgical clipping versus newer endovascular techniques in treatment of unruptured anterior communicating artery-complex aneurysms: a meta-analysis and systematic review
The aim of this study is to compare occlusion rate, complication rate, and clinical outcome of microsurgical clipping (MC) and advanced endovascular techniques (EVT) in unruptured anterior communicating artery-complex aneurysms (ACoCAs). We reviewed the scientific literature reporting occlusion rate, time of occlusion assessment, and clinical outcome of MC and EVT in patients with unruptured ACoCAs, from January 2009 to December 2019. We included in our analysis 25 studies and 872 patients with unruptured ACoCAs (434 treated with endovascular techniques and 438 with MC). Ninety-three (10.7%), 320 (36.7%), 21 (2.4%), and 438 (50.2%) were treated with flow diverter (FD), stent-assisted coiling (SAC), endosaccular devices (ES), and microsurgical clipping (MC) respectively. FD, SAC, ES, and MC subgroups presented minor complications in 11.8%, 3.8%, 14.3%, and 7.1% of cases (p=.016), and major complications in 3.2%, 4.4%, 0%, and 7.1% (p=.136) of patients. A total occlusion rate post-treatment has been achieved in 4.3%, 87.1%, 47.6%, and 98.2% of cases (p=.000), while at 12 months' follow-up in 50%, 66%, 83.3%, and 80% of patients (p=.001). FD, SAC, ES, and MC subgroups had a good clinical outcome at 12 months in 93.5%, 90.5%, 100%, and 67.8% of cases. MC is associated with higher post-treatment total occlusion rate, but higher complication and lower good clinical outcome rates. EVT are promising in treating unruptured anterior cerebral artery aneurysms with high margin of safety and good clinical outcome, despite the lower total occlusion rate.
Safety of Antithrombotic Resumption in Chronic Subdural Hematoma Patients with Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization: A Case Control Study
OBJECTIVE:Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a serious problem with an incidence of 20.6/100,000/year in North America and is posited to grow as the population ages. Middle Meningeal Artery (MMA) embolization is an upcoming therapy for treatment of CSDH. Among patients with CSDH who undergo MMA embolization outcomes are no different in patients who resume the antithrombotic (AT) after MMA embolization as compared to patients who don't resume AT. METHODS:We did retrospective review of all cases of MMA embolization in the setting of CSDH done over 2.5 years in 2 centers. Comparison of cases in which AT was resumed vs controls with no AT was performed. A successful outcome was defined as reduction of at least 50% volume in CSDH. Univariate analysis regarding all outcome measures for baseline variables was performed using Fisher exact test or t-test. Multivariate logistic regression with controlling for age, surgical evacuation of the hematoma. RESULTS:There were a total of 56 MMA embolization cases, 33 of them had no AT started and 23 of them had AT resumption at a mean of 2.4 days. About 40% of patients had surgical evacuation done prior to MMA embolization. There was no significant difference in hematoma reduction or volume even after adjusting for surgical evacuation (OR 1.00 95%CI 0.60- 1.67). Patients who had AT resumption had more CAD (71%vs 21% p= 0.001) and Afib (58% vs 18% p=0.002) necessitating AT. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:AT therapy can be safely resumed in CSDH after MMA embolization as there is no significant difference in CSDH volume reduction and recurrence.
Dural venous system: angiographic technique and correlation with ex vivo investigations
BACKGROUND:The dural vasculature plays a key role in several important conditions, including dural fistulas and subdural collections. While in vivo investigations of intrinsic dural arterial angioarchitecture are rare, no angiographic studies of dural venous drainage exist to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE:To describe methods by which dural venous drainage might be visualized with current angiographic equipment and technique, and to correlate our results with existing ex vivo literature. METHODS:Digital subtraction angiography and 3D angiography (rotational and Dyna CT) of dural neurovasculature were acquired in the context of subdural hematoma embolization and normal dura. Protocols for visualization of dural venous drainage were established, and findings correlated with ex vivo studies. RESULTS:Meningeal arteries supply both the skull and dura. Normal dural enhancement is accentuated by the presence of hypervascular membranes. Intrinsic meningeal veins/sinuses parallel outer layer arteries with well-known tram-tracking appearance. Dura adjacent to main arterial trunks drains via skull base foramina into the pterygopalatine venous plexus, or via emissary veins into the temporalis venous plexus. Dura near the sinuses drains into venous pouches adjacent to the sinus, before emptying into the sinus proper-possibly the same pouches implicated in the angioarchitecture of dural fistulas. Finally, posterior temporoparietal convexity dura, situated in a watershed-like region between middle and posterior meningeal territories, frequently empties into diploic and emissary veins of the skull. Wide variation in balance is expected between these three routes. Drainage patterns appear to correlate with venous embryologic investigations of Padget and ex vivo studies in adults. CONCLUSIONS:Continued attention to dural venous drainage may prove useful in the diagnosis and management of dural-based vascular diseases.