The need for a streamlined approach to STEMI management during the COVID-19 pandemic [Editorial]
Coronary Optical Coherence Tomography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Determine Underlying Causes of MINOCA in Women
Background: Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) occurs in 6-15% of MI and disproportionately affects women. Scientific statements recommend multi-modality imaging in MINOCA to define the underlying cause. We performed coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to assess mechanisms of MINOCA. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, international, observational study, we enrolled women with a clinical diagnosis of MI. If invasive coronary angiography revealed <50% stenosis in all major arteries, multi-vessel OCT was performed, followed by CMR (cine imaging, late gadolinium enhancement, and T2-weighted imaging and/or T1 mapping). Angiography, OCT, and CMR were evaluated at blinded, independent core laboratories. Culprit lesions identified by OCT were classified as definite or possible. The CMR core laboratory identified ischemia-related and non-ischemic myocardial injury. Imaging results were combined to determine the mechanism of MINOCA, when possible. Results: Among 301 women enrolled at 16 sites, 170 were diagnosed with MINOCA, of whom 145 had adequate OCT image quality for analysis; 116 of these underwent CMR. A definite or possible culprit lesion was identified by OCT in 46.2% (67/145) of participants, most commonly plaque rupture, intra-plaque cavity or layered plaque. CMR was abnormal in 74.1% (86/116) of participants. An ischemic pattern of CMR abnormalities (infarction or myocardial edema in a coronary territory) was present in 53.4% of participants undergoing CMR (62/116). A non-ischemic pattern of CMR abnormalities (myocarditis, takotsubo syndrome or non-ischemic cardiomyopathy) was present in 20.7% (24/116). A cause of MINOCA was identified in 84.5% of the women with multi-modality imaging (98/116), higher than with OCT alone (p<0.001) or CMR alone (p=0.001). An ischemic etiology was identified in 63.8% of women with MINOCA (74/116), a non-ischemic etiology was identified in 20.7% (24/116), and no mechanism was identified in 15.5% (18/116). Conclusions: Multi-modality imaging with coronary OCT and CMR identified potential mechanisms in 84.5% of women with a diagnosis of MINOCA, three-quarters of which were ischemic and one-quarter of which were non-ischemic, alternate diagnoses to MI. Identification of the etiology of MINOCA is feasible and has the potential to guide medical therapy for secondary prevention. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT02905357.
Revascularization in patients with diabetes and chronic total occlusion: The journey or the destination? [Editorial]
Myocardial Injury in Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19 [Letter]
Comparison of device-specific adverse event profiles between Impella platforms
BACKGROUND:The Impella (Abiomed) ventricular support system is a family of temporary mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices used to treat patients with cardiogenic shock, acute cardiogenic decompensation, and for high-risk percutaneous or surgical revascularization. These devices include the percutaneously implanted 2.5/cardiac power (CP) and the surgically implanted 5.0/left direct (LD). Despite the beneficial effects and increased usage of these devices, data to assess adverse outcomes and guide clinician decision-making between the Impella CP and 5.0/LD are limited. METHODS:This is a retrospective analysis of 91 consecutive patients who required at least 24â€‰h of Impella support, from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2019. Groups were stratified based on either initial Impella CP or 5.0/LD placement. Clinical outcomes and in-hospital complications were compared. RESULTS:Impella CP was implanted in 66 patients (mean age: 61â€‰Â±â€‰15 years, male 71.2%) and Impella 5.0/LD was implanted in 25 patients (mean age: 62â€‰Â±â€‰9 years, male 84.0%). There was greater stability of device position (pâ€‰=â€‰.033), less incidence of hemolysis (pâ€‰<â€‰.001), and less frequent need for additional MCS (pâ€‰=â€‰.001) in patients implanted with the Impella 5.0/LD compared with Impella CP in this study cohort. Patients with Impella 5.0/LD were more likely to survive from Impella and survive to discharge. CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that for patients who require temporary MCS for more than 24â€‰h, the Impella 5.0/LD may have a more favorable device-specific adverse profile compared with the Impella CP.
Differential radiation exposure to interventional cardiologists in the contemporary era [Meeting Abstract]
Background: Exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation is associated with malignancies. Lead garment specifications in the cardiac catheterization laboratory are not currently regulated, potentially resulting in unprotected areas.
Method(s): Interventional cardiology attendings and fellows wore 7 dosimeters, one externally on the thyroid shield and six inside the lead apron: bilateral axilla, chest wall, and pelvis. Radiation protection included a lower table-mounted lead drape, upper ceiling-mounted lead shield, and use of 7.5 frames per second during fluoroscopy. All procedures were performed with operators standing to the right of the patient. The primary endpoint was operator radiation exposure to the left versus right axilla. Radiation exposures in millirem (mrem) per participant over the study period are shown as median [interquartile range] and compared between left- and right-sided measures using paired Wilcoxon tests.
Result(s): Nine participants (66% female) wore dosimeters during 231 cases. Transradial coronary angiography was selected in 81.1% of cases and PCI was performed in 32.1%. A sterile radiation drape placed on the patient abdomen was used in 18.6% of cases. Median dose area product and fluoroscopy time for the participants ranged from 29.0-60.5 Gy cm2 and 6.2-13.5 minutes, respectively. Radiation exposure at the left axilla was higher than the right axilla (5 vs. 0.9 mrem, p=0.018) but did not differ between left or right chest wall and left or right pelvis (Figure).
Conclusion(s): This analysis demonstrates insufficient protection in the left axillary area. The use of additional left axillary protection should be evaluated. (Figure Presented)
Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy in Heart Transplant Recipients from Hepatitis C Viremic Donors
PURPOSE: Heart transplantation from Hepatitis C (HCV) viremic donors is becoming increasingly used due to advent of direct acting antiviral drugs with almost 100% cure. There are limited data about its impact on cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). We report the incidence of CAV in heart transplant recipients from HCV viremic donors (nucleic amplification test positive; NAT+) compared to non-HCV infected donors (NAT-).
METHOD(S): We retrospectively reviewed coronary angiograms with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) of heart transplant recipients at our institution from January 5, 2018 to September 17, 2019. The presence of CAV was graded according to ISHLT guidelines. IVUS was performed as per our lab protocol on the left main and left anterior descending arteries. Maximal intimal thickness (MIT) was measured with advanced quantification software as per protocol. MIT >= 5mm was considered significant for future adverse outcomes.
RESULT(S): LHC and IVUS was performed on 24 heart transplant recipients (mean age 56; 70% male) at 1- year post transplant. Eleven of these patients were transplanted from NAT+ donors. Thirteen patients received a NAT- donor heart. Two recipients (18.7%) of NAT+ donors had CAV grade >= 1 compared to 2 (16.7%) from NAT- donors (p=1). MIT >= 5mm was seen in 88.9% of NAT+ vs 50% of NAT- recipients (p=0.14) (Figure). The mean MIT was 76mm and 65mm for NAT+ and NAT- group, respectively. Both NAT+ and NAT- donor recipients exhibit mostly eccentric (84.2%) and few (15.7%) demonstrated concentric plaques. There was no heterogeneity in the data after adjusting for risk factors for CAD and donor LHC.
CONCLUSION(S): Our data show no difference in the presence of (CAV >= grade 1) or subclinical atherosclerosis at 1 year among NAT+ donor recipients. HCV viremia is a known risk factor for accelerated atherosclerosis and the consequence of prolonged donor viremia on the recipient is not known. A larger cohort and further longitudinal follow-up is needed to assess the validity of this trend and its prognostic implications.
Letter by Sherrid et al Regarding Article, "Bail-Out Alcohol Septal Ablation for Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy in a Patient With Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy-Induced Cardiogenic Shock" [Letter]
PERSISTENT ALCAPA PHYSIOLOGY AFTER ALCAPA REPAIR [Meeting Abstract]
Impact and trends of intravascular imaging in diagnostic coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention in inpatients in the United States
BACKGROUND:Intravascular imaging with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an important adjunct to invasive coronary angiography. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The primary objective was to examine the frequency of intravascular coronary imaging, trends in imaging use, and outcomes of patients undergoing angiography and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the United States. METHODS:Adult patients â‰¥18 years of age undergoing in-hospital cardiac catheterization from January 2004 to December 2014 were identified from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS). International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis and procedure codes were used to identify IVUS and OCT use during diagnostic angiography and PCI. RESULTS:Among 3,211,872 hospitalizations with coronary angiography, intracoronary imaging was performed in 88,775 cases (4.8% of PCI and 1.0% of diagnostic procedures), with IVUS in 98.9% and OCT in 1.1% of cases. Among patients undergoing PCI, the rate of intravascular coronary imaging increased from 2.1% in 2004-2005 to 6.6% in 2013-2014 (Pâ€‰<â€‰0.001 for trend). Use of intravascular coronary imaging was associated with lower in-hospital mortality in patients undergoing PCI (adjusted OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.71-0.83). There was marked variability in intravascular imaging by hospital, with 63% and 13% of facilities using intravascular imaging in <5% and >15% of PCIs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:In a large administrative database from the United States, intravascular imaging use was low, increased over time, and imaging was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality. Substantial variation in the frequency of intravascular imaging by hospital was observed. Additional investigation to determine clinical benefits of IVUS and OCT are warranted.