Malignant lymphoma of the lower urinary tract: A single institutional experience
Lymphoma of the urinary tract is relatively rare and comprises of <Â 5% of all primary extra nodal lymphoma. Diagnoses of these lesions at anearly stage is important as they can disseminate or transform into high grade lesion if there is a delay in the diagnoses. There are only few case series and case reports on the malignant lymphoma of the urinary tract. The aim of this study was to characterize lymphoma involving the urinary bladder and prostate. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and histologic findings of the malignant lymphoma involving urinary bladder and prostate at our institution. Lymphoma involving the lower urinary tract clinically presented with lower urinary tract symptoms and usually with concurrent associated urinary bladder cancer or prostatic cancer in our series. Lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnoses especially in patients with prior history of lymphoid disorders. There should be a high index of suspicion when there is any atypical lymphoid infiltrate in routine urinary bladder and prostate surgical specimens.
Optimal Method for Reporting Prostate Cancer Grade in MRI-targeted Biopsies
When multiple cores are biopsied from a single magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted lesion, Gleason grade may be assigned for each core separately or for all cores of the lesion in aggregate. Because of the potential for disparate grades, an optimal method for pathology reporting MRI lesion grade awaits validation. We examined our institutional experience on the concordance of biopsy grade with subsequent radical prostatectomy (RP) grade of targeted lesions when grade is determined on individual versus aggregate core basis. For 317 patients (with 367 lesions) who underwent MRI-targeted biopsy followed by RP, targeted lesion grade was assigned as (1) global Grade Group (GG), aggregated positive cores; (2) highest GG (highest grade in single biopsy core); and (3) largest volume GG (grade in the core with longest cancer linear length). The 3 biopsy grades were compared (equivalence, upgrade, or downgrade) with the final grade of the lesion in the RP, using Îº and weighted Îº coefficients. The biopsy global, highest, and largest GGs were the same as the final RP GG in 73%, 68%, 62% cases, respectively (weighted Îº: 0.77, 0.79, and 0.71). For cases where the targeted lesion biopsy grade scores differed from each other when assigned by global, highest, and largest GG, the concordance with the targeted lesion RP GG was 69%, 52%, 31% for biopsy global, highest, and largest GGs tumors (weighted Îº: 0.65, 0.68, 0.59). Overall, global, highest, and largest GG of the targeted biopsy show substantial agreement with RP-targeted lesion GG, however targeted global GG yields slightly better agreement than either targeted highest or largest GG. This becomes more apparent in nearly one third of cases when each of the 3 targeted lesion level biopsy scores differ. These results support the use of global (aggregate) GG for reporting of MRI lesion-targeted biopsies, while further validations are awaited.
Multilocular cystic renal cell tumors with Xp11 translocation-associated renal cell features; report of 2 cases and review of literature
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease associated renal neoplasia [Meeting Abstract]
Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutations in the genes encoding polycystin 1 and polycystin 2 (PKD1 and PKD2, respectively), leading to florid cystic change of the renal parenchyma. The incidence of carcinoma associated with ADPKD remains unclear although there are studies to suggest that the incidence may be higher.
Design(s): We queried our department pathology database for surgical specimens with ADPKD from 1990 to 2020. We evaluated these cases for the presence of associated malignant or benign neoplasia, as well as pathological and clinical parameters.
Result(s): The majority of the surgical specimens are kidney explants with a clinical diagnosis of ADPKD and the status of end stage kidney diseases. All specimens showed radiological, gross and microscopic features of ADPKD. Eight of 33 ADPKD patients with kidney resection specimens examined contained a malignant neoplasm, including 2 patients with bilateral malignancy. The types of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with the following types: four cases of clear cell RCC, two cases of papillary RCC, type 2, two cases of unclassified high grade RCC, one case of unclassified low grade, as well as one case of TFE3 translocated RCC. Associated carcinomas ranged in size from less than 1 cm to 12 cm. One case with a concurrent oncocytoma and several cases with associated papillary adenoma were also reported.
Conclusion(s): In this cohort, a wide distribution of renal cell carcinoma subtypes were observed, with clear cell RCC being the most common type. The incidence of associated malignancy (24%) is higher than previously reported by Jilg et al. 2013 (5%), possibly due to differences in patient management or patient populations between the institutions. This case series highlights the high occurrence of carcinoma in APKD nephrectomies suggesting a clinical risk of malignancy in patients with ADPKD. Additionally this case series reports the first case of a TFE3 translocated renal cell carcinoma arising synchronously with a contralateral clear cell renal cell carcinoma in a patient with ADPKD. The heterogeneity of renal carcinoma subtypes within the group (and within contralateral kidneys in one patient with bilateral involvement) suggests that stimuli for tumorigenesis arise at the kidney microenvironment level rather than on the basis of gene mutation alone. Accrual of an expanded cohort of patients is planned to enable confirmation of differences between carcinomas arising in the setting of ADPKD versus those arising in end stage renal disease due to other causes, and in the sporadic setting. Furthermore a role for molecular studies is suggested to evaluate if any of the ADPKD causing mutations (PKD1, PKD2, or other) is associated with the development of carcinoma
An Unusual Cause of Cardiac Tamponade: Primary Pericardial Synovial Sarcoma [Case Report]
Prediction by a genomic classifier of unfavorable disease in low grade prostate cancer [Meeting Abstract]
Background: Low risk prostate cancers are amenable to active surveillance which can reduce harmful overtreatment of indolent disease. However there is great variability of criteria in urological practice for determination of active surveillance candidacy. The quantity of Gleason pattern 4 is an important prognostic parameter and may influence treatment decisions. A genomic classifier, the Oncotype DX Genomic Prostate Score has been used to predict both clinical risk and tumor aggressiveness in patients diagnosed on biopsy with low risk prostate cancer (Grade group (GG) 1 and 2). This study investigated whether Genomic Prostate Score (GPS) can predict unfavorable disease and correlates with percentage of Gleason pattern 4 in low grade prostate cancer.
Design(s): We searched our surgical pathology database for prostate biopsies with Oncotype DX Genomic Prostate Score reports (2016- 2019). Oncotype Dx was performed on the single core with worst disease (core with longest tumor and/or maximum percentage of pattern 4). Biopsy results including Gleason Score and length of the tumor and percentage of pattern 4 from the core submitted for Oncotype test were recorded. Follow-up repeat biopsy or prostatectomy, if performed, were also retrieved for review of Gleason Score. Oncotype GPS score and related clinical information were analyzed in the study.
Result(s): 306 prostate biopsy cases with Oncotype DX test report were included in the study. Among these cases, 124 cases were originally diagnosed as GG1 (Gleason Score 3 + 3) and 182 cases were GG2 (3 + 4). The average GPS in GG 2 is significantly higher than GG1 (28.52 +/- 11.80 vs 17.88 +/- 9.35, p < 0.0001). Forty cases in GG1 had follow up repeat biopsy or prostatectomy. Twenty cases were upgraded to GG2. Cases with higher GPS score are more likely to upgrade to GG2 (23.10 +/- 10.13 vs 16.55 +/- 8.22, p < 0.05) in follow up repeat biopsy or prostatectomy. In GG1 group, GPS score correlated with the maximum tumor length and tumor percentage (p < 0.01). In GG2, patients with Gleason pattern 4 greater than 30% received higher GPS score than patients with pattern 4 less than 30% (p < 0.05). GPS significantly correlated with percentage of Gleason pattern 4 but not length of pattern 4, length of tumor, PSA level or PSA density.
Conclusion(s): In GG1, Oncotype Dx GPS can predict the likelihood of unfavorable disease at follow up repeat biopsy or prostatectomy. In GG2, GPS score correlated with percentage of pattern 4, supporting its role as an auxiliary tool for clinical risk classification
Gleason score 3+4=7 prostate cancer with minimal pattern 4 identified in prostate needle biopsy barely has worse pathological outcomes [Meeting Abstract]
Background: Recent clinical guidelines for management of prostate adenocarcinoma are aimed at expanding active surveillance (AS) to include men with intermediate-risk (Gleason score 3+4=7) disease on needle biopsy (NB). However, studies reported a large portion of men with Gleason 3+4=7 prostate cancer on biopsy, that harbored adverse surgical pathologic findings. It remains unclear which subset of intermediate-risk patients with Gleason score 7 cancers can be safely treated with AS. In this study we investigate whether the percentage of Gleason pattern 4 in NB with Gleason score 7 cancers is an indicator for stratifying risk.
Design(s): We retrospectively reviewed our electronic record database for patients that underwent core NB over a 6-year period. We included NB with Gleason score 3+3=6 (G336), 3+4=7 with <5% Gleason pattern 4 (G4%<5) and 3+4=7 with 6-49% maximum Gleason pattern 4 (G4%6-49); all cases had corresponding radical prostatectomy (RP) within 6 months of the biopsy. We defined adverse pathology (AP) as any RP with Gleason score equal to or greater than 4+3=7 and/or stage T3 or higher. We compare AP outcomes in final follow-up RP of three NB groups: G336, G4%<5 and G4%6-49.
Result(s): A total of 289 NB with corresponding radical prostatectomies were identified. The breakdown of Gleason groups is shown in Table 1. GS336 has an AP rate of 26.6%, while G4<5% an AP rate of 20%. In comparison, the group of patients with G4%6-49 exhibited a 42% rate of AP (Table 1). A Chi-square test performed comparing AP of G4%<5 and G%6-49 is statistically significant p= .0237 (Figure 1). Conversely, there is no statistical difference between the rate of AP in G4<5% and G336, p= 0.46. G336 and G4%<5 were aggregated into a new group G%0-5 with an AP rate of 25.2% compared to G%6-10 AP rate 39.6%, p= 0.0576 (Figure 2). G4%6-10 and G4%11-49 had comparable rates of AP, 39.6% and 43.1%, respectively (p=0.681). (Table presented)
Conclusion(s): Currently there is a paradigm shift amongst pathologist and the significance of minimal percentage pattern 4 on prostate biopsies. Our current data supports the recent literature publications that <5% maximal Gleason pattern 4 on a single core has a similar rate of adverse pathological outcomes as Gleason score 3+3=6 and can be considered for AS. Although we did not detect a statistical difference between the rate of AP between G4%0-5 and G4%6-10, the data is beginning to approach statistical significance and warrants further risk stratification
Can Gleason Grade be Reliably Assigned Based on the Perineural Focus of Adenocarcinoma? [Meeting Abstract]
STAT3 Phosphorylation at Ser727 is involved in prostate carcinogenesis and is associated with increased disease-associated mortality [Meeting Abstract]
Integrated Expression (Chromogenic in situ Hybridization) of Long Noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) Segregate Low Grade from Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer [Meeting Abstract]