International pediatric otolaryngology group (IPOG) consensus on approach to aspiration
OBJECTIVE:To provide recommendations for a comprehensive management approach for infants and children presenting with symptoms or signs of aspiration. METHODS:Three rounds of surveys were sent to authors from 23 institutions worldwide. The threshold for the critical level of agreement among respondents was set at 80 %. To develop the definition of "intractable aspiration," each author was first asked to define the condition. Second, each author was asked to complete a 5-point Likert scale to specify the level of agreement with the definition derived in the first step. RESULTS:Recommendations by the authors regarding the clinical presentation, diagnostic considerations, and medical and surgical management options for aspiration in children. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Approach to pediatric aspiration is best achieved by implementing a multidisciplinary approach with a comprehensive investigation strategy and different treatment options.
Measurement of Upper Airway Volume in Children with Craniofacial Abnormalities
OBJECTIVE(S)/OBJECTIVE:Previous literature has established a high prevalence of upper airway obstruction in children with craniofacial abnormalities. This study aims to perform quantitative airway volume measurements in patients with craniofacial abnormalities and compare them to age and sex-matched controls. METHODS:We performed a retrospective review of the records of all children with craniofacial abnormalities who underwent head-and-neck computed tomography (CT) imaging at a single tertiary-care center between 1/1/13 and 12/31/20 using the ICD-10 codes Q75.1, Q75.4, and Q87.0. These patients were then matched by age and sex to patients with isolated craniosynostosis (Q75.0). CT scans were imported into Dolphin Imaging software, and airway volumes were measured for the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx. The primary outcome was the total airway volume, defined as the sum of these measurements. RESULTS:Thirty subjects with craniofacial syndromes were matched to 30 patients with isolated craniosynostosis (controls). In both groups, 18 subjects (60%) were male (p = 0.99). The average ages for syndromic patients and controls were 12.1 and 12.9 months, respectively (p = 0.84). On average, the total airway volumes of syndromic patients were 25% lower than those of controls (p = 0.02). Syndromic patients had 39% smaller nasal cavity volumes (p < 0.001) and 32% smaller nasopharyngeal volumes (p < 0.01). Significant volume differences were not observed for the oropharynx or hypopharynx. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We present a unique technique to measure airway volumes in patients with craniofacial abnormalities. These findings will help practitioners to further understand the anatomy and pathophysiology of disturbed breathing in children with craniofacial syndromes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III Laryngoscope, 2023.
Otolaryngology considerations in cleft and craniofacial care
[S.l.] : wiley, 2023
International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group: Consensus guidelines on the diagnosis and management of non-tuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection commonly manifests as subacute or chronic cervicofacial lymphadenitis in immunocompetent children. The optimal management of this pathology remains controversial. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:This international consensus guideline aims to understand the practice patterns for NTM cervicofacial lymphadenitis and to address the primary diagnostic and management challenges. METHODS:A modified three-iterative Delphi method was used to establish expert recommendations on the diagnostic considerations, expectant or medical management, and operative considerations. The recommendations herein are derived from current expert consensus and critical review of the literature. SETTING/METHODS:Multinational, multi-institutional, tertiary pediatric hospitals. RESULTS:Consensus recommendations include diagnostic work-up, goals of treatment and management options including surgery, prolonged antibiotic therapy and observation. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The recommendations formulated in this International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG) consensus statement on the diagnosis and management of patients with NTM lymphadenitis are aimed at improving patient care and promoting future hypothesis generation.
Pediatric Otolaryngology in COVID-19
While the majority of the initial attention to symptomatic COVID-19 focused on adult patients as well as adult critical care and first responders, the pandemic drastically altered care throughout the entire health care industry. COVID-19 has had a profound effect on the treatment and care of pediatric patients within pediatric otolaryngology. The objective of this article is to highlight the unique ramifications of COVID-19 in general and its effect within pediatric otolaryngology, with a focus on the immediate and potential long-term shifts in practice. This article addresses several aspects of care within pediatric otolaryngology including safety, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19 detailing the unique effects of the pandemic on the pediatric otolaryngology specialty and opportunities.
International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG) consensus recommendations: Evaluation and management of congenital tracheal stenosis
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To outline an expert-based consensus of recommendations for the diagnosis and management of pediatric patients with congenital tracheal stenosis. METHODS:Expert opinions were sought from members of the International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG) via completion of an 18-item survey utilizing an iterative Delphi method and review of the literature. RESULTS:Forty-three members completed the survey providing recommendations regarding the initial history, clinical evaluation, diagnostic evaluation, temporizing measures, definitive repair, and post-repair care of children with congenital tracheal stenosis. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:These recommendations are intended to be used to support clinical decision-making regarding the evaluation and management of children with congenital tracheal stenosis. Responses highlight the diverse management strategies and the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to care of these patients.
Pediatric voice disorders are increasing being noted as a barrier to success in school and socialization. Significant advances over the past decade in evaluation, diagnosis, and management of pediatric voice disorders have improved both short-term and long-term outcomes. Practitioners should have a thorough understanding of anatomy and physiology, accurately work up a pediatric voice disorder, and efficiently treat voice disorders. Comprehensive voice evaluation in children is essential to properly assessing pediatric dysphonia. Diagnosis and treatment are best managed by a multidisciplinary team. Accurate diagnosis allows for effective treatment, which includes voice therapy, medical therapy, and surgical intervention as needed.
Movement Disorder Emergencies of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract
Movement disorder emergencies of the aerodigestive tract are dramatic and often life threatening. With appropriate timely evaluation and intervention, most patients can be effectively managed and major morbidity avoided. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of both the causes and appropriate treatment of breathing disturbances secondary to primary disorders and iatrogenic causes, as well as swallowing emergencies. Additionally, basic physiology, anatomy, and various methods for assessment of the upper aerodigestive tract are reviewed. Specific disorders that are addressed include the following: spasmodic dysphonia, adductor laryngeal breathing dystonia, Shy-Drager abductor weakness, drug-induced tardive dystonia, oromandibulolingual dystonia, multiple system atrophy, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and palatal myoclonus.
The Surgical Treatment of Robin Sequence: Neonatal Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis in the Unfavorable Patient
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Neonates with severe Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) can be treated by mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO), tongue-lip adhesion, or tracheostomy; however, there is an active debate regarding the indications of MDO in this patient population. Published algorithms identify tracheomalacia, bronchomalacia, laryngomalacia, hypotonic syndromes, and central sleep apnea as contraindications for MDO and indications for tracheostomy, but these comorbidities may exist along a spectrum of severity. The authors propose that appropriately selected neonates with PRS who concurrently express 1 or more of these traditional contraindications may be successfully treated with MDO. METHODS:The authors performed a 5-year retrospective chart review of all neonates who underwent MDO for treatment of severe PRS. All patients expressed a comorbidity previously identified as an indication for tracheostomy. Pre- and postoperative characteristics were recorded. Apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) before and after MDO were compared using 2-tailed repeated measures t-test. RESULTS:The authors identified 12 patients with severe PRS and conditions associated with contraindications to MDO: 9 (75.0%) patients had laryngomalacia, 6 (50.0%) patients had tracheomalacia, 2 (16.6%) patients had bronchomalacia, 1 (8.3%) patient had central sleep apnea, and 3 (25.0%) patients had hypotonia. Five (41.7%) patients underwent concurrent gastrostomy tube placement due to feeding insufficiency. Average birthweight was 3.0â€Škg. Average pre-op AHI was 34.8. Average post-op AHI was 7.3. All patients successfully underwent MDO with avoidance of tracheostomy. CONCLUSIONS:By employing an interdisciplinary evaluation of patient candidacy, MDO can safely and effectively treat upper airway obstruction and avoid tracheostomy in higher-risk neonatal patients with traditional indications for tracheostomy.
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and retropharyngeal edema: A case series
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is thought to follow SARS-CoV-2 infection and presents with fever and multisystem dysfunction. We report three children with suspected MIS-C found to have retropharyngeal edema without evidence of a bacterial etiology. We raise the possibility that an association between MIS-C and retropharyngeal edema exists.