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Binding requirements for latent transforming growth factor Beta2 activation

Sachan, Nalani; Phoon, Colin K.L.; Bu, Lei; Zilberberg, Lior; Ahamed, Jasimuddin; Rifkin, Daniel B.
Although the mechanism for activation of latent TGFβ1 and TGFβ3 is understood to involve the binding of the TGFβ propeptide (LAP) to both an integrin and an insoluble substrate, the activation of latent TGFβ2 has been unclear because the TGFβ2 LAP does not have the classical integrin binding sequence found in the other two TGFβ isoform LAPs. To assess the potential requirement for covalent linkage with a matrix or cell surface protein for the activation of latent TGFβ2, we generated mice in which the TGFβ2 Cys residue predicted to be involved in binding was mutated to Ser (Tgfb2C24S). We reasoned that, if covalent interaction with a second molecule is required for latent TGFβ2 activation, mutant mice should display a Tgfb2 null (Tgfb2−/−)-like phenotype. Tgfb2C24S mice closely phenocopy Tgfb2−/− mice with death in utero between E18 and P1 and with congenital heart and kidney defects similar to those described for Tgfb2−/− mice. The mutant latent TGFβ2 is secreted at levels similar to WT, yet TGFβ signaling monitored as nuclear pSmad2 is suppressed. We conclude that, like latent TGFβ1, latent TGFβ2 activation requires binding to an immobilized matrix or plasma membrane molecule.
ISSN: 2590-0285
CID: 5659312

Binding requirements for latent transforming growth factor Beta2 activation

Sachan, Nalani; Phoon, Colin K L; Bu, Lei; Zilberberg, Lior; Ahamed, Jasimuddin; Rifkin, Daniel B
Although the mechanism for activation of latent TGFβ1 and TGFβ3 is understood to involve the binding of the TGFβ propeptide (LAP) to both an integrin and an insoluble substrate, the activation of latent TGFβ2 has been unclear because the TGFβ2 LAP does not have the classical integrin binding sequence found in the other two TGFβ isoform LAPs. To assess the potential requirement for covalent linkage with a matrix or cell surface protein for the activation of latent TGFβ2, we generated mice in which the TGFβ2 Cys residue predicted to be involved in binding was mutated to Ser (Tgfb2C24S
PMID: 38831847
ISSN: 2590-0285
CID: 5665132

TGFβ-2 Haploinsufficiency Causes Early Death in Mice with Marfan Syndrome

Sachan, Nalani; Phoon, Colin K L; Zilberberg, Lior; Kugler, Matthias C; Ene, Taylor; Mintz, Shana B; Murtada, Sae-Il; Weiss, Dar; Fishman, Glenn I; Humphrey, Jay D; Rifkin, Daniel B
To assess the contribution of individual TGF-β isoforms to aortopathy in Marfan syndrome (MFS), we quantified the survival and phenotypes of mice with a combined fibrillin1 (the gene defective in MFS) hypomorphic mutation and a TGF-β1, 2, or 3 heterozygous null mutation. The loss of TGF-β2, and only TGF-β2, resulted in 80% of the double mutant animals dying earlier, by post-natal day 20, than MFS only mice. Death was not from thoracic aortic rupture, as observed in MFS mice, but was associated with hyperplastic aortic valve leaflets, aortic regurgitation, enlarged aortic root, increased heart weight, and impaired lung alveolar septation. Thus, there appears to be a relationship between loss of fibrillin1 and TGF-β2 in the post-natal development of the heart, aorta and lungs.
PMID: 37217119
ISSN: 1569-1802
CID: 5543662

Fibrillin-1 deficiency in the outer perichondrium causes longitudinal bone overgrowth in mice with Marfan syndrome

Sedes, Lauriane; Wondimu, Elisa; Crockett, Brittany; Hansen, Jens; Cantalupo, Anna; Asano, Keiichi; Iyengar, Ravi; Rifkin, Daniel B; Smaldone, Silvia; Ramirez, Francesco
A disproportionate tall stature is the most evident manifestation in Marfan syndrome (MFS), a multisystem condition caused by mutations in the extracellular protein and TGFβ modulator, fibrillin-1. Unlike cardiovascular manifestations, there has been little effort devoted to unravel the molecular mechanism responsible for long bone overgrowth in MFS. By combining the Cre-LoxP recombination system with metatarsal bone cultures, here we identify the outer layer of the perichondrium as the tissue responsible for long bone overgrowth in MFS mice. Analyses of differentially expressed genes in the fibrillin-1 deficient perichondrium predicted that loss of TGFβ signaling may influence chondrogenesis in the neighboring epiphyseal growth plate (GP). Immunohistochemistry revealed that fibrillin-1 deficiency in the outer perichondrium is associated with decreased accumulation of latent TGFβ-binding proteins (LTBPs)-3 and - 4, and reduced levels of phosphorylated (activated) Smad2. Consistent with these findings, mutant metatarsal bones grown in vitro were longer and released less TGFβ than the wild type counterparts. Moreover, addition of recombinant TGFβ1 normalized linear growth of mutant metatarsal bones. We conclude that longitudinal bone overgrowth in MFS is accounted for by diminished sequestration of LTBP-3 and LTBP-4 into the fibrillin-1 deficient matrix of the outer perichondrium, which results in less TGFβ signaling locally and improper GP differentiation distally.
PMID: 35567544
ISSN: 1460-2083
CID: 5215152

Latent Transforming Growth Factor β Binding Protein 3 Controls Adipogenesis

Singh, Karan; Sachan, Nalani; Ene, Taylor; Dabovic, Branka; Rifkin, Daniel
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) is released from cells as part of a trimeric latent complex consisting of TGFβ, the TGFβ propeptides, and either a latent TGFβ binding protein (LTBP) or glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant (GARP) protein. LTBP1 and 3 modulate latent TGFβ function with respect to secretion, matrix localization, and activation and, therefore, are vital for the proper function of the cytokine in a number of tissues. TGFβ modulates stem cell differentiation into adipocytes (adipogenesis), but the potential role of LTBPs in this process has not been studied. We observed that 72 h post adipogenesis initiation Ltbp1, 2, and 4 expression levels decrease by 74-84%, whereas Ltbp3 expression levels remain constant during adipogenesis. We found that LTBP3 silencing in C3H/10T1/2 cells reduced adipogenesis, as measured by the percentage of cells with lipid vesicles and the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Lentiviral mediated expression of an Ltbp3 mRNA resistant to siRNA targeting rescued the phenotype, validating siRNA specificity. Knockdown (KD) of Ltbp3 expression in 3T3-L1, M2, and primary bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) indicated a similar requirement for Ltbp3. Epididymal and inguinal white adipose tissue fat pad weights of Ltbp3-/- mice were reduced by 62% and 57%, respectively, compared to wild-type mice. Inhibition of adipogenic differentiation upon LTBP3 loss is mediated by TGFβ, as TGFβ neutralizing antibody and TGFβ receptor I kinase blockade rescue the LTBP3 KD phenotype. These results indicate that LTBP3 has a TGFβ-dependent function in adipogenesis both in vitro and possibly in vivo.
PMID: 35933071
ISSN: 1569-1802
CID: 5288502

The role of LTBPs in TGF beta signaling

Rifkin, Daniel; Sachan, Nalani; Singh, Karan; Sauber, Elyse; Tellides, George; Ramirez, Francesco
The purpose of this review is to discuss the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) binding proteins (LTBP) with respect to their participation in the activity of TGFB. We first describe pertinent aspects of the biology and cell function of the LTBPs. We then summarize the physiological consequences of LTBP loss in humans and mice. Finally, we consider a number of outstanding questions relating to LTBP function.
PMID: 33742701
ISSN: 1097-0177
CID: 4875292

Osteoblastic Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) Mediation of Parathyroid Hormone's Anabolic Actions in Bone Implicates TGF-β Signaling

Siddiqui, Jawed A; Le Henaff, Carole; Johnson, Joshua; He, Zhiming; Rifkin, Daniel B; Partridge, Nicola C
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is necessary for the regulation of calcium homeostasis and PTH (1-34) was the first approved osteoanabolic therapy for osteoporosis. It is well established that intermittent PTH increases bone formation and that bone remodeling and several cytokines and chemokines play an essential role in this process. Earlier, we had established that the chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2), was the most highly stimulated gene in rat bone after intermittent PTH injections. Nevertheless, MCP-1 function in bone appears to be complicated. To identify the primary cells expressing MCP-1 in response to PTH, we performed in situ hybridization of rat bone sections after hPTH (1-34) injections and showed that bone-lining osteoblasts are the primary cells that express MCP-1 after PTH treatment. We previously demonstrated MCP-1's importance by showing that PTH's anabolic effects are abolished in MCP-1 null mice, further implicating a role for the chemokine in this process. To establish whether rhMCP-1 peptide treatment could rescue the anabolic effect of PTH in MCP-1 null mice, we treated 4-month-old wild-type (WT) mice with hPTH (1-34) and MCP-1-/- mice with rhMCP-1 and/or hPTH (1-34) for 6 weeks. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) analysis of trabecular and cortical bone showed that MCP-1 injections for 6 weeks rescued the PTH anabolic effect in MCP-1-/- mice. In fact, the combination of rhMCP-1 and hPTH (1-34) has a synergistic anabolic effect compared with monotherapies. Mechanistically, PTH-enhanced transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is abolished in the absence of MCP-1, while MCP-1 peptide treatment restores TGF-β signaling in the bone marrow. Here, we have shown that PTH regulates the transcription of the chemokine MCP-1 in osteoblasts and determined how MCP-1 affects bone cell function in PTH's anabolic actions. Taken together, our current work indicates that intermittent PTH stimulates osteoblastic secretion of MCP-1, which leads to increased TGF-β signaling, implicating it in PTH's anabolic actions.
PMID: 33212319
ISSN: 1873-2763
CID: 4675492

Intraarticular injection of liposomal adenosine reduces cartilage damage in established murine and rat models of osteoarthritis

Corciulo, Carmen; Castro, Cristina M; Coughlin, Thomas; Jacob, Samson; Li, Zhu; Fenyö, David; Rifkin, Daniel B; Kennedy, Oran D; Cronstein, Bruce Neil
Osteoarthritis (OA) affects nearly 10% of the population of the United States and other industrialized countries and, at present, short of surgical joint replacement, there is no therapy available that can reverse the progression of the disease. Adenosine, acting at its A2A receptor (A2AR), is a critical autocrine factor for maintenance of cartilage homeostasis and here we report that injection of liposomal suspensions of either adenosine or a selective A2AR agonist, CGS21680, significantly reduced OA cartilage damage in a murine model of obesity-induced OA. The same treatment also improved swelling and preserved cartilage in the affected knees in a rat model of established post-traumatic OA (PTOA). Differential expression analysis of mRNA from chondrocytes harvested from knees of rats with PTOA treated with liposomal A2AR agonist revealed downregulation of genes associated with matrix degradation and upregulation of genes associated with cell proliferation as compared to liposomes alone. Studies in vitro and in affected joints demonstrated that A2AR ligation increased the nuclear P-SMAD2/3/P-SMAD1/5/8 ratio, a change associated with repression of terminal chondrocyte differentiation. These results strongly suggest that targeting the A2AR is an effective approach to treat OA.
PMID: 32778777
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 4556132

A2A adenosine receptor stimulation regenerates cartilage in osteoarthritis animal model [Meeting Abstract]

Corciulo, C; Castro, C; Coughlin, T; Jacob, S; Fenyo, D; Rifkin, D; Kennedy, O D; Angle, S; Cronstein, B N
Purpose: Many studies have been shown that obesity along with joint injury is one of the most common risk factor in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). In a previous study we described that intra-articular injections of liposomal preparations of adenosine completely prevent progression and reverse cartilage loss in post-traumatic OA. TGF-beta signaling plays dual and opposing roles in cartilage health and chondrocyte life depending on the signals activated downstream. Activation of downstream signaling pathways for TGF-beta leading to localization of phospho-SMAD2/3 associated with maintenance of cartilage. In contrast nuclear localization of phospho-SMAD1/5/8 results in chondrocyte hypertrophy. Here we report that intraarticular injections of liposomal adenosine and A2AR agonist reverses OA in a post-traumatic OA model in rat and in an obesity related mice model. We moreover explore the role of TGF-beta signaling in this phenomenon. Method(s): Obesity-induced OA model: C57Bl6 mice (5-6 for each group, 12 weeks old) were fed a 60% fat diet (HFF mice) for 3months, after which received intraarticular injections (10 mul) of empty liposomes (Lipo) or liposomes containing the A2AR agonist CGS21680 (Lipo-CGS) or Adenosine (Lipo-Ado) into the knee every 10 days for 4 injections. Post-traumatic OA (PTOA) was induced in Sprague Dawley rats following non-surgical rupture of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Four weeks later rats were injected in the knee with 100ul of saline, Lipo or Lipo-CGS every 10 days (6 injections). RNA was isolated from chondrocytes in knee cartilage of rats treated as described above (3 from each group X 3 replicates) and subjected to RNAseq analysis. TC28a2 human chondrocyte cell line was used for in vitro experiments. Result(s): Lipo-CGS and Lipo-Ado reversed OA in the obesity and post traumatic OA model. Mouse knees had an OARSI score of 5.17+/-1.84 before treatment. Treatment with LIPO-Ado and lipo-CGS decreased OA severity (OARSI score 1.33+/-0.81 and 1.83+/-0.98, respectively, p<0.001 vs pre-treatment; figure 1). In the PTOA model the OARSI score significantly decreases after Lipo-CGS and Lipo-Ado treatment compare to the saline group (OARSI: 1.28+/-0.39; 1.42+/-0.69; 2.97+/-0.0.75 respectively; p<0.05). Analysis of the transcriptome suggests that the treatment of Lipo-CGS promotes the up-regulation of genes involved in proliferation process and downregulations of genes responsible of apoptosis, cartilage catabolism and chondrocyte hypertrophy (Figure 2). TGF-beta expression was increased in deep layers of cartilage in the Lipo-CGS-treated rats and there was notable nuclear localization of phospho-SMAD2/3 in these chondrocytes. In contrast, phospho-SMAD1/5/8 was expressed in the nuclei of chondrocytes in the saline and LIPO-treated rats but not in the LIPO-CGS treated rats. Identical changes were observed in the knees of obese mice. To determine whether the effect of A2AR stimulation on TGF-beta signaling was direct or indirect we studied the effect of CGS21680 on nuclear phospho-SMAD expression in TC28a2 cells and found that CGS21680 increased nuclear phospho-SMAD2/3 and reduced nuclear phospho-SMAD1/5/8, as detected by immunofluorescence. Conclusion(s): Administration of an A2AR agonist to established OA knees reverses OA in rats and mice and shifts TGF-beta signaling from ALK1/SMAD1/5/8 to ALK5/SMAD2/3 in OA chondrocytes after activation of A2AR in 2 OA animal models.
ISSN: 1522-9653
CID: 3789882

Absence of LTBP-3 attenuates the aneurysmal phenotype but not spinal effects on the aorta in Marfan syndrome

Korneva, A; Zilberberg, L; Rifkin, D B; Humphrey, J D; Bellini, C
Fibrillin-1 is an elastin-associated glycoprotein that contributes to the long-term fatigue resistance of elastic fibers as well as to the bioavailability of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) in arteries. Altered TGFβ bioavailability and/or signaling have been implicated in aneurysm development in Marfan syndrome (MFS), a multi-system condition resulting from mutations to the gene that encodes fibrillin-1. We recently showed that the absence of the latent transforming growth factor-beta binding protein-3 (LTBP-3) in fibrillin-1-deficient mice attenuates the fragmentation of elastic fibers and focal dilatations that are characteristic of aortic root aneurysms in MFS mice, at least to 12 weeks of age. Here, we show further that the absence of LTBP-3 in this MFS mouse model improves the circumferential mechanical properties of the thoracic aorta, which appears to be fundamental in preventing or significantly delaying aneurysm development. Yet, a spinal deformity either remains or is exacerbated in the absence of LTBP-3 and seems to adversely affect the axial mechanical properties of the thoracic aorta, thus decreasing overall vascular function despite the absence of aneurysmal dilatation. Importantly, because of the smaller size of mice lacking LTBP-3, allometric scaling facilitates proper interpretation of aortic dimensions and thus the clinical phenotype. While this study demonstrates that LTBP-3/TGFβ directly affects the biomechanical function of the thoracic aorta, it highlights that spinal deformities in MFS might indirectly and adversely affect the overall aortic phenotype. There is a need, therefore, to consider together the vascular and skeletal effects in this syndromic disease.
PMID: 30306291
ISSN: 1617-7940
CID: 3660142