Try a new search

Format these results:

Searched for:



Total Results:


Radiographic scoring of humeral shaft fractures helps identify patients at risk of surgery for delayed union

Rivero, Steven M; Kurland, Adam M; Abdo, Zuhdi E; Vosbikian, Michael M; Ahmed, Irfan H
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Assessing external validity and clinical relevance of modified radiographic union score (mRUS) to predict delayed union in closed humeral shaft fractures initially treated with conservative management. DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort. SETTING/METHODS:Single urban academic level 1 trauma center. PATIENTS/METHODS:Patients undergoing initial non-operative treatment of a humeral shaft fracture with a minimum of 3 months follow-up and at least one set of follow-up orthogonal x-rays within 12-weeks of injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS/METHODS:Inter- and intraobserver reliability of the (mRUS) system for humeral shaft fractures, as well as establishing an mRUS threshold at 6- and 12-weeks post-injury to predict surgery for delayed union. RESULTS:mRUS demonstrated substantial interobserver agreement on all assessments. Intraobserver agreement was nearly perfect for all reviewers on repeat assessment. mRUS of ≤7 at 6 ± 1 weeks follow-up was associated with surgery for delayed union with an odds ratio of 4.88 (95% CI 2.52 - 9.44, p < .01), sensitivity of .286, and specificity of .924. At 12 ± 1 weeks follow-up, the same threshold demonstrated a stronger association with an odds ratio of 14.7 (95% CI 4.9 - 44.1, p < .01), sensitivity of .225, and specificity of .981. CONCLUSIONS:The mRUS for humeral shaft fractures is reliable and reproducible providing an objective way to track subtle changes in radiographs over time. An mRUS of ≤7 at 6- or 12-weeks post-injury is highly specific for delayed union. This can be helpful when counseling patients about the risk of nonunion and potential early surgical intervention. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Diagnostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMID: 35149620
ISSN: 1531-2291
CID: 5231962

Management of Large Segmental Bone Defects at the Knee With Intramedullary Stabilized Antibiotic Spacers During Two-Stage Treatment of Endoprosthetic Joint Infection

Ippolito, Joseph A; Thomson, Jennifer E; Rivero, Steven M; Beebe, Kathleen S; Patterson, Francis R; Benevenia, Joseph
BACKGROUND:Following debridement of infected prostheses that require reconstruction with an endoprosthetic replacement (EPR), instability related to segmental residual bone defects present a challenge in management with 2-stage reimplantation. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed all patients treated for revision total joint or endoprosthetic infection at the knee from 1998 to 2018. At our institution, patients with skeletal defects >6 cm following explant of prosthesis and debridement (stage 1) were managed with intramedullary nail-stabilized antibiotic spacers. Following stage 1, antimicrobial therapy included 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics and a minimum of 6 weeks of oral antibiotics. Following resolution of inflammatory markers and negative tissue cultures, reimplantation (stage 2) of an EPR was performed. RESULTS:Twenty-one patients at a mean age of 54 ± 21 years were treated for prosthetic joint infection at the knee. Polymicrobial growth was detected in 38% of cases, followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci (24%) and Staphylococcus aureus (19%). Mean residual skeletal defect after stage 1 treatment was 20 cm. Prosthetic joint infection eradication was achieved in 18 (86%) patients, with a mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score of 77% and mean knee range of motion of 100°. Patients with polymicrobial infections had a greater number of surgeries prior to infection (P = .024), and were more likely to require additional debridement prior to EPR (odds ratio 12.0, P = .048). CONCLUSION:Management of large segmental skeletal defects at the knee following explant using intramedullary stabilized antibiotic spacers maintain stability and result in high rates of limb salvage with conversion to an endoprosthesis.
PMID: 33546952
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5231952

Supplemental Bone Grafting in Giant Cell Tumor of the Extremity Reduces Nononcologic Complications

Benevenia, Joseph; Rivero, Steven M; Moore, Jeffrey; Ippolito, Joseph A; Siegerman, Daniel A; Beebe, Kathleen S; Patterson, Francis R
BACKGROUND:Giant cell tumors (GCTs) are treated with resection curettage and adjuvants followed by stabilization. Complications include recurrence, fracture, and joint degeneration. Studies have shown treatment with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) may increase the risk of joint degeneration and fracture. Other studies have suggested that subchondral bone grafting may reduce these risks. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES/OBJECTIVE:Following standard intralesional resection-curettage and adjuvant treatment, is the use of bone graft, with or without supplemental PMMA, (1) associated with fewer nononcologic complications; (2) associated with differences in tumor recurrence between patients treated with versus those treated without bone grafting for GCT; and (3) associated with differences in Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scores? METHODS:Between 1996 and 2014, 49 patients presented with GCT in the epiphysis of a long bone. Six patients were excluded, four who were lost to followup before 12 months and two because they presented with displaced, comminuted, intraarticular pathologic fractures with a nonreconstructable joint surface. The remaining 43 patients were included in our study at a mean followup of 59 months (range, 12-234 months). After resection-curettage, 21 patients were reconstructed using femoral head allograft with or without PMMA (JB) and 22 patients were reconstructed using PMMA alone (FRP, KSB); each surgeon used the same approach (that is, bone graft or no bone graft) throughout the period of study. The primary study comparison was between patients treated with bone graft (with or without PMMA) and those treated without bone graft. RESULTS:Nononcologic complications occurred less frequently in patients treated with bone graft than those treated without (10% [two of 21] versus 55% [12 of 22]; odds ratio, 0.088; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02-0.47; p = 0.002). Patients with bone graft had increased nononcologic complication-free survival (hazard ratio, 4.59; 95% CI, 1.39-15.12; p = 0.012). With the numbers available, there was no difference in tumor recurrence between patients treated with bone graft versus without (29% [six of 21] versus 32% [seven of 22]; odds ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.1936-2.531; p = 0.586) or in recurrence-free survival among patients with bone graft versus without (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.30-2.98; p = 0.920). With the numbers available, there was no difference in mean MSTS scores between patients treated with bone graft versus without (92% ± 2% versus 93% ± 1.4%; mean difference 1.0%; 95% CI, -3.9% to 6.0%; p = 0.675). CONCLUSIONS:Compared with PMMA alone, the use of periarticular bone graft constructs reduces postoperative complications apparently without increasing the likelihood of tumor recurrence. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III, therapeutic study.
PMID: 26932739
ISSN: 1528-1132
CID: 5231932

Linea Aspera as Rotational Landmark for Tumor Endopostheses: A Computed Tomography Study

Tuy, Benjamin E; Patterson, Francis R; Beebe, Kathleen S; Sirkin, Michael; Rivero, Steven M; Benevenia, Joseph
This computed tomography study examined the reliability of the linea aspera as a rotational landmark in tumor endoprosthetic replacement by determining its cross-sectional location on the femur.
PMID: 27327926
ISSN: 1934-3418
CID: 5231942

Analysis of Unmatched Orthopaedic Residency Applicants: Options After the Match

Rivero, Steven; Ippolito, Joseph; Martinez, Maximilian; Beebe, Kathleen; Benevenia, Joseph; Berberian, Wayne
BACKGROUND:Orthopaedic surgery is one of the most competitive specialties, resulting in many applicants going unmatched. Many unmatched applicants pursue a preliminary internship or research fellowship, but whether these activities make them more successful in subsequent match cycles has not been studied. OBJECTIVE:To determine the effectiveness of activities during the intervening period on match success in a subsequent cycle. METHODS:After reviewing rank order lists for our program and National Resident Matching Program correspondence from 1994 to 2013, we identified 198 of 1216 ranked applicants (16.3%) who did not initially match. Of these, 57 applicants who matched through the Supplemental Offer and Acceptance Program did not reapply to orthopaedics or trained overseas. RESULTS:Of 141 reapplicants, 56 matched into orthopaedic surgery, with 87.5% (P < .001) matching at a program in the same region where they had either completed their medical degree or postgraduate year, and 37.5% matching at their home institution (P < .001). Successful reapplicants after a research fellowship had a significantly higher number of publications than unsuccessful reapplicants (P < .05). There was no significant difference in success after research or internship (P = .80) and no significant difference in success rates for US versus international reapplicants (P =  .43). CONCLUSIONS:Success of reapplication into orthopaedic surgery may be less dependent on the route taken during the interim period, and more dependent on developing relationships with faculty at a local or regional institution.
PMID: 26913110
ISSN: 1949-8357
CID: 5231922

Outcomes of a Modular Intercalary Endoprosthesis as Treatment for Segmental Defects of the Femur, Tibia, and Humerus

Benevenia, Joseph; Kirchner, Rainer; Patterson, Francis; Beebe, Kathleen; Wirtz, Dieter C; Rivero, Steven; Palma, Mark; Friedrich, Max J
BACKGROUND:Resection of diaphyseal bone tumors for local tumor control and stabilization often results in an intercalary skeletal defect and presents a reconstructive challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Although many options for reconstruction have been described, relatively few studies report on the functional outcomes and complications of patients treated with modular intercalary endoprostheses. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES/OBJECTIVE:The objectives of this study were to examine clinical outcomes after reconstruction with a modular intercalary endoprosthesis with a specific focus on (1) the rate of complication or failure; (2) differences in complication rates by anatomic site; (3) functional results as assessed by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society System (MSTS); and (4) differences in complication rate between patients treated with cemented versus noncemented fixation. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients treated with a modular intercalary endoprosthesis from three musculoskeletal oncology centers from 2008 to 2013. The indication for use of this intercalary endoprosthesis was segmental bone loss from aggressive or malignant tumor with sparing of the joint above and below and deemed unsuitable for biologic reconstruction. No other implant was used for this indication during this period. During this period, 41 patients received a total of 44 intercalary implants, which included 18 (40%) humeri, 5 (11%) tibiae, and 21 (48%) femora. There were 27 (66%) men and 14 (34%) women with a mean age of 63 years (range, 18–91 years). Eight patients (20%) had primary bone tumors and 33 (80%) had metastatic lesions. Thirty-five (85%) patients were being operated on as an initial treatment and six (15%) for revision of a previous reconstruction. Twenty-nine (66%) procedures had cemented stem fixation and 15 (34%) were treated with noncemented fixation. The overall mean followup was 14 months (range, 1–51 months). Patients with primary tumors had a mean followup of 19 months (range, 4–48 months) and patients with metastatic disease had a mean followup of 11 months (range, 1–51 months). Causes of implant failure were categorized according to Henderson et al. [19] into five types as follows: Type I (soft tissue failure), Type II (aseptic loosening), Type III (structural failure), Type IV (infection), and Type V (tumor progression). At 2 years of followup, 38 (93%) of these patients were accounted for with three (7%) lost to followup. MSTS functional assessment was available for 39 of 41 patients (95%). RESULTS:At latest followup of these 41 patients, 14 (34%) patients were dead of disease, two patients (5%) dead of other causes, seven (17%) are continuously disease-free, one (2%) shows no evidence of disease, and 17 (41%) are alive with disease. There were 12 (27%) nononcologic complications. Five (11%) of these were Type II failures occurring in noncemented implants between the stem and bone, and six (14%) were Type III failures occurring in cemented implants at the clamp-rod implant interface. One patient developed a deep infection (2%, Type IV failure) and underwent removal of the implant. Additionally, one patient (2%, Type V failure) was treated by amputation after local progression of his metastatic disease. Complications were more common in femoral reconstructions than in tibial or humeral reconstructions. Twelve of 21 patients (57%) with femoral reconstructions had complications versus 0% of tibial or humeral reconstructions (0 of 23; odds ratio [OR], 62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3–1154; p < 0.0001). The mean overall MSTS score was 77%. Implants with cemented fixation (29) had higher mean MSTS scores when compared with implants with noncemented (15) fixation (84% versus 66%, p = 0.0017). The complication rate was 33% in noncemented cases and 21% in cemented cases (p = 0.39); however, Type II failure at the bone-stem interface was associated with noncemented fixation and Type III failure at the clamp-rod interface was associated with cemented fixation (OR, 143; 95% CI, 2.413–8476; p = 0.0022). CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study indicate that this modular intercalary endoprosthesis yields equivalent results to other studies of intercalary endoprostheses in terms of MSTS scores. We found that patients treated with intercalary endoprostheses in the femur experienced more frequent complications than those treated for lesions in either the humerus or tibia and that the femoral complication rate of this endoprosthesis is higher when compared with other studies of intercalary endoprostheses for femoral reconstruction. Further studies are still needed to determine the long-term outcomes of this endoprosthesis in patients with primary tumors where longevity of the implant is of more importance than in the metastatic setting. We recommend cemented fixation for this intercalary modular endoprostheses because this provides improved MSTS scores and allows immediate return to weightbearing, which is of advantage to metastatic patients with limited lifespans. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study.
PMID: 26475032
ISSN: 1528-1132
CID: 5231902

Are patient demographics different for early-onset and late-onset Blount disease? Results based on meta-analysis

Rivero, Steven M; Zhao, Caixia; Sabharwal, Sanjeev
Early-onset and late-onset Blount disease has been described with some clinical overlap between the two forms. Using PRISMA guidelines, we searched for articles that included demographics of patients with both types of Blount disease. On the basis of 24 articles that met our inclusion criteria, patients with early-onset Blount disease were more likely to have bilateral involvement [odds ratio (OR) 4.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.27-8.17] and less likely to be Black (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.08-0.53) or male (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.13-0.78). Our results confirm that differences based on laterality, race, and sex exist between the two forms of Blount disease.
PMID: 26163867
ISSN: 1473-5865
CID: 5231892

Identifying impending pathologic fractures and treatment considerations in patients with metastatic bone disease [Review]

Rivero, Steven; Hwang, John S.; Beebe, Kathleen S.
ISSN: 1940-7041
CID: 5231982

Results of 20 consecutive patients treated with the Repiphysis expandable prosthesis for primary malignant bone

Benevenia, Joseph; Patterson, Francis; Beebe, Kathleen; Tucker, Kimberly; Moore, Jeffrey; Ippolito, Joseph; Rivero, Steven
Limb-salvage for primary malignant bone tumors in pediatric patients presents a unique challenge when resection includes an active physis. Early expandable prostheses required open surgical procedures to achieve lengthening. Newer prostheses are capable of achieving expansion without open procedures through the use of an electromagnetic field. This study reports our results with 90 consecutive expansion procedures using the Repiphysis(®) prosthesis. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 20 patients (22 limbs) who underwent limb-salvage using the Repiphysis(®) prosthesis from 2003 to 2015. There were 9 males and 11 females with a mean age of 9 years and 9 months (6-16 years). Reconstruction included the distal femur in 11 cases, total femur in four, proximal tibia in three, proximal humerus in three, and total humerus in one. Complications were reviewed and functional scores were recorded using the MSTS/ISOLS system. Five patients had a second prosthesis implanted during the course of the study for a total of 27 prostheses. The mean follow-up was 57 (6-148) months. Four patients have not been expanded: three due to death prior to lengthening, and one patient who has not yet developed a leg length discrepancy. Ninety consecutive expansion procedures were performed in 18 limbs in 16 patients. A mean of 9 (5-20) mm was gained per expansion and 4.8 cm per patient who has undergone expansion to date. Seven patients have reached skeletal maturity and have been converted to an adult endoprosthesis. These patients averaged 8 expansions per patient and a mean of 7.4 (1.8-12.9) cm in length gained. There were 15 complications in 11 patients including one dislocation, one contracture, four cases of aseptic loosening, five structural failures (three expansion mechanism failures and two tibial fractures), three deep infections, and one case of local recurrence. The mean MSTS score was 80 % (37-97 %) and the limb retention rate was 95 %. The results of this study are comparable to previous studies involving non-invasive prostheses. This study hopefully provides additional data for clinicians to consider when faced with limb threatening sarcomas in the immature skeleton.
PMID: 26702382
ISSN: 2193-1801
CID: 5231912

Chronic scaphoid nonunion of 28-year duration treated with nonvascularized iliac crest bone graft

Capo, John T; Shamian, Ben; Rivero, Steve
Scaphoid nonunions present a challenging clinical problem, particularly if the diagnosis of nonunion is missed or delayed. The optimal management technique can vary from free vascularized bone grafts to scaphoid excision and limited wrist fusion. The classic method of open reduction, nonvascularized corticocancellous bone grafting and internal fixation is still an effective technique. In this report, we describe a case of a 28-year-old chronic scaphoid nonunion treated with nonvascular iliac crest bone graft and internal fixation.
PMID: 24436793
ISSN: 2163-3916
CID: 955372