Evidence-Based Medicine Training in US-based Physiatry Residency Programs
ABSTRACT/UNASSIGNED:While the physiatric community increasingly embraces Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), the current state of EBM training for trainees in physiatry is unclear. The purpose of this article is to report the results of the Association of Academic Physiatrists (AAP)'s surveys of physiatry residency programs in the United States (US), to discuss the implications of their findings, and to better delineate the 'baseline' upon which sound and clear recommendations for systematic EBM training can be made. The two AAP surveys of US physiatry residency programs reveal that most survey respondents report that they include EBM training in their programs that covers the five recommended steps of EBM core competencies. However, while most respondents reported using traditional pedagogical methods of training such as journal club, very few reported that their EBM training used a structured and systematic approach. Future work is needed to support and facilitate physiatry residency programs interested in adopting structured EBM training curricula that include recommended EBM core-competencies and the evaluation of their impact.
Let's Write a Manuscript - A Primer with Tips & Tricks for Penning an Original Article
A group of international researchers and editors summarize how (promptly and easily) an original manuscript can be written using certain tips and tricks. In other words, the authors guide novice colleagues with minimal experience using simple hints and straightforward advice in scholarly publishing. The main body of an original article is composed of four parts: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion (the IMRaD format). We make recommendations about how to write these sections. We also make suggestions regarding the title, abstract, key words, and references. In addition, we underline the importance of carefully reading and following both general recommendations for the conduct, reporting, editing, and publication of scholarly papers. Specific guidelines are reviewed for improving clarity, accuracy and transparency, from protocol registration and ethical approval to submission issues, inclusive of rehabilitation specificities. A thorough review of the mission and instructions of the journals under consideration is critical inclusive of manuscript preparation guidelines such as word limits of main text, limits in number and style of references, tables and figures, format, checklist, and other specific instructions. Finally, each and every sentence should be iteratively revised for grammar, style, and clarity.
The MICK (Mobile integrated cognitive kit) app: Digital rapid automatized naming for visual assessment across the spectrum of neurological disorders
OBJECTIVE:Rapid automatized naming (RAN) tasks have been utilized for decades to evaluate neurological conditions. Time scores for the Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES, rapid picture naming) and Staggered Uneven Number (SUN, rapid number naming) are prolonged (worse) with concussion, mild cognitive impairment, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this investigation was to compare paper/pencil versions of MULES and SUN with a new digitized format, the MICK app. METHODS:Participants (healthy office-based volunteers, professional women's hockey players), completed two trials of the MULES and SUN tests on both platforms (tablet, paper/pencil). The order of presentation of the testing platforms was randomized. Between-platform variability was calculated using the two-way random-effects intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). RESULTS:Among 59 participants (median age 32, range 22-83), no significant differences were observed for comparisons of mean best scores for the paper/pencil versus MICK app platforms, counterbalanced for order of administration (PÂ =Â 0.45 for MULES, PÂ =Â 0.50 for SUN, linear regression). ICCs for agreement between the MICK and paper/pencil tests were 0.92 (95% CI 0.86, 0.95) for MULES and 0.94 (95% CI 0.89, 0.96) for SUN, representing excellent levels of agreement. Inter-platform differences did not vary systematically across the range of average best time score for either test. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The MICK app for digital administration of MULES and SUN demonstrates excellent agreement of time scores with paper/pencil testing. The computerized app allows for greater accessibility and scalability in neurological diseases, inclusive of remote monitoring. Sideline testing for sports-related concussion may also benefit from this technology.
Network-Aware 5G Edge Computing for Object Detection: Augmenting Wearables to “See” More, Farther and Faster
Advanced wearable devices are increasingly incorporating high-resolution multi-camera systems. As state-of-the-art neural networks for processing the resulting image data are computationally demanding, there has been a growing interest in leveraging fifth generation (5G) wireless connectivity and mobile edge computing for offloading this processing closer to end-users. To assess this possibility, this paper presents a detailed simulation and evaluation of 5G wireless offloading for object detection in the case of a powerful, new smart wearable called VIS4ION, for the Blind-and-Visually Impaired (BVI). The current VIS4ION system is an instrumented book-bag with high-resolution cameras, vision processing, and haptic and audio feedback. The paper considers uploading the camera data to a mobile edge server to perform real-time object detection and transmitting the detection results back to the wearable. To determine the video requirements, the paper evaluates the impact of video bit rate and resolution on object detection accuracy and range. A new street scene dataset with labeled objects relevant to BVI navigation is leveraged for analysis. The vision evaluation is combined with a full-stack wireless network simulation to determine the distribution of throughputs and delays with real navigation paths and ray-tracing from new high-resolution 3D models in an urban environment. For comparison, the wireless simulation considers both a standard 4G-Long Term Evolution (LTE) sub-6-GHz carrier and high-rate 5G millimeter-wave (mmWave) carrier. The work thus provides a thorough and detailed assessment of edge computing for object detection with mmWave and sub-6-GHz connectivity in an application with both high bandwidth and low latency requirements.
King-Devick Test Performance and Cognitive Dysfunction after Concussion: A Pilot Eye Movement Study
(1) Background: The King-Devick (KD) rapid number naming test is sensitive for concussion diagnosis, with increased test time from baseline as the outcome measure. Eye tracking during KD performance in concussed individuals shows an association between inter-saccadic interval (ISI) (the time between saccades) prolongation and prolonged testing time. This pilot study retrospectively assesses the relation between ISI prolongation during KD testing and cognitive performance in persistently-symptomatic individuals post-concussion. (2) Results: Fourteen participants (median age 34 years; 6 women) with prior neuropsychological assessment and KD testing with eye tracking were included. KD test times (72.6 Â± 20.7 s) and median ISI (379.1 Â± 199.1 msec) were prolonged compared to published normative values. Greater ISI prolongation was associated with lower scores for processing speed (WAIS-IV Coding, r = 0.72, p = 0.0017), attention/working memory (Trails Making A, r = -0.65, p = 0.006) (Digit Span Forward, r = 0.57, p = -0.017) (Digit Span Backward, r= -0.55, p = 0.021) (Digit Span Total, r = -0.74, p = 0.001), and executive function (Stroop Color Word Interference, r = -0.8, p = 0.0003). (3) Conclusions: This pilot study provides preliminary evidence suggesting that cognitive dysfunction may be associated with prolonged ISI and KD test times in concussion.
Dysfunctional mode switching between fixation and saccades: collaborative insights into two unusual clinical disorders
Voluntary rapid eye movements (saccades) redirect the fovea toward objects of visual interest. The saccadic system can be considered as a dual-mode system: in one mode the eye is fixating, in the other it is making a saccade. In this review, we consider two examples of dysfunctional saccades, interrupted saccades in late-onset Tay-Sachs disease and gaze-position dependent opsoclonus after concussion, which fail to properly shift between fixation and saccade modes. Insights and benefits gained from bi-directional collaborative exchange between clinical and basic scientists are emphasized. In the case of interrupted saccades, existing mathematical models were sufficiently detailed to provide support for the cause of interrupted saccades. In the case of gaze-position dependent opsoclonus, existing models could not explain the behavior, but further development provided a reasonable hypothesis for the mechanism underlying the behavior. Collaboration between clinical and basic science is a rich source of progress for developing biologically plausible models and understanding neurological disease. Approaching a clinical problem with a specific hypothesis (model) in mind often prompts new experimental tests and provides insights into basic mechanisms.
Detection of normal and slow saccades using implicit piecewise polynomial approximation
The quantitative analysis of saccades in eye movement data unveils information associated with intention, cognition, and health status. Abnormally slow saccades are indicative of neurological disorders and often imply a specific pathological disturbance. However, conventional saccade detection algorithms are not designed to detect slow saccades, and are correspondingly unreliable when saccades are unusually slow. In this article, we propose an algorithm that is effective for the detection of both normal and slow saccades. The proposed algorithm is partly based on modeling saccadic waveforms as piecewise-quadratic signals. The algorithm first decreases noise in acquired eye-tracking data using optimization to minimize a prescribed objective function, then uses velocity thresholding to detect saccades. Using both simulated saccades and real saccades generated by healthy subjects and patients, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm and 10 other detection algorithms. We show the proposed algorithm is more accurate in detecting both normal and slow saccades than other algorithms.
A Model for Vision Rehabilitation and the Role of the Physiatrist on the Interdisciplinary Team
COVID-19 and Visual Disability: Can't Look and Now Don't Touch
The transformation of patient-clinician relationships with AI-based medical advice
The transformation of patient-clinician relationships with AI-based medical advice is discussed. many new tools are based on entirely new "˜black-box"™ AI-based technologies, whose inner workings are likely not fully understood by patients or clinicians. Most patients with Type 1 diabetes now use continuous glucose monitors and insulin pumps to tightly manage their disease. Their clinicians carefully review the data streams from both devices to recommend dosage adjustments. Recently new automated recommender systems to monitor and analyze food intake, insulin doses, physical activity, and other factors influencing glucose levels, and provide data-intensive, AI-based recommendations on how to titrate the regimen, are in different stages of FDA approval using "˜black box"™ technology, which is an alluring proposition for a clinical scenario that requires identification of meaningful patterns in complex and voluminous data.