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Command hallucinations to harm self in a child with recurrent right temporal astrocytoma: a case report

Mazgaj, Robert; Gerson, Ruth; Khakoo, Yasmin; Petriccione, Mary; Haque, Sofia; Haddad, Fadi
PMID: 26403523
ISSN: 1099-1611
CID: 1786972

Prefrontal neuronal integrity predicts symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia and is sensitive to genetic heterogeneity

Malaspina, Dolores; Kranz, Thorsten M; Heguy, Adriana; Harroch, Sheila; Mazgaj, Robert; Rothman, Karen; Berns, Adam; Hasan, Sumya; Antonius, Daniel; Goetz, Raymond; Lazar, Mariana; Chao, Moses V; Gonen, Oded
Schizophrenia is a genetically complex syndrome with substantial inter-subject variability in multiple domains. Person-specific measures to resolve its heterogeneity could focus on the variability in prefrontal integrity, which this study indexed as relative rostralization within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Twenty-two schizophrenia cases and 11 controls underwent rigorous diagnostic procedures, symptom assessments (PANSS, Deficit Syndrome Scale) and intelligence testing. All underwent multivoxel MRSI at 3T to measure concentrations of the neuronal-specific biomarker N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in all of the voxels of the ACC. The concentrations of NAA were separately calculated and then compared across the rostral and caudal subregions to generate a rostralization ratio, which was examined with respect to the study measures and to which cases carried a missense coding polymorphism in PTPRG, SCL39A13, TGM5, NTRK1 or ARMS/KIDINS220. Rostralization significantly differed between cases and controls (chi2=18.40, p<.0001). In cases, it predicted verbal intelligence (r=.469, p=.043) and trait negative symptoms (diminished emotional range (r=-.624, p=.010); curbed interests, r=-.558, p=.025). Rostralization was similar to controls for missense coding variants in TGM5 and was significantly greater than controls for the PTPRG variant carrier. This is the first study examining the utility of MRS metrics in describing pathological features at both group and person-specific levels. Rostralization predicted core illness features and differed based on which signaling genes were disrupted. While future studies in larger populations are needed, ACC rostralization appears to be a promising measure to reduce the heterogeneity of schizophrenia for genetic research and selecting cases for treatment studies.
PMID: 26925801
ISSN: 1573-2509
CID: 2009242

Hypo-metabolism of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex associated with working memory impairment in 18 cases of schizophrenia

Mazgaj, Robert; Tal, Assaf; Goetz, Raymond; Lazar, Mariana; Rothman, Karen; Messinger, Julie Walsh; Malaspina, Dolores; Gonen, Oded
Working memory (Work-Mem), the capacity to hold and manipulate information, activates the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), especially its caudal subregion. Impaired Work-Mem and structural and functional abnormalities of the ACC are reported in schizophrenia. This study aims to elucidate the pathogenesis of Work-Mem dysfunction in schizophrenia by comparing metabolite concentrations across ACC subregions. This retrospective study of 18 schizophrenia cases and 10 matched controls used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRSI, TR/TE = 1800/35 ms, 0.5 cm3 spatial resolution) to test whether the Work-Mem Index of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, third edition is associated with differences in the rostral to caudal ACC ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and creatine (Cr). Higher caudal:rostral ACC Cr (but not NAA) concentrations were associated with decreased Work-Mem Index in cases (r = -0.6, p = 0.02), with a similar trend in controls (r = -0.56, p = 0.10), although caudal:rostral ACC Cr correlated with NAA in cases and controls (r = 0.67 and 0.62, p < 0.05 for both). NAA and Cr ratios did not correlate with myo-inositol, excluding gliosis as the underlying process. Subjects' sex and age had no effects on these relationships. The findings suggest that rostral ACC energy hypo-metabolism, possibly arising from neurodevelopmental processes, is associated with working memory impairment in schizophrenia. Changes in the rostral (not the expected caudal) subregion underscore the interconnections between the ACC subregions and may offer laboratory markers for treatment trials, etiology studies, and perhaps even enhanced identification of prodromal "at risk" subjects.
PMID: 25804309
ISSN: 1931-7565
CID: 1514002

Morgellons: real disease or delusion turned internet meme?

Mazgaj, Robert
ISSN: 1944-0030
CID: 3274922