Use of Gabapentin in Posterior Spinal Fusion is Associated With Decreased Postoperative Pain and Opioid Use in Children and Adolescents
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to examine associations of gabapentin use with inpatient postoperative daily pain scores and opioid use in children undergoing PSF for AIS. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:Gabapentin use in posterior spinal fusion (PSF) postoperative pain management for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is increasingly common in order to decrease opioid use and improve pain control, though there is conflicting data on dosing and effectiveness to support this practice in real world settings. METHODS:Retrospective cohort study of children aged 10 to 21 years undergoing PSF for AIS between January 2013 and June 2016 at an urban academic tertiary care center. Adjuvant gabapentin exposure was defined as at least 15â€‰mg/kg/d by postoperative day (POD) 1 with an initial loading dose of 10â€‰mg/kg on day of surgery. Primary outcomes were daily postoperative mean pain score and opioid use [morphine milligram equivalents/kg/day(mme/kg/d)]. Secondary outcomes were short and long-term complications. RESULTS:Among 129 subjects (mean age, 14.6â€‰y, 74% female, mean coronal cobb, 55.2 degrees), 24 (19%) received gabapentin. Unadjusted GABA exposure was associated with significantly lower opioid use on POD1 and 2 (49% and 31%mme/kg/d, respectively) and lower pain scores (14%) on POD2. Adjusting for preexisting back pain, preoperative coronal Cobb angle, and site, GABA use was associated with significantly lower mean pain scores on POD1 through POD3 (-0.68, P=0.01; -0.86, P=0.002; -0.63, P=0.04). Gabapentin use was also associated with decreased opioid use on POD1 and POD2 (-0.39mme/kg/d, P<0.001; -0.27, P=0.02). There was no difference in complications by gabapentin exposure. CONCLUSIONS:Addition of gabapentin as adjuvant therapy for adolescent PSF, beginning on day of surgery, is associated with improved pain scores and decreased opioid use in the first 48 to 72 hours postoperatively. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:This is a retrospective cohort study, classified as Level III under "Therapeutic Studies Investigating the Results of a Treatment."
Thoracic trauma in military settings: a review of current practices and recommendations
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:To examine current literature on thoracic trauma related to military combat and to explore its relevance to the civilian population. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Damage control resuscitation (DCR) has improved the management of hemorrhaging trauma patients. Permissive hypotension below 110â€ŠmmHg and antifibrinolytic use during DCR is widely accepted, whereas the use of freeze-dried plasma and whole blood is gaining popularity. The Modified Physiologic Triaging Tool can be used for primary triage and it may have applications in civilian trauma systems. Although Tactical Combat Casualty Care protocol recommends the Cric-Key device for surgical cricothyroidotomies, other devices may offer comparable performance. Recommendations for regional anesthesia after blunt trauma are not well defined. Increasing amounts of evidence favor the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory hypoxemia and resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) for severe hemorrhage. REBOA outcomes are potentially improved by partial occlusion and small 7â€ŠFr catheters. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:The Global War on Terror has provided opportunities to better understand and treat thoracic trauma in military settings. Trauma registries and other data sources have contributed to significant advancements in the management of thoracic trauma in military and civilian populations.