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Ettensohn, David B; Frampton, Mark W; Nichols, Joan E; Roberts, Norbert J Jr
The current studies were undertaken to determine the susceptibility of human alveolar macrophages (AM) to influenza A virus (IAV) infection in comparison with autologous peripheral blood-derived monocytes-macrophages (PBM). AM and PBM were exposed to IAV in vitro and examined for their ability to bind and internalize IAV, and synthesize viral proteins and RNA. PBM but not AM demonstrated binding and internalization of the virus, synthesizing viral proteins and RNA. Exposure of AM in the presence of a sialidase inhibitor, or in the presence of anti-IAV antibody resulted in viral protein synthesis by the cells. Exposure of AM to FITC-labeled IAV in the presence of anti-FITC antibody also resulted in viral protein synthesis. Thus, human AM are apparently not susceptible to direct infection by a human IAV, but are likely to be infected indirectly in the setting of exposure in the presence of antibody that binds the challenging strain of IAV.
PMID: 27601618
ISSN: 1537-6613
CID: 2238612

Hyperbaric Oxygen

Chapter by: Sarria, Juan Carlos; Roberts, Norbert J Jr
in: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett by Bennett, John E; Dolin, Raphael; Blaser, Martin J [Eds]
Philadelphia, PA : Elsevier/Saunders, 2015
pp. 591-596.e1
ISBN: 9780323263733
CID: 1686872

Interleukin-6(1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha(3) polymorphisms enhance cytokine production by human macrophages exposed to respiratory viruses

Patel, Janak A; Nair, Sangeeta; Ochoa, Eliana E; Huda, Ruksana; Roberts, Norbert J; Chonmaitree, Tasnee
Interleukin-6(1) (IL-6(1)) and tumor necrosis factor alpha(3) (TNFalpha(3)) are high-cytokine-producing genotypes that are known to increase the susceptibility to infectious diseases, but their influence on cytokine production induced by respiratory viruses is unknown. We exposed human monocyte-derived macrophages from IL-6(1), TNFalpha(3), and normal genotype donors to different respiratory viruses. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) stimulation was associated with higher IL-6 concentrations in IL-6(1) donors than in normal donors (P = 0.015); 2 of 7 (29%) polymorphic donors were poor responders compared with 6 of 7 (86%) normal donors (P = 0.002). Adenovirus, influenza virus, and RSV stimulations were associated with higher TNFalpha concentrations in TNFalpha(3) donors than in normal donors (P = 0.03, <0.01, <0.01). A similar trend was seen with rhinovirus stimulation, but this was not significant. These results show that IL-6(1) and TNFalpha(3) gene polymorphisms lead to enhanced production of the respective cytokines when exposed to specific respiratory viruses. This, in turn, may influence the susceptibility to, severity of, and recovery from respiratory virus infections, or influence the immune response to and reactogenicity of viral vaccines.
PMID: 20973681
ISSN: 1079-9907
CID: 161615

Small interfering RNA profiling reveals key role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and early endosome formation for infection by respiratory syncytial virus

Kolokoltsov, Andrey A; Deniger, Drew; Fleming, Elisa H; Roberts, Norbert J Jr; Karpilow, Jon M; Davey, Robert A
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory tract infections in infants and the elderly. Like many other pH-independent enveloped viruses, RSV is thought to enter at the cell surface, independently of common endocytic pathways. We have used a targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) library to identify key cellular genes involved in cytoskeletal dynamics and endosome trafficking that are important for RSV infection. Surprisingly, RSV infection was potently inhibited by siRNAs targeting genes associated with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, including clathrin light chain. The important role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis was confirmed by the expression of well-characterized dominant-negative mutants of genes in this pathway and by using the clathrin endocytosis inhibitor chlorpromazine. We conclude that, while RSV may be competent to enter at the cell surface, clathrin function and endocytosis are a necessary and important part of a productive RSV infection, even though infection is strictly independent of pH. These findings raise the possibility that other pH-independent viruses may share a similar dependence on endocytosis for infection and provide a new potential avenue for treatment of infection.
PMID: 17494077
ISSN: 0022-538x
CID: 161609

Respiratory syncytial virus F envelope protein associates with lipid rafts without a requirement for other virus proteins

Fleming, Elisa H; Kolokoltsov, Andrey A; Davey, Robert A; Nichols, Joan E; Roberts, Norbert J Jr
Like many enveloped viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) assembles at and buds from lipid rafts. Translocation of the envelope proteins to these membrane subdomains is essential for production of infectious virus, but the targeting mechanism is poorly understood and it is not known if other virus proteins are required. Here we demonstrate that F protein of RSV intrinsically targets to lipid rafts without a requirement for any other virus protein, including the SH and G envelope proteins. Recombinant virus deficient in SH and G but retaining F protein expression was used to demonstrate that F protein still localized in rafts in both A549 and HEp-2 cells. Expression of a recombinant F gene by use of plasmid vectors demonstrated that F contains its own targeting domain and localized to rafts in the absence of other virus proteins. The domain responsible for translocation was then mapped. Unlike most other virus envelope proteins, F is unusual since the target signal is not contained within the cytoplasmic domain nor did it involve fatty acid modified residues. Furthermore, exchange of the transmembrane domain with that of the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, a nonraft protein, did not alter F protein raft localization. Taken together, these data suggest that domains present in the extracellular portion of the protein are responsible for lipid raft targeting of the RSV F protein.
PMID: 17005642
ISSN: 0022-538x
CID: 161608

Incomplete immune reconstitution after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with severe CD4+ cell depletion

Lederman, Howard M; Williams, Paige L; Wu, Julia W; Evans, Thomas G; Cohn, Susan E; McCutchan, J Allen; Koletar, Susan L; Hafner, Richard; Connick, Elizabeth; Valentine, Fred T; McElrath, M Juliana; Roberts, Norbert J Jr; Currier, Judith S
Immune function was observed for 144 weeks in 643 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects who (1) had nadir CD4+ cell counts of <50 cells/mm3, followed by a sustained increase to > or =100 cells/mm3 after the initiation of HAART, and (2) were enrolled in a randomized trial of continued azithromycin prophylaxis versus withdrawal for prevention of Mycobacterium avium complex disease. The median CD4+ cell count was 226 cells/mm3 at entry and 358 cells/mm3 at week 144. Anergy (80.2% of patients) and lack of lymphoproliferative response to tetanus toxoid (TT; 73%) after immunization and impaired antibody responses after receipt of hepatitis A (54%) and TT (86%) vaccines were considered to be evidence of impaired immune reconstitution. Receipt of azithromycin did not have an effect on CD4+ cell count but was associated with higher rates of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to TT (25% of subjects who received azithromycin vs. 15% of those who did not; P=.009) and mumps skin test antigen (29% vs. 17%; P=.001). Although the subjects had only partial responses to immune function testing, the rate of opportunistic infections was very low, and none of the tests was predictive of risk
PMID: 14673757
ISSN: 0022-1899
CID: 42275

Nitrogen dioxide exposure: effects on airway and blood cells

Frampton, Mark W; Boscia, Joseph; Roberts, Norbert J Jr; Azadniv, Mitra; Torres, Alfonso; Cox, Christopher; Morrow, Paul E; Nichols, Joan; Chalupa, David; Frasier, Lauren M; Gibb, F Raymond; Speers, Donna M; Tsai, Ying; Utell, Mark J
This study examined the effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) exposure on airway inflammation, blood cells, and antiviral respiratory defense. Twenty-one healthy volunteers were exposed on separate occasions to air and 0.6 and 1.5 ppm NO(2) for 3 h with intermittent moderate exercise. Phlebotomy and bronchoscopy were performed 3.5 h after each exposure, and recovered cells were challenged with respiratory viruses in vitro. Blood studies revealed a 4.1% NO(2) dose-related decrease in hematocrit (P = 0.003). Circulating total lymphocytes (P = 0.024) and T lymphocytes (P = 0.049) decreased with NO(2) exposure. Exposure to NO(2) increased the blood lymphocyte CD4(+)-to-CD8(+) ratio from 1.74 +/- 0.11 to 1.85 +/- 0.12 in males but decreased it from 1.88 +/- 0.19 to 1.78 +/- 0.19 in females (P < 0.001 for gender difference). Polymorphonuclear leukocytes in bronchial lavage increased with NO(2) exposure (P = 0.003). Bronchial epithelial cells obtained after exposure to 1.5 ppm NO(2) released 40% more lactate dehydrogenase after challenge with respiratory syncytial virus than with air exposure (P = 0.024). In healthy subjects, exposures to NO(2) at levels found indoors cause mild airway inflammation, effects on blood cells, and increased susceptibility of airway epithelial cells to injury from respiratory viruses.
PMID: 11741827
ISSN: 1040-0605
CID: 161603

Genetic evaluation of suspected cases of transient HIV-1 infection of infants

Frenkel, L M; Mullins, J I; Learn, G H; Manns-Arcuino, L; Herring, B L; Kalish, M L; Steketee, R W; Thea, D M; Nichols, J E; Liu, S L; Harmache, A; He, X; Muthui, D; Madan, A; Hood, L; Haase, A T; Zupancic, M; Staskus, K; Wolinsky, S; Krogstad, P; Zhao, J; Chen, I; Koup, R; Ho, D; Korber, B; Apple, R J; Coombs, R W; Pahwa, S; Roberts, N J Jr
Detection of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) on only one or a few occasions in infants born to infected mothers has been interpreted to indicate that infection may be transient rather than persistent. Forty-two cases of suspected transient HIV-1 viremia among 1562 perinatally exposed seroreverting infants and one mother were reanalyzed. HIV-1 env sequences were not found in specimens from 20; in specimens from 6, somatic genetic analysis revealed that specimens were mistakenly attributed to an infant; and in specimens from 17, phylogenetic analysis failed to demonstrate the expected linkage between the infant's and the mother's virus. These findings argue that transient HIV-1 infection, if it exists, will only rarely be satisfactorily documented.
PMID: 9582120
ISSN: 0036-8075
CID: 163428

Hyperthermia and human leukocyte functions: effects on response of lymphocytes to mitogen and antigen and bactericidal capacity of monocytes and neutrophils

Roberts, N J Jr; Steigbigel, R T
It has recently been demonstrated that fever, or hyperthermia, results in enhanced survival of lizards infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. In the present study, the effects of hyperthermia on certain immune functions were assayed in vitro with purified human leukocytes. Lymphocyte transformation responses to the mitogen phytohemagglutinin and the common antigen streptokinase-streptodornase were enhanced at 38.5 degrees C relative to 37 degrees C whether analyzed according to absolute counts per minute of incorporated tritiated thymidine or according to stimulation indexes. Enhancement of response was not accompanied by acceleration of response. Augmentation of transformation response was generally not seen at 40 degrees C; incubation at that temperature was associated with decreased cellular viability. Significant, though small, increases of the bactericidal capacity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes at 40 degrees C relative to 37 degrees C were shown at 1 h with Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes, but not with Staphylococcus aureus. Mononuclear phagocytes did not show enhanced bactericidal capacity at the elevated temperature with any of these organisms in this in vitro system. Hyperthermia may enhance certain host defense mechanisms and warrants further study.
PMID: 412788
ISSN: 0019-9567
CID: 1452602